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(a)    Biblical  Helps. 

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(c)  Biographical. 

(7)  Memoir  of  James  P.  Boyce,  D.  X>.,  X-X>.  X>«, 

President  of  the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary. 

(d)  Miscellaneous. 

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Trofessor  of  the  Interpretation  of  the  V^ew  Testament  in  the 
Southern  'Baptist  Theological  Seminary 

ThAte  is  no  life  of  a  man  faithfully  recorded,  but  is  a  heroic  poem 



Bmetican  Baptist  publication 

Copyright  IQOX  by  the 

Published  May,  x 

from  the  Society'*  own  pees? 

"  Si  quis  piorum  manibus  locus ;  si,  ut  sapientibus 
placet,  non  cum  corpora  exstinguuntur  magnae  animse  : 
placide  quiescas,  nosque,  domum  tuam,  ab  infirmo  de- 
siderio,  et  muliebribus  lamentis,  ad  contemplationem 
virtutum  tuarum  voces,  quas  neque  lugeri,  neque  plangi 
fas  est :  admiratione  te  potius,  quam  temporalibus  laudi- 
bus,  et,  si  natura  suppeditet,  aemulatione  decoremus. 
Is  verus  honos,  ea  coniunctissimi  cuiusque  pietas.  Id 
filiae  quoque,  uxorique  praeceperim,  sic  patris,  sic  mariti 
memoriam  venerari,  ut  omnia  facta  dictaque  eius  secum 
revolvant,  famamque  ac  figuram  animi  magis  quam  cor- 
poris,  complectantur :  non  quia  intercedendum  putem 
imagimbus,  quae  marmore  aut  asre  fmguntur  :  sed  ut  vul- 
tus  hominum,  ita  simulacra  vultus  imbecilla  ac  mortalia 
sunt ;  forma  mentis  aeterna  ;  quam  tenere  et  exprimere, 
non  per  alienam  materiam  et  artem,  sed  tuis  ipse  mori- 
bus,  possis.  Quidquid  ex  Agricola  amavimus,  quidquid 
mirati  sumus,  manet  mansurumque  est  in  animis  homi- 
num, in  aeternitate  temporum,  fama  rerum.  Nam  multos 
veterum,  velut  inglorios  et  ignobiles,  oblivio  obruet: 
Agricola,  posteritati  narratus  et  traditus,  superstes  erit." 



their  lives  to  it.  No  institution  has  had  a  nobler  history 
of  sacrifice  and  heroism.  It  is  enough  to  fire  the  blood 
of  every  lover  of  Christian  education.  It  is  certainly 
"  one  of  the  great  achievements  of  our  time." 

But  the  life  of  Doctor  Broadus  would  be  worth  the  tell- 
ing apart  from  his  share  in  this  high  performance.  His 
personal  character,  accurate  scholarship,  original  think- 
ing, marvelous  preaching,  matchless  teaching,  great  wis- 
dom, rare  personal  influence,  breadth  of  view,  high  ideals, 
and  earnest  piety,  mark  him  as  one  of  the  foremost 
products  of  American  manhood,  one  of  the  ripest  fruits  of 
modern  Christianity.  The  high  praise  here  given  will  seem 
sober  truth  to  the  multitudes  who  felt  the  joyous  touch 
of  his  personal  power  and  will  be  amply  justified  to  those 
who  knew  him  not  by  the  life  story  here  unfolded.  It 
is  not  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  he  was  the  pride  of 
American  Baptists  and  his  influence  is  undying  among  us. 

The  materials  for  the  early  part  of  Doctor  Broadus's 
life  are  not  so  abundant  as  for  the  later  years,  and  yet 
enough  is  known  to  trace  with  clearness  his  childhood 
and  to  give  a  fair  picture  of  his  youth.  He  himself  began 
to  jot  down  notes  of  his  early  days,  but  he  could  not  find 
time  to  finish  them.  A  visit  to  the  scenes  of  his  child- 
hood revealed  many  points  of  interest  concerning  his  boy- 

Enough  good  material  exists  for  several  volumes.  The 
selection  has  been  made  on  the  principle  of  keeping  Doc- 
tor Broadus  himself  constantly  before  us  and  from  vary- 
ing and  progressive  points  of  view.  This  will  explain  to 
some  why  their  letters  are  not  used.  Chapter  X!L  alone 
could  have  been  made  a  whole  volume.  At  every  point 
in  the  European  and  Oriental  tour  Doctor  Broadus  wrote 
careful  descriptions  of  surpassing  interest.  From  Rome 
he  sent  some  fifty  pages  of  discriminating  criticism.  So 
it  was  at  Jerusalem,  Athens,  everywhere,  Besides  the 


letters  there  was  the  diary  in  the  Oriental  part  of  the 
trip.  Nearly  all  this  had  to  be  reluctantly  passed  by  and 
only  the  more  personal  parts  introduced. 

It  would  not  be  possible  to  recount  the  many  courtesies 
received  from  numerous  friends,  besides  the  family  and 
other  relatives,  who  have  gladly  furnished  material  for 
this  work.  A  general  acknowledgment  of  gratitude  is " 
here  made.  But  I  must  acknowledge  special  indebted- 
ness to  Prof.  F.  H.  Smith,  LL.  D.,  for  help  on  the  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia  period,  and  to  Dr.  W.  H.  Whitsitt  for 
information  concerning  Doctor  Broadus's  work  in  the 

Chapter  XV.  is  written  by  one  of  Doctor  Broadus's 
daughters,  Mrs.  S.  C.  Mitchell,  and  gives  a  fresh  view  of 
our  many-sided  scholar.  The  copious  and  useful  Index 
is  the  work  of  another  daughter,  Miss  E.  S.  Broadus. 

It  remains  that  I  acknowledge  gratefully  the  kindness 
of  my  colleagues,  Drs.  J.  R.  Sampey  and  E.  C.  Dargan, 
who  have  read  the  book  in  manuscript  and  offered  many 
helpful  suggestions.  I  have  sought  to  be  just  toward  all 
the  many  interests  that  touch  such  a  life  as  that  of  Doc- 
tor Broadus. 

It  has  been  a  labor  of  love  through  these  four  years  to 
work  over  the  facts  and  forces  in  the  career  of  John  A. 
Broadus.  How  often  I  have  felt  him  at  my  side  with  the 
old  familar  smile  and  cheery  tone  as  during  the  ten  years 
that  I  was  permitted  to  rejoice  in  his  companionship.  If 
the  story  of  this  life  of  "plain  living  and  high  thinking" 
shall  stir  to  like  endeavor  some  regal  spirit,  I  shall  be 


LOUISVILLE,  Kv.f  January  x,  1901. 


Doctor  Broadus  in  his  prime Frontispiece 

The  young  Charlottesville  preacher 134 

Fac-simile  of  letter  accepting  professorship  in  the  Seminary  ....    159 

Doctor  Broadus  in  the  "  seventies  " 280 

Fae-simile  of  letter  to  Doctor  Bqyce  about  standing  by  the  Seminary  289 
Doctor  Broadus  during  the  last  years 372 



THE  BROADDUS  FAMILY  ...............     i-io 

MAJOR  EDMUND  BROADUS  .............. 


YOUTH  OF  JOHN  A.  BROADUS  ............    21-35 


THE  SCHOOLMASTER  .................    36-54 


THE  UNIVERSITY  STUDENT  ..............    55-74 


A  YEAR  IN  FLUVANNA  ................    75-95 




THE  CHANGE  TO  HIS  LIFE-WORK  ..........  168-185 

THE  SHOCK  OF  WAR  .................  186-211 

MAKING  A  NEW  START  ................  212-237 


A  YEAR  ABROAD  ...................  238-279 













THE  LAST  YEAR 416-450 



Pure  livers  were  they  all,  austere  and  grave, 
And  fearing  God ;  the  very  children  taught 
Stern  self-respect,  a  reverence  for  God's  word, 
And  an  habitual  piety. 

— Wordsworth 

EARLY  in  the  eighteenth  century,  Edward  Broaddus 
came  from  Wales  to  Gwynn's  Island,  Virginia. 
All  the  American  Broadduses  seem  to  be  descended 
from  him,  and  the  family  name  is  most  often  met  through- 
out the  South  and  Northwest  It  is  certain  that  the 
family  is  not  properly  of  Welsh,  i.  e.t  Celtic  origin,  but 
is  Anglo-Saxon.  The  name  was  originally  Broadhurst, 
and  in  that  form  still  lingers  in  South  Wales  and  is  com- 
mon in  England,  while  it  is  found  also  in  Kentucky  and 
other  States  of  the  Union.  Dr.  John  A.  Broadus  him- 
self wrote : 

The  name  Broaddus,  according  to  tradition  in  the  family,  is  a  con- 
traction of  Broadhurst,  One  of  the  family  [J.  A,  B.]  found  some 
years  ago  in  London  that  whenever  he  gave  his  name  to  a  shop- 
keeper or  the  like  for  sending  home  a  package,  it  was  without  hesi- 
tation written  Broadhurst.  The  name  corresponds  to  Whitehurst, 
Deerhurst,  Penhurst,  Medhurst,  etc.  The  word  Hurst  alone  is  also 
a  family  name.  It  signifies  a  wooded  hill  or  knoll,  so  that  all  the 
names  of  the  group  are  primarily  territorial.  While  the  name  is  evi- 
dently Anglo-Saxon,  it  is  a  tradition  that  the  family  came  from 
Wales.  The  late  Professor  Benjamin  Davies,  of  Regent's  Park 
College,  London,  explained  this  by  stating  that  there  has  long  been 


a  consldeiable  Anglo-Saxon  settlement  in  South  Wales.  He  once 
lived  there  and  remembers  the  name  Hurst  as  existing  among  them. 
.  .  The  name  Bioadhurst  is  frequently  found  in  London,  and  Henry 
Broadhurst  is  now  a  member  of  Parliament,  and  was  a  member  of 
Mr.  Gladstone's  last  government.'7  * 

We  are  all  familiar  with  a  similar  situation  in  the  case 
of  the  immigration  of  the  Scotch  to  the  north  of  Ireland. 
All  the  descendants  of  the  first  Virginia  Broaddus,  Ed- 
ward, spell  the  name  with  two  d's  save  the  families  of 
Major  Edmund  Broadus  and  Major  William  Broadus. 
Various  legends  are  afloat  to  account  for  this  variation  in 
the  Culpeper  family.  Dr.  John  A.  Broadus  explains  it 
as  follows:8 

The  three  brothers,  William,  Thomas,  and  James  (sons  of  Wil- 
liam), probably  after  their  father's  death,  began  to  spell  their  name 
Broadus.  There  is  a  tradition  that  they  were  led  to  do  so  by  a 
somewhat  eccentiic  maternal  uncle,  who  was  fond  of  objecting  to 
the  use  of  unnecessary  letters  in  words.  There  are  many  similar 
cases  of  slight  divergence  in  the  spelling  of  family  names,  as  Brown, 
Browne,  Broun ;  Thomson,  Thompson ;  and  probably  Leigh  and  Lee* 
Thomas  Broadus,  who  died  in  1811,  expressed  a  wish  that  his  sons 
should  return  to  spelling  the  name  Broaddus,  and  William  F.  and 
Andrew,  who  were  children  at  the  time,  did  so.  But  Edmund,  being 
already  a  teacher,  with  some  business  relations,  feared  business 
complications  if  he  should  make  the  change.  Descendants  of  Ed- 
mund and  those  of  Major  William  Broadus,  are  probably  the  only 
persons  who  now  spell  the  name  with  one  '*  d J> ;  also  some  who 
have  Broadus  as  a  middle  or  first  name. 

There  is  a  famous  story  about  "the  two  d's*'  told  on 
Dr.  William  F.  Broaddus,  who  was  very  particular  to 

1  Page  19,  /„  "  The  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family."  by  Dr.  Andrew  Broaddus,  of 
Sparta,  Va  ,  1888,  which  is  the  source  of  most  of  the  facts  for  this  chapter.  An  ex- 
cellent example  is  set  In  this  volume  for  other  Anwrican  fdnuht't.  Family  history 
should  be  preserved  for  every  reason.  The  restlessness  of  America  hardly  permits 
that  stability  of  family  life  which  Is  seen  in  England.  But  the  coming  > ears  will 
witness  less  movement  to  the  west.  Dr.  John  A.  Broadus  wrote  a  brief  introduction 
to  this  volume  as  well  as  the  account  of  his  branch  of  the  family,  excepting,  of 
course,  the  sketch  of  himself. 

6  "  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family,"  p.  135. 


use  both  d's.  While  he  was  pastor  at  Fredericksburg, 
Va.,  a  new  church  was  built.  He  gave  directions  to  the 
brother  in  charge  of  marking  his  pew  to  "be  sure  and 
put  in  the  two  d's."  But  for  some  reason  his  pew  re- 
mained nameless.  It  turned  out  that  the  good  brother 
was  so  shocked  at  the  preacher's  lack  of  taste  in  wanting 
D,  D.  put  on  the  plate  that  he  left  it  blank.  He  did  not 
understand  "the  two  d's." 

Edward  Broaddus,  the  progenitor  of  the  American 
Broadduses,  left  Gwynn's  Island,  in  1715,  and  settled  in 
Caroline  County,  Va,,  which  county  has  since  been  the 
Mecca  of  all  the  Broaddus  clans.  The  lower  part  of 
Caroline  was  then  in  King  and  Queen  County.  There 
he  purchased  a  farm  and  lived  to  the  age  of  seventy. 
He  was  twice  married  had  seven  sons  and  two 
daughters.  Hither  the  tribes  go  up.  The  Broadduses 
to  this  day  overrun  Caroline  County.  All  the  branches 
of  the  family  center  here  and  claim  kin  with  Andrew 
Broaddus,  of  Caroline,  the  famous  preacher. 

John  Albert  Broadus  comes  fifth  in  line  from  Edward 
Broaddus.  The  fourth  son  of  Edward  was  William. 
William  Broaddus'  second  son  was  Thomas.  The  eldest 
son  of  Thomas  was  Edmund,  the  father  of  John  A. 
Broadus.  Edmund  had  two  brothers,  the  famous  Wil- 
liam F.,  and  the  equally  able  Andrew,  and  two  sisters, 
Lucy  (Mrs.  Wm.  Ferguson,  of  Illinois),  and  Maria  (Mrs. 
John  Strother  Wallis,  of  Virginia). 

The  Broadduses  have  been  largely  engaged  in  farming. 
Some  have  been  physicians,  some  lawyers,  some  rail- 
road men,  and  a  great  number  have  been  teachers. 
Teaching  ran  in  the  Broaddus  blood.  The  family  is  Bap- 
tist to  the  core— very  few  of  the  name  belonging  to  any 
other  denomination.  They  have  usually  professed  re- 
ligion in  early  life  and  are  distinguished  for  piety  and  ac 
tivity  in  all  forms  of  church  work.  It  is  a  family  ot 


preachers  also.    More  than  a  dozen  ministers  have  borne 
the  name,  besides  others  who  have  Broaddus  lineage, 
such  as  Rev.  W.  A.  Gaines  and  D.  M.  Ramsey,  D.  D., 
of  South  Carolina.1    Dr.  H.  H.  Harris  says:  "No  other 
family  has  given  to  our  ministry  so  many  able  men." 
For  over  a  hundred  years  the  Broadduses  have  been, 
active  in   Baptist  affairs,  especially  in   the  South  and" 

Hon.  R.  W.  Thompson,  a  member  of  Pres.  Hayes' 
cabinet,  and  long  prominent  in  Indiana  and  national  poli- 
tics, was  of  this  sturdy  stock,  illustrating  the  turn  for 
statesmanship  shown  in  Major  Edmund  Broadus,  the 
father  of  Dr.  John  A.  Broadus.  Robert  J.  Burdette,  the 
humorist,  is  likewise  of  Broaddus  descent,  and  finds  a 
parallel  in  the  eccentric  humor  of  Dr.  W.  F.  Broaddus, 
the  quaint  wit  of  his  brother  Andrew,  and  in  the  quiet 
fun  of  Dr.  John  A.  Broadus. 

Dr.  Broadus  became  much  interested  in  heredity.  He 
once  chose  this  as  his  theme  to  discuss  before  the  Con- 
versation Club,  of  Louisville.  He  often  alluded  to  the 
subject  in  sermon,  lecture,  and  table  talk.  He  some- 
times said  that  heredity  was  an  immense  and  a  tremen- 
dous reality.  It  is  interesting  to  see  something  of  the 
family  history  of  the  greatest  man  who  ever  bore  the 
Broaddus  name.  He  was  not  an  accident.  He  came  of 
preaching  and  teaching  stock. 

The  first  minister  of  the  name  to  become  distinguished 
was  Andrew  Broaddus,  D.  D.,  who  was  born  November 
4,  1770,  and  died  December  i,  1848.  Dr.  J.  B.  Jeter 
prepared  an  excellent  "Memoir  of  Andrew  Broaddus.1' 
He  was  born  and  reared  in  Caroline  County  and  spent 
most  of  his  life  here  and  in  King  and  Queen,  For  six 
months,  in  1821,  he  was  assistant  pastor  to  Dr.  John 
Courtney,  of  the  First  Baptist  Church,  Richmond.  He 

*Pr«$.  A.  P.  Montague,  of  Broaddus  lineage*  is  president  of  Kuraun  Univ«rtUy* 


was  retiring  and  shrinking  before  strangers.  Although 
he  received  many  calls  to  large  cities,  such  as  Boston, 
Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  Norfolk,  New  York,  Richmond, 
he  preferred  country  pastorates.  He  had  little  schooling 
in  his  youth,  but  he  possessed  a  passion  for  learning, 
and  made  a  good  English  scholar  of  himself,  and  ac- 
quired some  knowledge  of  Latin,  Greek,  and  French. 
He  had  real  genius  and  was  a  great  preacher,  with  the 
peculiar  fascination  afterward  seen  in  John  A.  Broadus, 
who  says  of  him  : 

In  my  boyhood  it  was  a  great  delight  to  make  a  long  journey  on 
horseback  to  one  and  another  **  Association,"  which  it  was  reported 
that  this  venerable  man  would  attend ;  and  no  little  pride  was  felt 
in  being  even  remotely  akm  to  one  so  famous  and  so  gifted.1 

There  exists  a  large  number  of  outlines  of  sermons  of 
Dr.  Andrew  Broaddus.  These  outlines  are  sketched  on 
one  side  of  a  slip  of  paper  the  size  of  your  hand.  They 
are  mere  skeletons,  but  that  was  enough  for  this  trained 
speaker.  These  sermon  outlines  are  far  superior  to  those 
sometimes  published  for  the  use  of  indolent  preachers. 
They  evince  grasp  and  insight  and  power.  Dr.  Broaddus 
had  learned  how  to  think.  He  did  not  walk  on  crutches. 
The  following  story  will  illustrate  the  charm  of  his 
preaching : 

Were  we  required  to  describe  the  power  of  his  oratory  by  a  single 
term,  that  term  should  be  fascination.  There  was  in  his  happy 
efforts  a  most  captivating  charm.  An  incident  may  best  illustrate 
this  remark :  .  .  While  in  the  zenith  of  his  power  and  popularity  he 
attended  a  session  of  the  Baptist  General  Association  held  in  the 

town  of  L .    Monday  moining  he  preached  in  the  Methodist 

church  to  a  crowded  audience.    Mr.  D ,  a  lawyer  of  distinction, 

on  his  way  to  the  court-house,  where  the  court  was  in  session, 
stopped  in  the  street  beneath  the  fierce  rays  of  a  summer  sun  to 
listen  for  a  moment  to  the  sermon.  Business  urged  his  departure, 
but  having  heard  the  commencement  of  a  paragraph,  he  was  in- 
i  Introduction  to  "  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family,"  p,  xi.,/. 


tensely  anxious  to  hear  its  close.  Intending  every  moment  to  break 
away  he  became  more  and  more  chained  to  the  spot.  Presently  he 
heard  his  name  called  by  the  sheriff  at  the  court-house  door,  and  he 
soon  heard  the  call  repeated ;  but  it  was  to  no  purpose— he  was 
riveted  to  the  spot.  Neither  the  fatigue  of  standing,  the  melting 
rays  of  the  sun,  the  urgency  of  business,  nor  the  repeated  calls  of 
the  officer  of  the  court  could  disenchant  him.  He  heard  the  whole 
of  the  sermon,  and  paid  unwittingly  the  highest  compliment  to  the 
eloquence  of  the  preacher.1 

Henry  Clay  called  him  "the  past-master  of  eloquence/' 
Dr.  Broaddus  was  a  prolific  writer  and  was  a  strong  an- 
tagonist of  the  views  of  Alexander  Campbell.  He  is  the 
most  distinguished  man  of  his  name  save  John  A.  Broadus. 
He  has  had  many  namesakes  who,  to  the  uninitiated,  form 
a  labyrinth  of  Andrew  Broadduses.  His  son,  Andrew, 
Jr.,  the  venerable  and  esteemed  Dr.  Broaddus,  of  Sparta, 
Va.,  is  well  known  to  readers  of  "  The  Religious  Herald." 
Dr.  Jno.  A.  Broadus  says  of  him : 

He  never  discusses  any  subject  without  leaving  his  hearers  with 
clearer  views  in  regard  to  it.  In  the  pulpit  his  style  is  uniformly 
solemn  and  reverential,  often  with  a  wealth  of  tender  feeling.  On 
the  platform  he  is  sometimes  highly  humorous,  and  his  speeches  re- 
veal the  keenest  wit,  as  also  appears  in  his  delightful  conversation. 
His  illustrations  are  drawn  without  apparent  eftort  from  the  whole 
range  of  literature  and  history  as  well  as  from  the  various  occupa- 
tions of  men,  and  from  the  sciences,  the  mechanical  arts,  and  the 
great  book  of  nature.  In  the  exposition  of  Scnptuie  he  is  singularly 
clear  and  attractive.  A  beloved  and  successful  pastor,  an  orade 
among  all  the  people  of  two  counties,  and  respected  throughout  the 
State,  Dr.  Broaddus  has  lived  a  noble  and  honored  life,  which  in 
tangible  usefulness  has  probably  even  surpassed  that  of  his  distin- 
guished father.8 

Andrew,  Jr.'s  son  Andrew  is  now  pastor  of  Salem  Church, 
where  his  father  and  grandfather  preached  before  him, 

1  "  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family/'  pp.  83-85. 

a  "History  of  the  Broaddus  Family,"  p  xv»    His  recent  death  gtv*s  added  inter- 
est to  this  sympathetic  description. 


"Andrew  of  Luray,"  a  noble  business  man,  is  now  dead. 
"Kentucky  Andrew"  was  the  able  brother  of  Edmund 
and  Wm.  F,  Broaddus.  "  Andrew  of  Louisville"  is  an 
esteemed  Baptist  layman  and  prominent  railroad  official. 
These  have  all  borne  the  name  worthily. 

Thomas,  the  grandson  of  the  original  settler,  Edward 
Broaddus,  had  three  sons,  each  of  whom  became  a  man 
of  mark,  Edmund,  Wm.  P.,  and  Andrew.  Dr.  Wm.  F. 
Broaddus  was  a  minister  of  great  power.  He  left  a  deep 
impress  on  religious  life  in  Virginia  and  Kentucky.  Like 
most  of  the  Baptist  ministers  of  his  time,  he  had  limited 
opportunities  for  education,  yet  he  added  great  industry 
to  his  unusual  gifts.  He  was  the  warm  friend  of  min- 
isterial education  and  for  some  time  acted  as  agent  for 
the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary.  He  began 
preaching  in  Culpeper  at  the  age  of  twenty  in  the  early 
part  of  the  century.  He  wrote  an  autobiography  cover- 
ing seven  large  manuscript  volumes,  but  this  was  un- 
fortunately burned  with  his  house  at  Shelbyville,  Ky, 
Once  more  he  recorded  his  recollections,  which  were 
again  destroyed  in  Fredericksburg  when  the  town  was 
captured  by  the  Federal  troops  in  1862.  In  his  closing 
years  he  again  prepared  brief  reminiscences  which  have 
been  preserved, 

Virginia  Baptists  and  the  whole  South  owe  Dr.  Wm.  F. 
Broaddus  a  debt  for  his  bold  advocacy  of  the  mission  en- 
terprise against  the  "  Hardshell  "  or  "  Black  Rock  "  ele- 
ment of  the  denomination,  which  was  very  strong  in  all 
Piedmont  Virginia,  the  Valley  and  the  Mountains. 

They  were  violently  opposed  to  missions,  Sunday-schools,  and  all 
religious  associations  and  enterprises  that  seek  the  conversion  of 
men  and  the  promotion  of  the  cause  of  Christ.  Some  of  them  were 
antinomians  and  all  of  them  were  predestinarians  of  such  a  pro- 
nounced type  that  they  regarded  it  as  presumption  in  a  preacher  to 
appeal  to  sinners  to  repent,  and  folly  in  sinners  to  seek  repentance 


till  impelled  to  it  against  their  will  by  a  supernatural  and  resistless 
divine  impulse.  Their  ministers  were  uneducated,  but  some  of 
them  were  men  of  vigorous  intellect,  and  they  denounced  with  great 
fervor,  at  great  length,  and  in  violent,  and  sometimes  abusive  lan- 
guage, the  "  New  Lights,"  as  they  called  those  who  dared  to  urge 
men  by  exhorting  them  to  repent,  "to  take  the  work  of  God  into 
their  own  hands."  Among  these  people  Wm.  F.  Broaddus  appeared 
and  excited  no  little  commotion.  Young,  ardent,  of  pleasing  man- 
ners and  fine  personal  appearance,  with  a  bright  intellect  and  at- 
tractive speaking  gifts,  he  soon  won  the  attention  and  admiration  of 
the  people,  while  at  the  same  time  he  drew  upon  himself  the 
fiercest  assaults  of  the  "  Hardshell "  preachers.  But  he  was  equal 
to  the  occasion.  His  imperturbable  good  humor,  his  keen  wit,  his 
facility  of  speech,  his  insight  into  human  nature,  and  his  adroit 
management  gave  him  the  advantage  in  every  contest,  and  con- 
stantly strengthened  his  influence.  He  was  a  tireless  laborer.  Riding 
on  horseback  over  the  rough  mountains,  living  on  the  coarse  fare 
and  sleeping  in  the  rude  huts  of  the  mountaineers,  he  was,  day  in 
and  day  out,  employed  in  preaching  in  groves,  in  log  cabins,  in 
private  houses — anywhere  and  everywhere  that  a  congregation 
could  be  gathered.  Making  the  tail  of  a  wagon,  a  stump,  or  a  rock 
his  pulpit,  he  poured  out  the  truth  from  a  burning  heart  and  carried 
the  people  with  him.  Soon  a  reaction  commenced  and  it  has  gone 
on  till  all  that  region,  once  dead  through  Black  Rockism,  is  now 
alive  with  active,  earnest,  progressive  Baptists.1 

He  introduced  the  custom  of  paying  salaries  in  his  part 
of  the  country.  A  story  is  told  of  a  call  he  received  with 
the  promise  that  he  should  have  whatever  the  church 
felt  like  giving.  Being  present,  he  promptly  accepted 
the  call,  saying  that  he  would  preach  for  them  on  what- 
ever Sundays  he  felt  like  it.  It  is  needless  to  say  that 
they  offered  him  a  regular  salary.  Dr.  Broaddus  was  a 
man  of  many  eccentricities,  especially  in  his  well-known 
aversion  to  cats.  He  would  become  pale  and  ashen  and 
positively  ill  if  a  cat  were  in  the  room.  Many  ludicrous 
stories  are  told  of  this  peculiarity.  He  was  fond  of  tell- 
ing stories  and  enjoyed  one  on  himself  even  more  than 

1 "  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family/'  pp.  160-162.    It  Is  but  just  to  *»ay  that  not  all 
the  "  Hardshells  "  were  as  extreme  m  those  davs  as  this  picture  would  Imply. 


on  others.  During  the  war  when  a  prisoner  he  had 
much  fun  at  the  officer's  expense  by  insisting  that  he 
did  not  know  what  F  in  his  name  stood  for*  He  had  two 
Fs  in  his  name,  Wm.  Francis  Ferguson  Broaddus ;  one 
was  dropped  out  and  he  did  not  know  which.  He  exas- 
perated the  officer  further  by  remarking  that  he  did  not 
know  in  which  county  he  was  born.  He  finally  explained 
that  Rappahannock  had  since  been  formed  out  of  that 
part  of  Culpeper.  Dr.  J.  C.  Hiden  has  many  stories  on 
Wm.  F.  Broaddus.  He  is  fond  of  telling  about  a  contro- 
versy between  Wm.  F.  and  John  A.  Broadus  over  a  pas- 
sage of  Scripture.  Wm.  F.  got  the  worst  of  it  at  the 
hands  of  the  brilliant  young  scholar.  Finally  he  said : 
"Well,  John  A.,  there  is  no  use  to  say  anything  more 
about  it.  I  have  one  of  my  best  sermons  on  it." 

Rev.  Andrew  Broaddus  (Kentucky  Andrew),  a  younger 
brother  of  Wm.  F.,  began  his  ministry  in  Virginia,  went 
to  Missouri,  then  to  Kentucky,  and  finally  back  to  Vir- 
ginia. He  began  preaching  rather  late  in  life  and  did  not 
at  first  possess  the  charm  of  his  renowned  brother.  One 
day  his  wife,  who  strongly  opposed  going  to  Missouri, 
was  walking  home  with  him  from  church  after  hearing 
him  preach.  She  said  demurely :  "Mr.  Broaddus,  are  you 
firmly  resolved  to  keep  on  preaching  ?  "  "Yes,  my  dear," 
he  answered.  "Well/'  she  said,  "then  I  am  perfectly 
willing  to  go  to  Missouri."  But  the  good  wife  and  hosts 
of  others  came  to  be  proud  of  him  as  a  preacher.  He  in 
time  grew  to  be  more  polished  in  certain  ways  than  Wm. 
F,,  and  had  much  of  the  subtle  penetration  so  prominent 
in  John  A.  Broadus. 

It  would  be  pleasant  to  have  something  to  say  about 
the  other  noble  preachers  of  the  Broaddus  name,  such 
as  the  lamented  Luther  Broaddus,  Julian  Broaddus, 
M.  E.  Broaddus,  and  others.  "But  the  time  would  fail 
to  tell/1 


There  is  a  curious  note  in  a  letter  of  Wm.  F.  to  his 

brother  Edmund : 

Then  let's  hope  that  some  one  in  our  family  is  destined  to  be  a 
prodigy,  and  as  our  day  is  nearly  passed,  take  it  for  granted  that 
the  next  generation  will  be  favored  with  his  appearance. 

The  looked-for  prodigy  was  Edmund's  son,  then  fifteen 
years  old,  already  the  pride  of  Albert  Simms'  school  in 
Culpeper,  of  whom  it  would  one  day  be  said  by  a  great 
historian  that  he  was  "perhaps  the  greatest  man  the 
Baptists  have  produced."1 

1  Prof.  A.  H  Newman,  In  "  Progress,"  Vol.  III.,  No.  xo,  Chicago,  111. 


The  reason  firm,  the  temperate  will, 
Endurance,  foresight,  strength,  and  skill. 

— Wordsworth. 

VIRGINIA  was  in  the  full  tide  of  power  and  glory  in 
the  thirties.  She  was  dominant  m  national  politics, 
and  her  civilization  was  setting  the  standard  for  all  the 
South.  A  noble  class  of  settlers  had  early  come  to  Vir- 
ginia that  was  to  exert  a  commanding  influence  on  the 
whole  future  of  the  republic.  For  even  now,  if  states- 
men flourish  farther  west,  many  of  them  come  of  Vir- 
ginia ancestry.  Pride  of  prestige  ran  in  the  Virginia 
blood  when  we  touch  it  in  our  narrative. 

The  people  of  the  Piedmont  section  were  not  then  so 
rich  and  prosperous  as  those  of  the  Tidewater  and  South- 
side  regions.  It  was  a  new  country  still.  In  1800,  Pied- 
mont Virginia  was  the  Middle  West  on  the  way  to  the 
great  Kentucky  forests.  Twenty-five  years  had  brought 
a  great  change  all  along  the  foot  of  the  Blue  Ridge,  but 
the  comforts  and  luxuries  of  the  eastern  counties  had 
not  come  generally  to  the  great  hill  country  of  Virginia. 
However,  the  gentlemen  of  Culpeper  took  as  lively  an 
interest  in  State  and  national  affairs  as  did  the  citizens 
of  the  more  ancient  seats  on  the  Eastern  Shore,  The 
road  to  distinction  and  power  lay  through  politics,  and 
not  so  much  as  now  through  business,  the  press,  or  schol- 
arship, Virginia  life  before  the  Civil  War  had  a  raciness 
and  richness  not  to  be  repeated  in  American  experience. 

Culpeper  was  once  a  very  large  county  and  has  had 


Rappahannock  taken  from  it.  Much  of  it  lies  in  sight  of 
the  Blue  Ridge,  which  affords  a  never-wearying  pano- 
rama of  beauty.  A  spur  of  this  range,  Mount  Poney,  rises 
not  far  from  the  county  seat.  The  land  is  not  notably 
rich,  but  the  county  has  had  a  noble  history.  It  was 
one  of  the  chief  battlefields  of  the  Civil  War.  It  was 
also  one  of  the  battlegrounds  of  Baptist  principles  in 
Virginia.  A  number  of  Baptist  preachers  were  impris- 
oned in  the  Culpeper  jail  for  preaching  the  gospel.  The 
Baptist  church  now  stands  where  once  James  Ireland, 
Elijah  Craig,  Nathaniel  Saunders,  Banks,  Maxwell,  Du- 
laney,  and  others,  stood  behind  prison  bars  for  the  crime 
of  proclaiming  Jesus  Christ.1  Within  the  Shiloh  Asso- 
ciation lived  also  John  Leland,  a  mighty  preacher  and 
champion  of  religious  liberty.  Out  of  Culpeper  was 
driven  Samuel  Harris  for  preaching.  Culpeper  is  sacred 
soil  for  all  lovers  of  religious  freedom,  and  has  become  a 
nursery  for  Baptist  preachers.2 

For  a  number  of  years  the  leading  figure  in  politics 
and  religious  affairs  in  Culpeper  was  Major  Edmund 
Broadus.8  His  career  forms  one  of  the  most  honorable  in 
Virginia  history.  He  was  born  May  5, 1793,  on  the  edge 
of  the  Blue  Ridge,  in  that  part  of  Culpeper  now  known 
as  Rappahannock.  His  early  years  were  spent  chiefly 
in  farm-work,  but  he  received  a  good  English  education, 
partly  at  a  boarding  school.  At  eighteen  he  taught 
school  in  the  home  of  Edward  Sims  (Simms),  a  prosper- 
ous farmer  along  the  spurs  of  the  Blue  Ridge.  His  father 
having  died,  he  gave  all  that  he  made  by  teaching  (one 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars)  to  his  widowed  mother  to  meet 
some  debts  left  for  her  to  discharge.  But  during  that 
same  year  he  had  taught  the  farmer's  daughter,  Miss 

1  Beale's  new  edition  of  "  Semple's  History  of  Va.  Baptists— Pitt  and  Dickinson." 

*  See  "  Historical  Sketch  of  the  Shiloh  Baptist  Association/*  by  Rev.  E  W,  Win- 
frey, Culpeper  Va.,  1894 

*  Named  after  Judge  Edmund  Pendleton,  a  half-brother  of  hfc  grandmother. 


Nancy  Simms,  to  love  him.  Her  father  said  :  "  Teach 
on  and  live  with  me."  So  they  were  married  in  1812. 
His  school  would  not  be  out  till  December  15,  and  they 
had  to  live  without  money.  When  her  father's  harvest 
came,  the  young  husband  went  out  into  the  field  and  cut 
wheat  with  a  reap  hook  at  a  dollar  a  day  and  gave  his 
earnings  to  his  bride.  He  thus  spent  several  years  teach- 
ing1 and  keeping  a  mill  belonging  to  his  mother.  He 
built  his  bride  a  log  house  without  nails  or  glass,  for  it 
was  war  time.  After  some  years  he  removed  to  the 
neighborhood  of  Culpeper  Court-House  and  accumulated 
a  moderate  estate  as  a  farmer. 

In  1826  Major  Broadus  (major  of  the  Culpeper  militia) 
began  to  take  an  interest  in  politics,  and  spent  twenty 
years  in  the  legislature,  save  two  years  of  voluntary  retire- 
ment, without  ever  being  beaten  in  an  election  after  his 
first  candidacy.  He  was  the  only  man  who  could  handle 
the  Democrats  in  Culpeper,  the  Whigs  and  Democrats 
being  about  equally  divided  in  the  county.  He  had  such 
competitors  as  Captain  A.  P.  Hill  and  the  Hon.  John  S. 
Harbour.  Mr.  Barbour  was  the  ablest  opponent  Major 
Broadus  ever  had.  Upon  one  occasion  Mr.  Barbour  had 
made  a  very  brilliant  speech,  which  rendered  Major 
Broadus's  adherents  uneasy ;  but  the  Major  completely 
vanquished  him  by  reading  extracts  from  a  still  more 
striking  speech  he  had  made  on  the  other  side  years 
before.  The  Major's  singularly  penetrating  voice,  which 
his  son  inherited,  gave  additional  force  to  his  reply.  John 
A.  Broadus  says  of  his  father :  * 

He  came  to  be  regarded  as  a  leader  of  the  Whig  party  in  the 
House,  exerting  influence  not  by  oratory— though  he  was  a  clear 
and  forcible  speaker  and  hard  to  answer  in  argument— but  by  thor- 

1 "  Nearly  every  male  descendant  of  Thomas  Broadus  and  of  his  brother  James 
has  spent  a  part  of  his  life  as  a  teacher."—"  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family,"  p.  126. 
*  In  MS.  notes,  the  source  of  much  material  for  this  chapter. 


ough  acquaintance  with  the  subjects  of  legislation,  whether  political 
or  practical,  by  sound  judgment,  irreproachable  integrity,  and  some 
personal  magnetism. 

Judge  Bell,  of  Culpeper,  in  a  memorial  address  after 
Doctor  Broadus's  death,  spoke  as  follows  : 

Major  Broadus  was  then  one  of  the  most  adroit  electioneerers  in 
Virginia.  The  secret  of  his  success  was  his  calm,  quiet,  easy,  and 
courteous  demeanor  to  the  people  and  to  his  competitors.  There  was 
no  money  used  in  elections  ;  no  purchasing  or  bribing  voters ;  gen- 
teel and  courteous  demeanor  prevailed  over  the  bully  and  the  brag- 
gart. Time  and  place  were  set  for  the  people  to  meet  and  listen  to 
dispassionate  discussion  of  great  questions  of  government  and  State 
policy.  And  tradition  says  that  ail  that  any  election  ever  cost  Major 
Broadus  was  a  few  old  Virginia  clay  pipes  and  smoking  tobacco. 

He  was  a  great  temperance  advocate  and  active  in  the 
Sons  of  Temperance  Society  and  would  not  use  whisky. 
He  rode  a  horse,  named  Prince,  that  had  learned  his  mas- 
ter's habits.  When  he  met  a  man  in  the  road  the  horse 
would  go  light  up  to  him  and  stop. 

Political  excitement  often  ran  high  in  the  campaign. 
Major  Broadus's  house  being  on  the  road  when  he  was 
opposed  by  Captain  Hill,  people  would  sometimes  shout, 
as  they  passed  by,  "  Hurrah  for  Hill  and  down  with 
Broadus."  The  story  is  told  that  little  John  A.  would 
run  out  and  answer  lustily,  "  Hurrah  for  Broadus  and 
down  with  Hill."  Major  Broadus  was  an  ardent  Henry 
Clay  man  and  his  son  never  got  over  his  worship  of 
Clay.  Dr.  J.  C.  Hiden  says  of  him  : l 

The  great  champions  of  Democracy  in  that  region  were  Governor 
William  Smith— "  Extra  Billy,"  he'was  familiarly  called— one  of 
the  adroitest  politicians  and  stump  speakers  that  Virginia  ever  pro- 
duced, and  old  John  S.  Barbour,  one  of  the  most  splendid  orators  in 
Congress.  Major  Broadus  was  not  a  professional  man,  and  nobody 
ever  thought  of  him  as  an  orator,  and  yet  the  two  famous  Demo- 
cratic speakers  found  it  hard  to  hold  their  own  against  his  plain, 

1  "  Religious  Herald,"  March  a8,  189$. 


pointed,  popular  "  talks"  to  the  country  people,  who  assembled  on 
court  day  "  to  hear  the  candidates." 

When  he  declined  to  treat,  his  friends  said  he  would  be 
defeated,  but  they  were  mistaken.  He  was  one  of  the 
real  leaders  of  the  time.  He  was  a  statesman  and 
patriot,  the  friend  of  every  good  cause,  and  rendered 
great  service  to  the  University  of  Virginia  by  his  stand 
for  it  in  the  legislature. 

He  quit  the  support  of  President  Jackson  upon  the  famous  "  re- 
moval of  the  deposits  "  and  was  always  afterwards  a  Henry  Clay 
Whig  It  has  frequently  been  declared  by  former  associates  in  the 
legislature  that  he  was,  for  some  years,  leader  of  the  Whig  party  in 
the  House  of  Delegates.  At  one  time  a  caucus  of  the  party,  when 
in  the  majority,  offered  to  elect  him  governor,  but  he  declined  on  the 
ground  that  the  governor's  expenses  beyond  the  salary  would  con- 
sume all  his  property.1 

Major  Broadus's  picture  shows  a  man  in  whose  thin  face 
there  is  intellectual  force,  and  the  masterful  look  of  re- 
pose. Though  he  had  dyspepsia  all  his  life,  like  his  son 
John,  yet  he  was  uniformly  cheerful.  He  was  a  man  of 
courtly  manners  and  was  the  center  of  attraction  in  so- 
cial circles.  He  became  early  in  life  a  church-member 
and  through  a  long  life  showed  how  it  was  possible  to  be 
a  politician  and  a  consistent  Christian.  He  was  the 
most  influential  man  in  the  Shiloh  Baptist  Association. 
He  thought  his  famous  preacher  brothers,  William  F.  and 
Andrew,  and  his  pastor,  Rev.  Barnett  Grimsley,  were  too 
far  ahead  of  the  people  in  their  zeal  for  missions.  He 
wanted  the  people  to  get  ready  for  the  movement.  But 
some  of  the  people  never  have  gotten  ready.  It  is  true 
that  the  earnestness  of  Dr.  Wm.  F,  Broaddus  led  to  a 
schism  on  the  mission  question,  but  the  "  Hardshell " 
wing  has  dwindled  away  with  the  years.  Major  Broadus, 
however,  was  a  firm  advocate  of  missions,  temperance, 

*  "  History  of  the  Broaddus  Family,"  p.  137. 


and  ministerial  education.  His  house  was  the  preach- 
ers' home  for  many  years,  and  this  gave  him  frequent 
opportunity  to  counsel  young  ministers. 

He  was  often  asked  to  settle  disputes  between  neigh- 
bors, and  came  to  be  the  peacemaker  of  the  community. 
He  was  persuaded  to  take  charge  for  a  while  of  the 
county  poor  farm,  his  prominence  and  character  guaran-: 
teeing  unusual  attention  to  the  management.  Major 
Broadus  remained  in  charge  five  years  and  then  moved 
to  Bleak  Hill,  about  four  miles  from  town,  afterward  the 
home  of  Albert  G.  Simms,  the  famous  teacher.  Bleak 
Hill  is  now  burned  down. 

In  1837  Major  Broadus  moved  to  Edge  Hill,  a  farm  of 
some  three  hundred  acres  with  a  profitable  mill.  This 
estate,  six  miles  from  Culpeper  Court-House,  he  pur- 
chased and  now  had  a  settled  home  of  much  comfort  for 
his  family.  The  Blue  Ridge  was  only  fifteen  miles  away. 
There  was  the  large  white  house  upon  the  hill  and  a 
glorious  spring  in  the  clump  of  trees  at  the  foot  of  the 
hill  by  the  roadside ;  the  orchard  and  the  rolling  fields 
stretched  back  of  the  house.  This  was  the  home  that 
made  its  impress  upon  John  A.  Broadus.1 

New  Salem  Church  is  only  a  mile  and  a  half  from 
Edge  Hill  and  Major  Broadus  became  the  leading  spirit 
in  this  church.  This  part  of  Culpeper,  known  as ''the 
Pines/'  not  very  rich,  is  surrounded  by  pine  lands* 

The  first  two  years  at  Edge  Hill  Major  Broadus  stayed 
out  of  the  legislature  and  taught  an  "old  field  school." 
He  had  two  objects  in  view.  One  was  to  give  a  good 
chance  for  his  daughter  Caroline  and  his  youngest  son 
John ;  the  other  object  was  to  help  pay  for  the  farm* 
In  1835  Major  Broadus  had  sunk  money,  like  so  many 

1  On  a  recent  visit  to  Edge  Hill  (now  known  as  Cana's  Mills),  Mrs.  Cana,  a  quaint 
old  lady,  said  to  me :  "  The  Broaduses  are  mighty  good  people.  If  all  this  country 
were  Broaduses,  It  would  have  been  better  than  it  is." 


others,  in  a  gold  mine  in  Culpeper.  He  also  lost  much 
from  security  debts.  He  could  easily  have  recovered  him- 
self by  his  farm,  so  that  his  brother,  Wm.  F.,  expressed 
great  surprise  when  in  1846  he  took  the  position  of  stew- 
ard at  the  University  of  Virginia  to  board  State  students. 
Yet  the  chief  reason  that  led  him  to  do  this  was  to  give 
John  the  advantage  of  a  university  course. 

Major  Broadus's  wife  died  June  22,  1847.  In  1849  he 
married  Miss  Somerville  Ward.  His  second  wife,  after  his 
death,  lived  chiefly  with  John  A.  Broadus,  who  delighted 
to  speak  of  her  as  one  of  the  excellent  of  the  earth.  She 
died  at  his  home  in  Greenville,  S.  C.,  May  27,  1877. 

Major  Broadus  lived  to  see  John  complete  his  work  at 
the  University,  but  died  June  27,  1850,  a  few  days  be- 
fore he  was  to  receive  his  degree.  His  efforts  to  educate 
his  boy  were  rewarded  and  he  left  a  double  portion  of 
his  spirit  on  this  son  "of  parents  passed  into  the  skies."1 

Of  the  mother  in  this  cheerful  home  we  have  less  in- 
formation. She  was,  as  we  have  seen,  Miss  Nancy 
Simms,  daughter  of  Edward  Simms.  She  was  born  Sep- 
tember 20, 1790,  and  was  a  woman  of  many  excellent  qual- 
ities. She  was  of  medium  height  and  rather  plump — the 
Simms  are  generally  small — and  John  A.  Broadus  resem- 
bled his  mother  in  stature  as  in  many  other  things.  She 
was  very  gentle  and  quiet  in  manner,  but  firm  in  her  con- 
trol over  her  household.  There  was  a  briskness  and 
energy  about  her  that  was  contagious.  The  major  was 
often  absent  on  political  tours,  so  that  the  farm  largely 
fell  to  her  care.  She  exhibited  such  industry,  tact,  and 
firmness  that  she  merited  the  wise  man's  words  about 
the  virtuous  woman.  Everything  moved  like  clockwork. 
She  required  perfect  obedience  from  the  children  and  re- 
ceived it,  but  there  was  never  a  word  of  harshness.  Miss 

*  Inscription  on  tombstone  of  Major  Broadus  at  University  of  Virginia.    See  Cow- 
pet's  lines  "  On  Receipt  of  My  Mother's  Picture," 



Mary  Wallis,  for  a  time  a  member  of  the  family,  says : 
"  It  never  occurred  to  any  of  us  children  not  to  mind  just 
what  Aunt  Nancy  told  us ;  and  yet  she  never  scolded  or 
spoke  impatiently  with  any  one."  This  peaceful,  well- 
balanced  home  seems  to  have  given  John  A.  Broadus  the 
greatest  dislike  to  anything  like  disputing  in  a  family. 

She  taught  her  children  habits  of  neatness  and  order. 
In  after  life  J.  A.  B.  would  often  rise  from  his  study  and 
meditatively  sweep  up  the  stray  bits  of  coal,  while  re- 
volving some  phrase  for  letter  or  discourse,  saying:  "My 
mother  said  that  the  fire  would  not  burn  were  the  hearth 
not  swept."  She  had  many  sayings  that  he  loved  to 
quote.  Another  one  was  :  "  Put  tire  upon  tire,  and  you'll 
get  rested, "  She  was  very  tender,  and  from  her  John  A. 
Broadus  got  his  wonderful  pathos.  In  the  long  winter 
evenings  she  taught  her  children  to  love  the  best  books. 
From  her  also  they  obtained  their  love  of  flowers  and 
music.  There  was  a  deep  and  tender  piety  about  her, 
although  she  did  not  make  public  profession  of  faith  in 
Christ  till  after  all  her  children  were  church-members. 
When  her  daughter  Martha  was  baptized,  as  they  came 
from  the  service  Mrs.  Broadus  remarked:  "Well,  my 
children  are  all  going  into  the  church,  and  I  am  left 
alone."  Little  John  offered  comfort  to  his  mother  by 
saying:  "Mother,  I  won't  join  the  church.  I'll  stay 
with  you."  Finally  she  was  roused  to  public  profession 
by  Wm,  F.  Broaddus.  She  was  so  anxious  to  be  bap- 
tized at  once  that  he  sent  John  off  forty  miles  on  horse- 
back to  pay  an  urgent  obligation  for  him,  while  he  re- 
mained and  baptized  Mrs.  Broadus  in  the  millpond  at 
home.  John  was  a  singular  combination  of  the  best 
things  in  his  parents. 

Four  children  were  born  to  Major  Broadus  by  his  first 
wife:  James  Madison,  Martha  A.,  Caroline  ML,  and  John 
Albert.  John  was  much  the  youngest,  and  he  looked  up 


to  his  brother  and  sisters,  who  exerted  a  noble  influence 
over  him.  The  closest  relations  existed  between  the  two 
brothers.  James  Madison  Broadus,  was  born  November 
30,  1812.  His  early  life,  like  his  father's,  was  spent  in 
farming  and  teaching  school.  In  1832  he  wrote  to  his 
father : 

I  write  to  you  that  Mr.  A would  gladly  receive  Genl.  T 's 

confession.1  .  .  Your  hands  are  at  work  on  Tutfs  schoolhouse.  .  . 
I  shall  move  to  Capt.  Games'  m  a  few  days  and  shall  commence 
my  school  next  Monday  week,  Jan.  16. 

In  middle  life  he  became  connected  with  the  Virginia 
Midland  Railroad,  and  was  general  ticket  agent  of  the 
road  for  twenty  years.  His  home  at  Alexandria,  Va., 
was  a  center  of  interest  for  a  large  circle  of  attached 
friends.  He  was  the  pillar  of  the  Baptist  church  there 
and  felt  the  keenest  interest  in  Baptist  affairs  generally. 
He  was  an  exceedingly  noble  and  useful  man,  possessing 
great  wisdom  and  readiness  of  mind.  John  leaned  upon 
him  at  every  turn  and  loved  him  with  rare  devotion.  He 
was  John's  constant  adviser  till  his  death,  as  the  many 
letters  that  passed  between  them  show.  From  being 
taught  in  childhood  to  imitate  a  servant  he  early  acquired 
the  habit  of  stammering,  which  prevented  his  rising  to 
the  eminence  he  might  have  gained.  He  died  July  21, 
1880,  at  Alexandria.8  He  was  twice  married,  first  to  Miss 
Ellen  Barbour  Gaines,  and  afterward  to  Miss  Mary  Cath- 
arine Lewis,  who  still  survives  him.  He  left  a  large 
family,  four  of  whom  are  living. 

The  eldest  daughter,  Martha  A,  Broadus,  was  born  July 
24,  1814.  She  taught  John  a  great  deal  at  home.  He 
often  said  that  he  owed  more  to  her  than  to  almost  any 
other  influence.  He  once  recalled  tenderly  his  sister's 
influence  over  him  in  talking  to  a  familiar  friend,  whom 

1  Instance  of  Major  Broadus' s  work  as  a  peacemaker  between  neighbors. 
*  See  "  History  of  Broaddus  Family"  for  sketch  of  his  excellent  family. 


he  wished  to  incite  to  special  influence  over  her  younger 
sister.  He  always  advised  young  men  to  listen  to  their 
sisters,  particularly  about  manners  and  dress.  His  sister 
Martha,  when  he  was  seventeen,  wrote  to  Miss  Mary 
Wallis:  "I  think  your  little  cousin  John  will  be  the 
brightest  star  of  the  Broadus  family/'  Martha  was  quite 
pretty,  with  brilliant  complexion  and  bright  brown  eyes. 
She  married  Mr.  Edmund  Bickers,  an  estimable  and  well- 
to-do  farmer  in  Culpeper.  She  died  June  6,  1874. 

Caroline  M.  Broadus  was  born  in  1822,  and  died  August 
25,  1852.  She  married  Rev.  W.  A.  Whitescarver,  one  of 
the  most  intimate  friends  of  Doctor  Broadus's  life.  He 
often  said  that  Mr.  Whitescarver  was  the  most  spiritually 
minded  man  he  ever  knew. 

Thus  we  have  caught  brief  glimpses  of  the  family  group 
at  Bleak  Hill  and  afterward  at  Edge  Hill.  For  some  years 
Major  Broadus's  mother  was  an  honored  member  of  the 
household.  It  was  a  simple,  wholesome,  genuine  life. 
They  were  not  affluent,  nor  were  they  poor,  but  belonged 
to  that  robust  and  progressive  farmer  class  that  has  done 
so  much  for  American  life. 


It  is  a  wise  father  that  knows  his  own  child. 

— Shakespeare. 

The  proper  study  of  mankind  is— children. 

- -J  A.  B. 

JOHN  ALBERT  BROADUS  was  born  January  24, 
1827,  in  Culpeper  County,  Virginia,  about  three 
miles  from  the  county  seat.  He  was  thus  a  few  days 
younger  than  his  future  friend,  James  P.  Boyce,  who 
was  born  January  11.  He  was  named  after  two  brothers 
of  his  mother.  John  Simms,  who  was  a  doctor,  insisted 
that  they  must  take  his  advice  and  must  not  let  the  child 
be  rocked.  Albert  was  the  school  teacher,  who  exercised 
a  great  influence  over  his  nephew. 

It  was  a  genuine  boy  who  played  upon  the  hills  of 
Culpeper.1  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  be  reared  in 
the  country,  where,  as  he  afterwards  said,  everybody 
ought  to  be  born.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  shy  child 
who  did  not  enter  into  all  boyish  games.  He  liked  mar- 
bles, but  not  ball.  He  was  particularly  fond  of  running, 
and  had  the  reputation  of  being  the  swiftest  runner  in 
the  county.  Two  little  colored  boys,  as  was  true  of  so 
many  Southern  children,  were  his  playmates.  Henry 

1  Dr.  Broadus  left  brief  MS  recollections  of  his  childhood.  He  used  to  make  his 
class  In  Homiletlcs  write  a  paper  on  the  "  Recollections  of  Childhood  "  He  once 
chose  this  topic  for  the  Conversation  Club,  Louisville,  Ky,  Introducing  the  topic,  he 
spoke  of  the  interest  taken  In  the  childhood  of  great  men,  since  "  the  child  is  father 
of  the  man."  He  spoke  also  of  the  difficulty  in  getting  the  proper  visual  angle,  the 
value  of  recalling  in  order  to  self-knowledge  and  In  order  to  understand  children. 
He  remarked  also  that  we  are  apt  to  overrate  the  joys  of  childhood,  and  underrate  Its 



was  black  and  George  was  brown,  and  young  Broadus 
early  came  to  observe  that  the  brown  Negro  boy  was 
much  more  intelligent  than  the  black  one.  John  and 
Henry  made  up  a  secret  language,  as  children  often  do. 
He  would  teach  the  words  to  Henry,  but  as  neither  could 
write,  they  would  forget  their  vocabulary  by  the  next 
day.  Henry  was  older  than  John  and  once  chased  him 
till  he  was  about  to  give  out  John  jumped  into  a  brier 
patch  with  his  bare  feet,  knowing  that  Henry  would  not 
have  the  courage  to  follow  him.  He  was  led  to  swear 
once  by  his  colored  playmates,  but  his  sister  Martha 
promptly  checked  it  for  good  and  all. 

"  Uncle  Griffin,"  the  husband  of  "  Aunt  Suky,"  was 
the  oracle  of  the  place  and  on  Sunday  afternoons  would 
take  the  little  boy  on  his  knee,  just  like  Uncle  Remus, 
and  tell  him  the  matchless  stories  of  Bre'r  Rabbit  and 
Bre'r  Wolf  almost  word  for  word  as  Joel  Chandler 
Harris  afterwards  printed  them.  When  the  first  Uncle 
Remus  book  appeared,  Dr.  Broadus  was  in  New  York 
in  the  office  of  the  publishers,  who  sent  up  for  the  first 
copy  from  the  press,  which  he  eagerly  purchased.  He 
took  it  and  read  it  to  his  children  with  an  almost  trem- 
bling anxiety  to  see  if  they  would  enjoy  the  stories  as 
he  had  done  when  a  child.  He  felt  an  intense  satisfac- 
tion in  seeing  that  they  did.  One  Sunday  afternoon  the 
little  boy  said  to  Uncle  Griffin,  as  usual :  "  Uncle  Grif- 
fin, please  tell  me  about  Bre'r  Rabbit  and  the  Tar  Baby." 
With  a  pang  he  heard  Uncle  Griffin  say :  *'  Go  'way, 
chile;  ain't  nuvver  gwine  tell  yer  'bout  dat  no  mo'.  You 
gittin'  too  big."  The  darkies  never  told  any  of  their 
folk  stories  in  the  presence  of  grown  white  people. 
They  possibly  dreaded  lest  the  half-concealed  allegorical 
meaning  might  be  understood — the  triumph  of  a  weaker 
race  by  cunning  over  one  naturally  stronger  and  more 


Major  Broadus  took  a  great  deal  of  pains  to  keep  in 
sympathy  with  his  boy  and  to  cultivate  his  acquaintance. 
John  would  come  and  sit  by  his  father  when  he  came 
home  and  listen  as  he  talked  about  all  sorts  of  things. 
When  he  read  books  during  the  day,  he  told  at  night 
what  he  had  read  and  asked  questions  suggested  by  the 
books.  He  was  encouraged  to  ask  questions  freely  and 
to  tell  of  his  own  doings,  and  his  father  would  explain 
political  matters  to  him.  His  cousin,  Mary  Wallis,  says  : 
"He  and  Uncle  Edmund  sat  and  talked  like  two  men." 
He  loved  to  ride  with  his  father  over  the  farm  and  hear 
his  explanation  of  the  farm-work.  He  remembered  in 
after  life  the  joy  of  going  to  mill  behind  his  father  on  Old 
Prince,  when  his  little  legs  could  barely  stretch  across 
the  horse's  back.  In  the  first  volume  of  "  Kind  Words  " 1 
he  describes  Old  Prince  for  the  children,  as  his  own 
children  used  to  love  to  hear  him  tell : 

He  was  a  bright,  bay  horse,  and  I  think  he  had  a  star  on  his  fore- 
head. He  was  a  natural  pacer,  and  could  swing  along  so  smoothly 
and  so  fast  that  it  was  delightful  to  ride  him ;  but  he  had  got  to  be  very 
lazy,  and  hardly  minded  a  switch  at  all.  When  I  was  about  six  or 
eight  years  old,  father  used  to  take  me  up  behind  him  to  ride  out  on  the 
plantation  or  about  the  neighborhood.  When  we  started,  Old  Prince 
would  poke  along  just  as  slowly  as  he  could.  Father  would  kick 
him,  first  with  one  foot  and  then  with  the  other,  and  say,  "  Go  along, 
sir"  ;  and  I  too,  with  my  short  legs  pretty  wide  apart,  and  my  little 
bare  feet,  reaching  about  half  way  down  his  side,  would  kick  my 
best,  with  both  feet  at  once,  saying,  "  Get  up,  you  lazy  old  thing,  go 
'long."  The  fact  is,  laziness  is  a  hateful  thing,  in  horse  or  man  or 
boy,  and  whatever  faults  I  may  have,  I  don't  intend  to  be  lazy. 
After  a  while,  we  would  come  to  the  woods,  and  father  would  have 
the  hardest  work,  jerking  the  bridle  and  kicking  and  scolding  at 
him,  to  get  the  old  fellow  up  to  a  bush,  so  as  to  get  a  switch.  He 
knew  too  well  what  was  coming.  And  then  he  would  begin  to  bite 
the  leaves  of  the  bush,  or  the  grass  around  its  roots,  and  when  the 
switch  was  cut,  he  would  go  along  more  slowly  than  ever,  while 

i  March,  1866. 


father  trimmed  it.  When  the  last  twig  was  cut  off,  and  father 
crooked  his  elbow  to  put  the  knife  in  his  pocket,  Old  Prince  would 
jump  and  sail  away,  so  as  almost  to  throw  me  off.  How  smart  he 

So  pleasantly  father  used  to  talk  as  we  rode  along  together.  Dear 
father,  he  was  so  wise  and  so  kind ;  he  would  tell  me  stories,  and 
explain  things  about  the  plantation,  and  often  tell  me  how  a  boy 
ought  to  do,  about  one  thing  or  another.  I  remember  that  one  day 
I  pulled  down  a  neighbor's  fence,  so  we  could  ride  across  the  field, 
and,  in  putting  it  up,  I  left  the  top  rail  lying  down,  because  it  was 
heavy ;  and  father  said,  "No,  no,  my  boy,  put  it  up ;  whenever 
you  pass  through  a  gate,  or  draw-bars,  or  a  fence,  always  leave  it 
at  least  as  good  as  you  found  it."  To  this  day  1  think  of  that,  when 
passing  through  anything  of  that  sort,  and  I  am  sure  it  is  a  very 
good  rule.  About  all  sorts  of  things,  children,  whether  great  things 
or  small,  try  to  do  just  like  father  and  mother  tell  you,  and  you'll 
be  glad  of  it  when  they  have  long  been  dead  and  you  are  growing 

When  old  Prince  died,  some  twenty-five  years  old,  all  the  family 
felt  as  if  they  had  lost  a  friend.  He  was  a  noble  old  creature,  if  he 
was  lazy.  Father  made  them  bury  the  body  off  in  the  pines,  and 
sister  wrote  a  letter  to  me,  away  off  where  I  was  playing  young 
schoolmaster,  to  tell  me  that  Prince  was  dead.  We  ought  to  love 
the  brutes  that  belong  to  us,  and  to  be  kind  to  them.  Whip  the 
horse,  if  he  won't  go  along,  but  don't  beat  him  when  he  is  doing  his 
best  Feed  all  the  poor  brutes  well  and  regularly,  and  never  be  cruel 
to  them.  A  merciful  man  is  merciful  to  his  beast. 

Long  after  Old  Prince  was  dead,  and  the  year  father  died  also,  I 
thought  I  saw  them  both.  I  was  riding  one  evening  at  dusk,  and 
two  hundred  yards  off,  just  coming  out  of  the  woods  to  meet  me,  was 
father  riding  Old  Prince.  He  came  swinging  along  In  the  old  way, 
and  father,  the  same  tall,  stooping  man,  had  on  his  long,  dark  over- 
coat, and  the  red  bandanna  handkei chief  over  his  head  and  tied 
under  his  chin,  with  a  high-crowned  hat  put  on  over  it,  just  as  he 
always  did  in  cold  weather.  Here  he  came.  I  remembered  that 
twice  since  my  father  died  I  had  dreamed  that  he  came  to  life,  and 
now  here  he  was  riding  on  Old  Prince.  I  confess  that  I  was  troubled, 
and  thought  about  turning  back,  or  striking  into  the  woods;  but  I 
knew  that  would  be  foolish  and  wrong,  and  rode  on.  At  length  I 
met  and  passed  some  strangei,  who  did  wear  the  long  coat,  hand- 
kerchief, etc.,  and  who  rode  a  natural  pacer— but  it  was  not  father 
by  any  means.  It  is  very  foolish  to  believe  in  ghosts.  If  I  had 


turned  and  fled,  mine  would  have  been  almost  as  good  a  ghost  story 
as  many,  and  yet  it  was  all  a  mistake. 

I  shall  never  see  old  Prince  any  more,  but  I  shall  see  father.  He 
will  rise  again,  and  in  the  judgment  of  the  great  day  he  will  be  on 
the  right  hand  of  the  Judge,  beholding  that  Saviour  whom  from 
early  life  he  loved  and  served.  Oh,  that  I  may  be  there  too. 

He  had  many  memories  of  his  early  years.  The 
country  was  full  of  peddlers.  One  of  them  said  one 
day,  as  a  sort  of  joke,  that  he  would  bring  him  a  red  ban- 
danna handkerchief  when  he  came  back,  meaning,  how- 
ever, to  quit  the  business  and  never  come  back.  The 
little  boy  faithfully  cherished  in  secret  this  promise  and 
looked  for  him  daily.  When  months  passed  by  he  took 
the  peddler's  perfidy  very  hard. 

One  of  his  earliest  recollections  was  the  marriage  of 
his  brother  to  Miss  Ellen  Gaines,  in  1831,  when  he  was 
only  four  years  old.  As  a  child  he  dearly  loved  the 
Blue  Ridge,  and  all  his  life  was  deeply  moved  by  its 
beauty.  The  South  had  great  lack  of  schools  before  the 
war ;  even  the  old  field  school  was  not  universal.  Tutors 
and  governesses  prevailed  in  the  wealthier  families.  In- 
telligent parents  and  elder  children  helped  greatly  in 
many  cases.  But  John  A.  Broadus  had  real  educational 
advantages  in  his  childhood.  There  were  numerous 
books  and  periodicals,  and  interesting  visitors  from  far 
and  near,  and  the  family  were  all  keen  critics  of  lan- 
guage. He  had  a  remarkably  good  teacher  in  the  old 
field  school,  Mr.  Albert  Tutt,  and  in  his  teens  he  had 
one  of  the  best  high  school  teachers  in  the  land,  Mr. 
Albert  G.  Simrns. 

When  John  was  about  five  years  old  his  home,  "  Bleak 
Hill,"  was  within  a  mile  and  a  half  of  Tutt's  schoolhouse. 
From  five  to  seven  John  attended  this  school,  walking 
back  and  forth.  Often  the  little  fellow  would  turn  down 
the  big  boys  in  the  spelling  class.  Once  when  he  did  so 


the  big  head  boy  picked  him  up  with  one  hand  and  swung 
him  up  to  the  head  of  the  class,  saying,  "  There,  you  lit- 
tle rascal."  Mr.  John  H.  Apperson,  of  Culpeper,  who 
went  to  school  with  him,  says  that  "  he  was  as  old  then 
as  he  ever  was."  Mr.  Gabriel  Tutt,  brother  of  the 
teacher,  was  one  of  the  big  boys  of  the  school.  He 
remarked  of  him :  "  John  was  an  excellent  student, 
diligent  and  thoughtful.  He  seemed  to  devour  books 
and  acquired  knowledge  easily  and  rapidly.  On  one 
occasion  Major  Broadus  went  to  Richmond  to  be  absent 
a  few  months.  When  he  came  home  he  brought  John 
a  book  which  he  thought  he  needed.  But  the  boy  had 
made  such  progress  in  his  father's  absence  that  he  had 
no  use  for  the  book.  He  was  far  beyond  it." 

In  1882  while  on  a  visit  to  Lexington,  Missouri,  he  met 
Mr.  Gabriel  Tutt,  then  an  old  man,  and  asked  if  he  re- 
membered having  in  those  school  days  once  tossed  him 
over  his  head,  catching  him  again  and  again,  for  "  I 
was  throwing  stones  at  sister  Carry  and  would  not  stop 
until  made  to  say  I'd  quit  by  my  sister's  champion." 

Mr.  Tutt  stopped  teaching  in  1834.  For  the  rest  of  that 
year,  all  of  1835  and  1836,  from  near  seven  to  near  ten, 
John  remained  at  home.  His  sister  Martha  taught  him, 
however,  during  these  years,  as  there  was  no  other 
school  in  reach,  the  Court-House  being  too  far  away. 
Doctor  Broadus  often  said  that  this  sister  Martha  laid 
the  foundation  of  his  education,  and  when  needful  quelled 
his  bursts  of  temper  with  the  right  word.  During  these 
three  years  John  did  much  reading.  Among  other  books 
he  read  half  of  Shakespeare,  Cooper,  "Robinson  Crusoe," 
"Tales  of  a  Grandfather"  (his  favorite  book),  " Gulli- 
ver," "Thinks  I  to  Myself"  (a  quaint  book  much  dis- 
cussed in  the  family),  "  Parley's  History  of  the  United 
States  "  (much  impressed  by  the  picture  of  the  Pilgrims), 
"Parley's  Magazine,"  and  "The  Religious  Herald" 


(which  he  read  all  his  life).  He  was  taught  to  read 
aloud.  In  the  evening  his  father  would  sit  reading  his 
papers  in  the  corner  by  the  fire,  and  at  regular  intervals 
of  about  twenty  minutes  put  on  a  pine  knot  so  as  to 
keep  up  a  steady  bright  light  (far  better,  by  the  way, 
than  the  lamps  and  candles  of  those  days).  As  his 
mother  and  sisters  sat  and  sewed,  John  would  read 
aloud  to  them  from  the  books  or  papers.  In  these  days 
his  ambition  was  to  be  a  Mohawk  chief,  marry  a  squaw, 
and  live  and  die  in  paint  and  feathers.  He  always  re- 
membered with  pleasure  the  exciting  bump,  bump,  bump 
of  the  apples  down  the  stairs  when  he  had  gone  up  in 
the  dark  to  fetch  a  waiterful  from  the  garret. 

In  these  years  the  boy  was  with  his  father  much,  as 
he  visited  the  neighbors,  went  to  court,  or  to  muster 
(his  father  being  major  of  the  militia).  He  always  re- 
membered the  fascination  of  a  window  in  a  little  log- 
house  at  a  turn  in  the  road  to  town  where  an  old 
woman  kept  gingercake  horses  and  other  animals.  It 
was  an  event  when  he  could  go  to  Grandmother  Simms's 
house.  At  home  hospitality  was  free.  Visitors  would 
come  from  over  the  ridge  with  big  wagons  and  bells  on 
their  horses.  The  lawyers  and  politicians  felt  at  home 
at  Major  Broadus's  house.  So  did  the  preachers,  who 
would  sometimes  make  little  John  stand  upon  the  table 
and  read  aloud  from  the  "Religious  Herald.'*  Major 
Broadus  at  this  time  was  a  member  of  the  Mt.  Poney 
Baptist  Church  (Culpeper  Court-House).  No  meeting- 
house was  near  by  and  "  Uncle"  Griffin  Reid  some- 
times preached  in  the  schoolhouse.  He  had  the  sing- 
song tone  and  was  fond  of  telling  his  experiences. 

In  1837,  when  Major  Broadus  removed  to  Edge  Hill, 
John,  now  ten  years  old,  entered  a  school  taught  by  his 
father  for  his  benefit.  This  school  was  a  mile  and  a 
half  from  Edge  Hill.  The  subscription  list  is  still  pre- 


served.  Eleven  patrons  signed  for  the  school  and  they 
furnished  forty  scholars.  John  liked  geography,  history, 
arithmetic,  and  grammar.  His  geographical  knowledge 
was  thrown  into  a  state  of  excitement  when  he  learned 
that  the  earth  turned  around  on  its  axis.  He  had  long 
arguments  on  the  subject  with  Henry,  his  colored  play- 
mate, who  doubted  that  piece  of  information,  since,  said 
Henry,  "If  dat's  so,  why  don'  de  water  spill  out  o'  de 
well  ?  "  In  1838  his  brother  J.  M.  assisted  his  father 
in  the  school.  There  were  several  grown  men  in  attend- 
ance, but  John  A.  stood  at  the  head  of  the  classes. 

He  early  became  a  great  mimic.  Mr.  J.  H.  Apperson 
says :  "  In  his  boyhood  days  he  would  go  to  hear  Barnett 
Grimsley  or  Cumberland  George  preach  a  sermon.  The 
next  day  he  could  repeat  it  so  nearly  and  imitate  their 
voices  so  closely  that,  if  he  were  out  of  sight,  you  would 
think  it  was  one  of  them  talking."  Dr.  Lewis,  of  Cul- 
peper,  tells  that  one  day  he  climbed  a  sycamore  tree 
and  aptly  took  a  text  about  Zaccheus.  J.  A.  B.  him- 
self remembered  it  as  the  proudest  day  of  his  life  when 
his  father  had  him  read  a  political  speech  before  a  large 
audience.  It  was  when  Major  Broadus  decided  to  re- 
turn to  the  legislature  in  1839  an<3  John  was  twelve 
years  old.  It  was  an  exciting  campaign.  On  this  oc- 
casion he  was  very  hoarse,  and  so  had  his  little  boy 
read  his  speech  over  till  he  became  familiar  with  it.  He 
was  put  up  on  the  platform  and  read  it  to  the  delight  of 

On  Saturdays  he  was  busy  about  the  farm.  He  loved 
to  fish  in  the  big  millpond  and  up  the  streams.  His  mother 
said  that  he  might  bathe,  but  mustn't  swim  ;  he  might 
hunt,  but  mustn't  shoot.  He  always  thought  this  a  great 
mistake.  But  he  fairly  grew  up  on  horseback.  One 
day  his  big  brother  was  riding  with  a  young  lady.  John 
was  riding  along  behind.  He  was  terribly  afraid  of  ladies 


himself,  and  could  never  say  a  word  to  them.  When 
they  stopped  to  water  the  horses  at  the  stream  John 
saw  his  opportunity  for  finding  out  how  the  thing  was 
done,  so  he  whipped  up  his  horse  and  listened  eagerly. 
His  brother  remarked  to  the  young  lady,  "  Your  horse 
seems  to  be  thirsty  to-day. "  John  was  much  surprised 
and  disappointed. 

One  of  the  pleasantest  recollections  of  Edge  Hill  to 
John  A.  Broadus  was  the  old  spring  under  the  trees. 
When  he  went  to  Clarke  County  to  teach  school  his  heart 
yearned  after  it  as  David's  did  for  the  well  near  Bethle- 
hem. He  wrote  some  lines  about  it  in  his  boyish  days : 

My  early  home,  my  early  home, 

Whene'er  I  think  of  thee, 
How  many  thronging  memories 

Come  sadly  over  me. 
I  see  again  the  old  white  house, 

Half  hidden  by  the  trees ; 
I  hear  the  carol  of  the  birds, 

The  humming  of  the  bees ; 
I  stand  beside  the  clear  old  spring, 

Where  oft  I  stood  of  yore, 
I  watch  them  boiling,  bubbling  up, 

Those  waters,  bright  and  pure. 

Once  he  had  fever,  and  it  was  the  usual  custom  in 
those  days  to  let  fever  patients  have  only  warm  drinks. 
He  never  forgot  his  intense  thirst  and  how  he  made  up 
his  mind  that  if  he  ever  got  well  he  would  go  to  the 
spring,  lie  down  on  his  face,  and  drink  for  half  an  hour. 

"  Uncle  Dick  "  was  the  wagoner.  He  was  specially 
warned  not  to  burn  rails  when  he  camped  out.  After 
he  had  been  off  on  a  two  days'  trip,  Major  Broadus 
asked  him  if  he  had  burned  any  rails.  He  said,  "  No, 
sir,  'ceptin'  pieces."  As  he  went  out  of  the  room  little 
John  overheard  him  say  to  himself,  "  I  made  'em  pieces 
and  den  I  burnt  'em."  John  was  not  allowed  to  go  to 


Fredericksburg  with  Uncle  Dick.  This  distant  town 
was  the  nearest  market,  and  the  trip  excited  great 
interest.  Uncle  Dick  lost  Dobbin,  the  wheel  horse,  on 
one  of  his  trips  to  Fredericksburg.  Coming  back  home 
one  day,  Dobbin  got  sick  and  died.  That  night  they 
camped  as  usual.  Next  morning  Michael,  the  horse  that 
had  pulled  by  Dobbin's  side,  was  gone.  Uncle  Dick  went 
back  to  where  Dobbin  was  left  and  there  he  found  Michael 
standing  over  Dobbin.  "You  see,"  said  Uncle  Dick, 
in  telling  about  it,  "  dey  done  worked  together  for  such 
a  long  time."  Doctor  Broadus  often  told  the  story  of  Mi- 
chael and  Dobbin  with  great  power  in  public  discourse. 

In  1839  Major  Broadus  quit  teaching  and  returned  to 
the  legislature.  John  was  nearly  thirteen  years  old. 
His  uncle,  Albert  G.  Simms,  was  teaching  a  boarding- 
school  at  his  old  home,  Bleak  Hill.  It  was  six  miles 
from  Edge  Hill,  but  John  would  walk  home  every  Friday 
evening.  Mr.  Simms  had  already  won  much  distinction 
as  a  teacher.  He  had  come  to  Culpeper  from  Madison 
in  1836  and  lived  here  till  1872.  He  was  a  noble  type 
of  the  teacher.  "  As  a  teacher  his  name  has  long  been 
known  throughout  the  South  and  West.  The  pupils 
of  his  high  school  adorn  every  department  of  learning 
and  every  walk  of  life.  Their  proficiency,  especially 
in  languages,  was  matter  of  note  amongst  the  professors 
of  the  University  of  Virginia."  Mr.  Simms  was  as- 
sisted awhile  by  Mr.  Albert  Tutt,  and  by  a  Scotch 
teacher,  Dr.  Robertson,  father  of  Judge  W.  J.  Robertson, 
and  a  relative  of  the  historian.  Mr.  Simms  made  his 
students  familiar  with  the  vocabulary  and  facts  of  the 
language,  parsing  every  word,  and  reading  widely  and 
rapidly.  But  he  did  not  teach  them  the  philosophy  of 
the  language,  so  that  when  Dr.  Gessner  Harrison,  at  the 
University  of  Virginia,  asked  why  a  certain  form  was 
in  the  subjunctive,  Mr.  Broadus  was  dumfounded.  He 


acquired  ease  in  Latin  first  and  the  philosophy  later. 
Doctor  Broadus  always  said  that  he  was  better  grounded 
in  Latin  than  Greek  because  of  the  thorough  drill  he  ob- 
tained at  Simms's  school  while  he  was  young.  He  did 
not  study  Greek  at  this  school.  He  read  Caesar,  Sallust, 
Virgil,  Livy,  Horace  ;  Mair's  "  Latin  Syntax  "  was  used. 
There  were  no  written  exercises  of  "  English  into  Latin." 
Murray's  English  Grammar  was  reviewed  ;  but  while  the 
Latin  was  on,  with  this  exception,  it  was  Latin  day  and 
night.  He  then  read  ahead  of  the  class.  Col.  C.  H. 
Wager,  of  Culpeper,  who  often  read  with  him,  says  that 
John  sometimes  proposed,  when  reading  Horace  :  "  Let's 
read  two  hundred  and  fifty  lines."  When  Col.  Wager 
entered  Washington  College  he  stood  at  the  head  of  a 
class  of  twenty-six  in  Latin,  but  he  said  he  "had  not 
done  so  at  Simms's  school,  for  John  A.  Broadus  was 
there."  John  was  best  in  Latin  and  mathematics,  but 
mathematics  was  his  favorite  study  always  at  school. 
Col.  Wager  said  he  was  considered  the  best  student  in 
school  by  everybody.  Some  of  the  boys  called  him 
"hustler."  One  day  several  of  the  boys  called  him 
over  and  began  subjecting  him  to  various  tests  in  Latin, 
such  as  skill  in  finding  words  in  the  dictionary,  parsing 
fast,  etc.  Each  time,  surprised  to  find  that  one  or 
another  could  excel  him  in  this  particular  test,  they 
looked  up  and  said  significantly,  "  'Tain't  that,"  and 
went  on  with  the  next  test.  John  was  quite  unaware 
what  they  were  after.  Col.  Wager's  solution  of  the 
problem  was  to  consider  his  schoolmate  a  prodigy. 

John  was  pale  and  thin  in  his  boyhood,  says  one  of 
his  schoolmates,  with  heavy  black  hair,  rather  long  and 
curly  behind  the  ears.  He  had  marvelous  eyes,  clear 
and  piercing.  He  had  a  quiet  laugh  and  a  winning  smile. 
His  manner  was  demure  and  vivacious.  With  the  boys 
he  had  a  high  sense  of  honor,  and  was  genial  and  free 


from  jealousy.  He  was  fond  then,  as  all  his  life,  of 
taking  long  walks.  He  was  popular  with  the  students. 
One  of  his  warm  friends  was  A.  P.  Hill,  afterwards  so 
distinguished  a  general  in  the  Confederate  army.  In 
after  life  they  always  called  each  other  Powell  and  John. 
John  was  prominent  in  the  Polemic  Debating  Society. 
He  especially  enjoyed  once  getting  the  best  of  "Top  " 
Hill,  brother  of  A,  P.,  a  crack  debater,  and  afterwards  a 
prominent  lawyer. 

In  1840  John  dropped  out  of  school  for  one  year  to  help 
on  the  farm.  Doctor  Broadus  always  felt  that  this  year's 
work  on  the  farm  was  a  great  blessing  to  him  in  pro- 
moting bodily  health  and  gaining  familiarity  with  prac- 
tical affairs.  There  was  no  overseer  that  winter,  and 
the  boy,  not  yet  fourteen,  had  charge  of  the  farm,  the 
sawmill,  and  everything  when  Major  Broadus  was  away, 
he  being  busy  with  politics  that  year.  He  had  Uncle 
Griffin's  help  in  managing  things.  Cutting  with  the  axe 
was  Uncle  Griffin's  pride,  and  he  taught  his  young  master 
to  cut  deeper  into  a  tree  in  a  given  time  than  any  other 
boy  of  his  age.  He  learned  to  split  rails,  to  plow,  to 
mow,  to  bind  wheat,  to  rake  hay,  to  pull  fodder,  and 
everything  else  necessary  on  the  farm.  He  worked  with 
the  men  as  well  as  managed  the  farm.  He  won  a  great 
reputation  for  guessing  the  yield  of  the  wheat  stacks. 
He  noticed  that  Uncle  Griffin,  with  the  hopefulness  of 
his  race,  generally  guessed  too  high,  while  his  fathci 
usually  guessed  too  low.  He  waited  till  both  had  spoken 
and  then  split  the  difference. 

Major  Broadus  had  to  write  pension  papers  for  the 
veterans  of  1812.  The  papers  had  to  be  absolutely  per- 
fect, without  erasure.  Even  in  his  early  days  John  wrote 
a  good  hand  and  was  often  set  to  copy  these  papers 
for  his  father.  One  day  he  lacked  five  lines  of  finishing 
and  got  to  thinking  what  he  would  do  when  he  was 


through.  Just  then  he  made  a  mistake  and  had  labori- 
ously to  copy  the  whole  paper  over.  It  was  a  hard 
lesson  in  patient  concentration.  On  the  long  winter 
nights  and  rainy  days  he  kept  up  his  Latin,  reading 
largely.  He  read  "  Tales  of  a  Grandfather  "  over  again 
and  also  read  the  second  series.  Others  of  his  old  fav- 
orites re-read  were  "Gulliver,"  "Robinson  Crusoe," 
and  "  Peter  Parley." 

He  went  back  to  school  in  1841,  and  remained  till  the 
fall  of  1843.  During  the  last  year  he  assisted  Mr.  Simms 
in  some  of  the  teaching.  One  day  John  came  home  from 
school  with  his  trunk.  Major  Broadus  feared  he  had 
been  expelled,  and  asked  for  an  explanation.  John 
solemnly  said:  "My  uncle  says  he  has  no  further  use 
for  me."  His  father  could  get  no  more  out  of  him,  and 
went  over  to  see  Mr.  Simms,  who  laughed  and  said  that 
John  had  learned  all  that  he  could  teach  him.  There 
was  always  a  tender  feeling  between  Mr.  Simms  and  his 
brilliant  pupil.  While  in  Europe,  in  1870,  Doctor  Broadus 
wrote  a  letter  in  Latin  to  his  uncle.  He  was  greatly 
pleased,  and  speaking  of  it  to  a  friend  said  :  "  And  I  an- 
swered him  in  the  same  tone,  sir." 

While  he  was  still  at  school,  a  protracted  meeting  was 
conducted  atMt.  Poney  Church  (Culpeper  Court-House), 
by  Rev.  Chas.  A.  Lewis,  of  Kentucky,  and  Rev.  Barnett 
Grimsley.  Mr.  Broadus  was  converted  at  this  revival. 
While  under  conviction  and  feeling  unable  to  take  hold 
of  the  promises,  a  friend  quoted  to  him  :  "  '  All  that  the 
Father  giveth  me  shall  come  to  me.  And  him  that  com- 
eth  to  me  I  will  in  no  wise  cast  out/  "  repeating,  "  '  in 
no  wise  cast  out.'  Can't  you  take  hold  of  that,  John  ?  " 
Somehow  the  light  dawned  under  this  verse  of  Scripture. 
James  G.  Field,  of  Gordonsville,  Va.,  writes  : 

I  knew  him  quite  intimately  from  1842  to  1847-  We  were  youths  of 
about  the  same  age,  he  going  to  school  to  his  uncle,  Albert  G.  Simms, 



and  I  living  in  the  store  of  Thomas  Hill  &  Son,  at  Culpeper.  Our 
fathers  had  been  opposing  candidates  for  the  legislature.  In  May, 
1843,  at  a  protracted  meeting,  conducted  mainly  by  Elder  Charles 
Lewis,  with  the  Mt.  Poney  Church,  at  Culpeper,  we  both  professed 
conversion,  joined  the  church  the  same  day,  and  were  together  bap- 
tized by  Rev.  Cumberland  George,  in  Mountain  Run,  just  above 
where  the  bridge  crosses  the  stream.  He  did  not  remain  in  the  Mt. 
Poney  Church  very  long,  but  took  his  letter  and  joined  New  Salem, 
the  church  where  his  father  and  family  had  their  membership.  .  . 
In  our  little  debating  societies  and  prayer  meetings  he  was  always 
clear  and  logical  in  his  statements,  and  devout  in  his  supplications. 

The  place  of  his  baptism  is  just  outside  the  town  of  Cul- 
peper. John  was  a  little  over  sixteen  when  he  joined  the 

Rev.  Cumberland  George,  who  baptized  him,  assisted 
the  pastor,  Rev.  John  Churchill  Gordon,  once  a  month, 
and  was  afterwards  pastor  of  the  church.  He  was  a  man 
of  fine  physique  and  made  a  splendid  appearance,  and 
had  a  voice  like  a  trumpet.  He  was  best  on  set  occa- 
sions. He  had  better  advantages,  but  less  native  genius, 
than  Rev.  Barnett  Grimsley,  the  pastor  at  New  Salem, 
Grimsley  was  a  man  of  great  gifts,  self-educated,  elo- 
quent, and  powerful.  He  had  a  famous  illustration  about 
climbing  the  Blue  Ridge  in  the  early  morning,  comparing  it 
with  progressive  revelation  (twilight,  stars,  moon,  dawn, 
sunrise).  Doctor  Broadus  delighted  to  expand  this  illus- 
tration as  he  had  heard  Grimsley  do  it.  He  had  great 
influence  on  Mr.  Broadus,  and  helped  him  decide  about 
preaching.  We  shall  see  much  of  him  during  the  Clarke 
County  period  of  his  life.  He  was,  all  in  all,  one  of  the 
most  notable  ministers  in  Virginia.  Doctor  Broadus 
heard  much  fine  speaking  in  his  early  life. 

The  New  Salem  Church  has  sent  out  several  ministers 
besides  Dr.  Bioadus,  viz,  Rev.  J.  M.  Farrar,  Rev.  A.  H. 
Lewis,  and  Rev.  R.  H.  Stone.  They  had  monthly 
preaching.  The  Shiloh  Association  has  had  a  noble  his- 


tory  and  many  able  preachers.  Some  of  them  preached 
very  long  sermons.  Rev.  Silas  Bruce  had  this  habit. 
One  day  J.  A.  B.  heard  him  preach  an  hour  when  he 
announced  that  he  was  now  ready  to  take  up  the  first 
part  of  his  discourse.  Thereupon  Rev.  H.  W.  Dodge  arose 
and  stepped  in  front  of  the  pulpit  and  said  earnestly : 
"My  dear  brother,  don't  you  think  this  glorious  theme 
had  better  be  continued  at  another  time  ? "  Mr. 
Bruce  collapsed,  but  resumed  that  night  and  preached  too 
long  again. 

In  a  meeting  a  few  months  after  John's  conversion,  the 
preacher  urged  all  Christians  at  the  close  of  the  service 
to  move  about  and  talk  to  the  unconverted.  John  looked 
anxiously  around  to  see  if  there  was  anybody  present 
he  could  talk  to  about  his  soul's  salvation.  He  had 
never  done  anything  of  the  kind  before.  Finally  he  saw 
a  man  not  very  bright,  named  Sandy.  He  thought  he 
might  venture  to  speak  to  him  at  any  rate ;  and  Sandy 
was  converted.  John  soon  went  away  to  teach  school. 
Whenever  he  came  back  Sandy  would  run  across  the 
street  to  meet  him  and  say:  "Howdy,  John  ?  thankee, 
John.  Howdy,  John  ?  thankee,  John."  Doctor  Broadus 
often  told  of  this  first  effort  of  his  at  soul-winning  and 
would  add :  "  And  if  ever  I  reach  the  heavenly  home 
and  walk  the  golden  streets,  I  know  the  first  person  to 
meet  me  will  be  Sandy,  coming  and  saying  again  : 
1  Howdy,  John  ?  thankee,  John.'  " 


And  gladly  wolde  he  lerne,  and  gladly  teche. 

— Chaucer. 

THE  question  now  confronted  young  Broadus  as  to 
what  he  should  do.  He  had  not  decided  upon  his 
life-work  and  he  wished  to  obtain  a  higher  education. 
But  not  having  means  he  determined  upon  teaching  as 
the  only  feasible  method  of  procuring  funds.  What  an 
army  of  Southern  boys  have  attained  a  high  career  from 
this  beginning !  Rev.  Barnett  Grimsley  was  pastor  of 
Bethel  Church,  in  Clarke  County.  He  seems  to  have 
interested  himself  in  securing  a  position  in  that  county 
for  his  young  friend.  Major  Broadus  was  in  Richmond, 
but  felt  much  concern  about  this  step  on  the  part  of  his 
son  : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Jan.  4, 1844- 

You  desire  to  know  what  I  think  of  your  engagement  in  Clarke. 
Of  course,  I  cannot  decide,  not  having  the  slightest  acquaintance 
with  the  people  you  are  to  be  among.  I  suppose  Mr.  Gnmsley 
advised  you  to  engage,  and  I  have  no  idea  he  would  have  done  so 
without  due  deliberation.  Your  own  judgment  concurs  too,  1  sup- 
pose, and  I  have  mentioned  it  to  Mr.  Burwell,1  who  speaks  well  or 
the  man  and  of  the  situation.  .  .  I  must,  of  course,  yield  to  all  these 
and  be  contented.  I  apprehend  that  your  mother  will  feel  that  you  are 
going  a  long  way  from  home— and  maybe  your  father  may  too;  but 
we  must  bear  that  if  you  can  convert  it  to  your  benefit,  which  J  hope 
you  will  be  able  to  do.  I  cannot  now  undertake  to  advise  you—! 
have  tried  to  do  so  before.  Remember  that "  religion  is  the  chief 
concern,"  that  honor  and  honesty  is  the  road  to  preferment,  and  that 
**  modesty  is  a  quality  that  highly  adorns  youth/1  The  anxiety  I 

*  Member  of  the  legislature  from  CUrke. 


feel  for  your  welfare  at  this  moment  (one  hundred  miles  from  you) 
overpowers  me — I  cannot  write. 

He  sent  his  watch  for  John  to  use  in  his  teaching. 
When  we  next  hear  about  the  young  teacher,  he  has 
been  in  Clarke  some  weeks.  He  went  over  the  moun- 
tains in  January  and  began  his  school  at  Rose  Hill, 
the  home  of  William  Sowers.  His  school  was  small 
and  he  soon  became  low-spirited.  His  sister  Martha 
writes  to  him  in  a  comforting  strain:  "Cheer  up  and 
lay  to  it  with  all  your  energy  and  you  have  nothing 
to  fear.  I  feel  proud  in  the  knowledge  of  the  fact  that 
you  are  capable  of  performing  the  duties  laid  upon 
you."  His  sister  Carry  urges  him  not  to  be  "too  sus- 
picious." "Try  to  act  in  such  a  manner  as  to  give 
people  no  just  excuse  for  saying  anything  rude  or  un- 
kind about  you,  and  then  just  take  it  for  granted  that  they 
do  not,  and  you  will  be  much  happier.  See  if  you  do 
not."  It  was  the  first  time  that  the  boy  of  seventeen  had 
gone  alone  among  strangers  and  his  naturally  shrinking 
nature  found  it  hard  to  become  adjusted  to  the  ways  of 
the  world.  Many  evidences  of  this  modesty  crop  out  dur- 
ing the  Clarke  County  period.  Enough  of  it  remained 
with  him  always  to  give  an  added  charm  to  his  charac- 
ter. He  had  been  little  in  the  society  of  ladies  save 
that  of  his  mother  and  sisters.  He  soon  discovered  that 
the  fair  sex  had  great  charms  for  him,  and  made  heavy 
encroachments  upon  the  time  he  had  set  for  reviewing  his 
Latin  and  French.  But  it  was  just  as  well,  for  the 
lighter  side  of  his  nature  needed  to  have  play.  He  felt 
a  relief  from  the  severe  tension  of  the  Simms  school. 
These  years  of  varied  interest  and  pleasure  in  Clarke 
formed  a  good  preparation  for  the  intense  exertions  soon 
to  come  in  the  university.  The  struggling  youth  made 
mistakes,  some  of  them  bitter  and  sad,  but  he  was  ever 
striving  to  do  the  duty  that  seemed  the  highest,  even 


when  others  may  have  thought  he  did  wrong.  The  rich- 
ness and  depth  of  his  future  life  even  now  gave  some 

The  systematic  habits  taught  him  by  his  father  were 
faithfully  kept  up.  He  made  minute  account  of  all  ex- 
penditures and  receipts,  manifesting  a  care  in  financial 
matters  that  became  a  part  of  his  character.  He  in  turn 
encouraged  his  children  to  keep  accounts  from  the  days 
of  their  smallest  pocket  money,  and  was  strenuous  in 
urging  scrupulous  exactness  upon  his  students.  He  kept 
a  list  of  all  his  correspondence  during  this  period,  and 
began  the  habit  of  preserving  all  letters  received,  a  cus- 
tom which  he  carefully  maintained  all  his  life. 

He  did  not  enjoy  teaching  at  first.  It  seemed  a  make- 
shift leading  to  something  else.  His  sisters  kept  in  close 
touch  with  everything  and  held  him  to  a  high  resolve 
about  his  work.  Often  during  these  years  they  showed 
their  tender  care  by  watching  over  his  wardrobe,  sending 
packages  by  Mr.  Grimsley,  and  fitting  him  out  when  he 
came  home.  In  one  letter  his  sister  expressed  the  hope 
that  the  new  coat  she  sends  will  fit.  Once  mention  is 
made  of  cloth  being  woven  at  home  for  a  suit  for  him. 
She  wrote  that  her  father  was  opposed  for  the  legislature 
this  spring  by  Mr,  J.  S.  Barbour,  but  that  he  was  not  un- 

EDMUND  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

May  7»  1844 :  My  majority  this  year  is  the  largest  I  ever  had, 
notwithstanding  I  am  against  a  congressman  and  member  of  the 
State  convention.  .  .  1  was  young  once  myself  and  passed  the  same 
ordeal  that  you  are  now  undergoing.  Had  this  not  been  so,  I  should 
not  know  how  to  enter  upon  the  trial.  I  had  much  diffidence  and 
many  defects  to  overcome,  and  of  course  much  difficulty  to  contend 
with.  First,  my  education  was  very  limited  and  1  was  rusty  even 
in  that.  I  went  too,  into  a  school  kept  the  year  before  by  a  first-tate 
teacher,  and  the  boys  were  considerably  advanced.  Of  course  1 
had  to  work  hard  to  go  ahead  of  them,  so  as  to  teach  them.  *  .  I 


succeeded  tolerably  well.  Your  situation  is  better.  You  were  in 
full  practice  and  ahead  of  your  scholars,  with  capacities  to  compass 
the  duties  of  the  station  and  having  other  advantages  which  I  had 
not  A  youth  ought  not  to  aim  at  too  much  at  once.  All  of  us 
must  rise  by  degrees,  and  although  a  laudable  ambition  to  become 
eminent  should  be  indulged,  yet  we  ought  not  to  expect  to  rise 
too  rapidly.  .  .  I  know  you  must  succeed,  because  you  have  the- 
elements,  but  you  must  plod  for  it  and  make  yourself.  This  all: 
have  to  do,  or  it  is  never  done ;  but  success  at  once  would  be  a^ 
miracle  and  would  destroy  every  claim  to  merit,  which  consists  in 
overcoming  difficulties.  But  enough  of  this— your  own  reflections 
have  taught  you  all.  I  saw  Mr.  Gnmsley  last  Saturday,  Sunday, 
and  Monday,  He  says  you  are  getting  on  very  well,  and  so  say 
others  I  have  seen.  Let  that  encourage  you  to  persevere  in  the  dis- 
charge of  your  duties.  I  should  make  the  exclusion  of  any  pupil  a 
last  resort.  Try  every  way  without  it.  It  hurts  the  feelings  of 
parents  and  rarely  reclaims  a  boy. 

Young  Broadus  made  a  visit  home  during  June,  1844. 
Before  returning  to  his  work  he  promised  his  sisters  to 
keep  a  diary  for  their  benefit.  This  was  continued  for 
two  years,  and  is  a  most  interesting  chronicle  of  his  life 
in  Clarke.  Many  extracts  will  be  taken  from  it : 

July  12 :  My  school  is  still  small  to-day.  I  have  but  ten  and  feel 
very  lonesome.  Mrs.  Sowers  made  some  Tyler  pudding  yesterday, 
according  to  the  directions  I  brought,  and  considered  it  very  good. 
There  is  a  piece  in  my  bucket  now,  and  I  will  try  it  presently.  .  . 
I  have  tried  the  pudding  and  it  is  excellent.  I  hope  Mrs.  Sowers 
will  make  more  of  it.  People  may  think  as  they  please  about  it, 
I  feel  somewhat  better  on  Friday  evening  than  on  Monday  morning, 
and  now,  although  fatigued  by  the  labors  of  the  day,  I  must  hasten 
to  the  house  and  plunge  into  the  mysteries  of  Sallust  and  Gil  Bias. 

Tuesday,  July  16:  I  went  to  Winchester  on  Saturday  and  as- 
sisted W.  A.  W-1  in  selecting  some  Sunday-school  books.  I  did  not 
obtain  the  Greek  book  which  Parson  Dodge2  directed  me  to  get.  It 
was  not  to  be  had  in  town.  I  shall  probably  see  him  next  week, 
and  if  he  does  not  insist  on  my  getting  the  book,  I  think  I  will  let 

i  Mr.  Whitescarver,  the  young  Sunday-school  superintendent  at  BerryviIIe, 
*  Rev.  H,  W.  Dodg:e,  the  pastor  at  BerryviIIe,  took  a  lively  interest  in  Mr. 
Broadus  and  tried  to  Induce  him  to  study  Greek. 


the  Greek  be.  I  believe  I  will  learn  more  by  reviewing  my  Latin 
and  French  than  by  commencing  Greek,  when  I  know  I  can  never 
finish  it.  Nevertheless,  if  the  parson  continues  to  urge  it,  I  shall 
make  the  attempt.  .  .  It  will  not  do  to  neglect  my  Latin  and  French 
altogether,  and  my  playtimes  are  devoted  to  algebra ;  besides  at  least 
one  evening  in  the  week  must  be  devoted  to  the  reading  of  the 
papers,  for  reasons  which  you  understand.  .  .  My  new  grammar 
class  will  probably  commence  to-morrow. 

On  Tuesday,  July  23,  he  records  at  length  a  most  in- 
teresting experience  about  a  boy  who  created  much  dis- 
turbance while  he  was  out  of  the  room  a  few  minutes. 
The  boy  took  correction  badly. 

There  I  sat  in  my  chair  with  my  feet  upon  the  stove ;  within  six 
feet  of  me  sat  a  boy  whom  I  knew  to  be  as  stubborn  as  an  ox  and 
who  had  just  failed  to  comply  with  a  positive  command  repeated  five 
or  six  times ;  and  all  around  were  the  scholars  looking  to  see  what  I 
would  do.  What  could  I  do?  I  didn't  want  to  whip  him,  and  be- 
sides I  could  not  conquer  him  by  that.  So  I  just  went  to  him  and 
taking  him  by  the  arm  led  him  to  my  chair  and  seated  him  in  it,  telling 
him  to  sit  still.  (You  may  see  I  did  not  know  what  to  do.)  He  got 
up  and  I  set  him  down  again  and  held  him  there.  He  struggled,  I 
held  him  ;  he  cursed  me  and  I  talked  to  him  mildly.  He  threatened 
to  tell  his  mother,  and  I  laughed  at  him.  He  threatened  to  "  blow 
rne  up  "  (send  me  away,  you  know),  and  I  told  him  to  "  blow  on." 
After  about  fifteen  minutes,  weary  of  being  held,  he  sat  still,  and  I 
let  him  go. 

Wednesday,  July  24:  1  am  stalled  in  my  algebra,1  and  when 
playtime  comes  I  will  try  at  my  sum  awhile,  and  if  I  fail  I  will  write 
'a  letter  to  somebody.  .  . 

Thursday,  July  25 :  Would  you  believe  it,  I  actually  perpetrated 
a  piece  of  poetry  yesterday  to  "  my  sister"  I 

There  is  a  little  manuscript  book  of  verses  written  by 
him  during  this  period.  One  on  silent  gratitude,  one  on 
Naomi,  one  to  an  infant  niece,  etc. 

He  took  much  interest  in  politics  (naturally)  and  was 

1  He  had  begun  it  by  himself. 


an  ardent  admirer  of  Clay,  the  presidential  candidate  of 
the  Whigs.  Doctor  Broadus  often  in  after  years  re- 
proached himself  for  not  having  gone  to  Washington  to 
hear  the  great  speeches  of  Clay  and  Webster  in  the 
senate.  In  July  he  made  a  trip  to  Loudoun  to  hear  a 
political  debate,  and  was  much  interested  in  seeing  "the 
far-famed  Loudoun  beauties."  The  debate  was  between 
"  Extra  Billy  "  Smith  and  Mr.  Janney. 

August  i :  I  was  besieged  on  yesterday  evening  by  Miss  Lucy * 
to  go  to  the  Bear's  Den  on  Saturday  instead  of  going  to  church.  I 

Monday,  August  5 :  Surely  I  am  the  most  fickle,  inconstant  mor- 
tal in  existence.  After  refusing  so  many  urgent,  pressing  invitations 
to  go  to  the  Bear's  Den,  and,  after  becoming  fully  convinced  that  I 
ought  not  to  go,  I  went. 

On  Tuesday,  August  6,  he  is  gratified  at  having  a 
Latin  scholar  at  last.  He  put  him  in  Adams'  Grammar, 
which  he  had  studied  at  Bleak  Hill  under  Albert  G. 
Simms.  The  boy  was  of  the  same  age  as  himself.  He 
had  suddenly  risen  above  an  old  field  school  teacher  and 
had  become  a  classical  professor.  On  Wednesday, 
August  14,  two  of  his  scholars  were  missing.  He 
visited  the  mother  of  the  two  girls  and  had  a  rather  stiff 
interview.  Some  other  young  school-teachers  may  ap- 
preciate the  colloquy:  "If  I  may  be  allowed  to  inquire 
the  reason,  ma'am,  are  you  dissatisfied  with  their  prog- 
ress ?  "  "  No,  sir,  not  with  that ;  but  I  don't  think  you 
keep  order  enough  in  the  school."  "Yes,  ma'am." 
"  I  don't  believe  my  girls  can  learn  well  where  the  schol- 
ars are  constantly  laughing  and  talking,  and  half  of  them 
doing  nothing."  "  I  know  very  well,  ma'am,  that  I  am 
not  a  good  teacher;  perfectly  aware  of  that."  "No, 
you  are  too  young ;  you  have  not  had  experience 

1  Dr.  Broadus's  old  students  will  be  interested  in  seeing  that  there  was  a  veritable 
"Miss  Lucy  "—not  bis  Miss  Lucy,  however. 


enough."  "I  know,  ma'am,  that  I  cannot  be  a  good 
teacher  without  experience,  and  I  cannot  get  experience 
without  teaching.  "  "Well,  I  know  that,  but  I  don't 
want  anybody  to  get  experience  by  teaching  my  chil- 
dren." "  Certainly,  ma'am,  that  is  correct,  exactly 
correct.  Do  you  intend  to  take  the  boys  away  too  ?  " 
"  No,  I  sha'n't  take  them  away." 

He  hopes  to  go  home  either  at  the  Association  or  in  the 
fall,  especially  if  either  of  his  sisters  gets  married.  He 
succeeded  in  going  home  August  27,  for  a  two  weeks' 
visit.  The  diary  for  August  closes  with  an  interesting 
parody  of  "Old  Dan  Tucker,"  called  "The  Ladies' 
Song,"  It  is  a  political  ditty  in  praise  of  Clay  and  the 
Whigs  against  Polk  and  the  Locofocos,  as  the  Democrats 
were  called.  It  is  eight  verses  long,  beginning  : 

We  gained  the  day  four  years  ago, 
For  all  the  ladies  help'd,  you  know. 
And  now  they  all  enlist  again 
And  go  for  Clay  with  might  and  main. 

EDMUND  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

August  13:  Last  Thursday  and  Friday  we  had  our  Whig  festi- 
val. Southall,  Lyons,  of  Richmond,  Janney,  etc.,  were  with  us  and 
addressed  us  Their  speeches  were  all  good,  Janney's  the  best,  and 
surpassed  anything  I  ever  heard.  Three  thousand  at  least  were 
present  and  were  highly  gratified.  .  .  The  Whig  spirit  is  high  here, 
and  we  expect  to  give  a  large  Clay  majority. 

John  was  troubled  with  the  question  whether  he  would 
be  wanted  again  by  his  patrons  after  the  year  was  out. 
His  father  wrote  him  : 

There  is  no  occasion,  I  suppose,  for  you  to  be  in  a  hurry.  You 
ought  to  have  more  than  you  are  getting,  but  it  may  not  be  neces- 
sary for  you  to  move  to  get  it.  Please  your  present  patrons  right  well 
and  they  will  give  more.  If  not,  they  will  give  you  such  a  recom- 
mendation as  will  get  you  a  better  situation.  I  flatter  myself  you 
are  doing  pretty  well  and  that  they  will  not  like  to  part  from  you- 


His  mind  had  already  been  turning  toward  medicine  as 
a  profession.  His  father  had  advised  him  not  to  go  into 
politics.  He  wrote  him  once  : 

I  have  not  meant  to  write  a  political  letter.  It  must  not  make  you 
a  politician  by  trade. 

His  father  was  unwilling  for  John  to  study  law,  for 
which  he  was  in  some  respects  well  adapted,  since  at 
that  time  in  Virginia  a  lawyer  could  not  keep  out  of  poli- 
tics ;  and  he  was  not  willing  for  his  son  to  go  through  a 
politician's  struggles  in  leading  a  sincere  Christian  life. 

WM.  MORTON  to  J.  A  B. : 

August  30 :  I  expect  to  commence  the  study  of  medicine  either  this 
fall  or  next.  I  hope  you  will  not  give  up  the  idea  of  studying  it,  for 
I  think  it  would  suit  you  better  than  anything  else.  .  .  I  am  glad  to 
hear  that  the  ladies  do  not  frighten  you  now.  I  always  told  you 
that  they  would  not. 

He  returned  to  Clarke  again  September  9  : 

Saturday,  September  14 :  I  will  undertake  to  describe  Miss  Lucy's 
quilt.  She  made  twenty-eight  stars,  twenty-five  of  them  go  into  the 
quilt  whole.  The  remaining  three  are  cut  through  bias  and  put  on 
the  ends  of  the  quilt,  three  halves  on  each  end,  to  make  it  out  square 
on  the  edge.  Then  there  are  ten  half  stars,  made  so,  where  they  are 
placed,  five  on  each  side  .  . .  besides  all  these  there  are  two  small 
pieces  necessary  to  fill  out  two  of  the  corners,  the  other  two  being 
filled  with  still  smaller  pieces  of  white.  . .  If  my  explanation  has 
only  mystified  what  you  understood  before,  I  can't  help  it. 

Wednesday,  September  18,  he  records  an  amusing  ex- 
perience. He  had  concluded  to  announce  French  in  his 
list  of  classes.  One  of  his  patrons  had  doubts  as  to  his 
ability  to  teach  it  and  asked  him  to  read  some  French  to 
him.  Although  the  patron  knew  no  French  at  all,  he 
looked  gravely  at  the  book  as  he  read,  and  seemed  satis- 
fied. His  wife,  however,  came  in  and  was  not  so  easily 
pleased.  She  likewise  wished  to  hear  some  French  read. 


Mr.  Broadus  read  some  of  "Gil  Bias/'  not  transla- 
ting. The  good  lady  said  that  she  could  not  understand 
him  as  well  as  she  did  the  French  priest  who  was  at  the 
house  last  winter.  The  husband  then  explained  that  the 
priest  mixed  English  and  French  together  as  he  read,  pro- 
•  nouncing  and  then  translating  each  phrase,  so  that  she 
understood  exactly  half  of  what  he  said. 

He  is  much  exercised  as  to  whether  he  shall  stay  at 
Rose  Hill  another  year.  Scholars  are  few  and  things  are 
slow.  Capt.  D.  W.  Sowers  wants  him  at  Woodley,  three 
miles  from  Berryville,  where  Mr.  W.  A.  Whitescarver 
has  been  teaching.  The  diary  gives  evidence  of  his  ac- 
tivity in  various  directions.  He  begins  to  enter  with  spirit 
into  the  social  life  of  the  county.  He  teaches  a  Bible 
class  in  the  Berryville  Sunday-school,  of  which  Mr. 
Whitescarver  is  the  superintendent.  He  belongs  to  the 
muster  roll  of  the  militia,  as  his  father  did  in  Culpeper. 
He  attends  the  geography  class  in  Berryville  taught  on 
the  Lancastrian  system  in  eighteen  lessons.  This  method 
consisted  in  singing  geographical  rhymes  with  a  swing 
and  dash,  and  created  some  furore  at  the  time.  The 
middle  of  December  closes  his  engagement  at  Rose  Hill 
and  he  makes  a  visit  to  Culpeper. 

In  the  middle  of  January,  1845,  our  young  schoolmas- 
ter begins  at  Woodley,  the  home  of  Captain  D.  W.  Sowers, 
living  alternately  there  and  with  Dr.  Lewellyn  Kerfoot.1 
He  is  much  grieved  at  the  loss  of  the  companionship  of 
his  friend,  Whitescarver.  He  tries  hard  to  please  his 
new  patrons,  who  had  been  fond  of  the  previous  teach- 
ers. He  goes  regularly  to  the  singing-school  at  Berry- 
ville under  Mr.  Wells  and  takes  lively  interest  in  it 

People  thought  the  do-re~mi  system  of  singing  a  won* 
derful  thing.  On  Thursday,  27th  of  February,  1845,  he 
says : 

i  Father  of  Dr.  F.  H  Kerfoot. 


Last  night  I  commenced  my  studies  after  having  spent  nearly  two 
weeks  in  complete  idleness,  much  in  the  society  of  the  ladies. 

On  April  6,  1845,  he  is  made  superintendent  of  the 
Sunday-school  at  Berryville.  He  speaks  of  himself  as  a 
"  very  imperfect  one  too.  '  Still,  he  is  "  the  only  chance 
and  he  ought  to  do  the  best  he  can."  He  makes  a  short 
address  to  the  teachers  from  Luke  9  :  62,  "No  man,' 
having  put  his  hand  to  the  plough,"  etc.  Finding  it 
hard  to  get  teachers  for  the  Sunday-school  among  the 
church-members,  he  persuaded  three  young  ladies,  who 
were  distant  relatives  of  his,  and  a  young  man,  to  take 
classes,  though  they  were  not  Christians.  In  a  few 
months  they  were  all  converted.  One  of  the  ladies, 
Miss  Laura  Reynolds,  married  his  friend,  R.  B.  McCor- 
mick,  and  became  the  mother  of  H.  P.  McCormick,  the 
missionary.  The  school  at  Woodley  is  prosperous  and 
he  is  happy.  The  people  in  Clarke  at  that  time  were 
generally  well-to-do. 

J.  A.  B.  to  EDMUND  BROADUS : 

WOODLEY  SEMINARY,  April  n,  1845:  Your  letter  of  the  tf 
inst,  which  I  received  last  evening,  was,  as  you  supposed  it  would 
be,  unexpected,  but  I  was  only  so  much  the  more  gratified  at  its  re- 
ception. The  reflection  that  I  have  now  arrived  at  an  age  when  it 
is  necessary  that  I  commence  striving  to  be  what  I  wish  to  be,  a 
man  possessed  of  those  solid  qualities  which  alone  can  gain  the 
esteem  of  the  intelligent  and  virtuous,  has  often  troubled  me.  Some- 
times, when  my  thoughts  are  flowing  in  that  channel,  I  feel  that 
nature  has  given  me  the  ability  to  be  something,  and  I  am  deter- 
mined that  I  will  strive  to  rise.  Again  1  am  discouraged  by  the 
seemingly  insurmountable  difficulties  that  are  before  me.  I  have 
been  troubled  too,  by  the  fact  that  I  cannot  decide  what  to  make  of 
myself.  Irresolute  and  undecided,  then,  as  I  was,  your  advice  was 
apropos.  I  am  a  schoolmaster  now,  and  'tis  best  that  I  confine  to 
my  present  occupation  all  my  ambitions  to  rise.  Here  again  I  am 
discouraged,  for,  strive  as  I  will,  the  progress  of  my  scholars  is  not 
sufficient  to  satisfy  what  I  conceive  may  reasonably  be  the  expec- 
tations of  their  parents.  Do  not  understand  me  as  saying  that  I 


know  them  to  be  dissatisfied.  I  know  nothing  about  it,  but  I  am 
not  satisfied  myself,  and  I  am  constantly  fearing  that  they  are 
not.  It  seems  to  me  that  my  future  prosperity  as  a  teacher  de- 
pends pretty  much  on  my  success  this  year.  If  I  fail  now  I  don't 
know  that  I  shall  ever  again  obtain  employment  as  a  teacher.  'Tis 
but  natural  that  I  should  bend  all  my  energies  to  my  duties  as  a 
teacher,  still  I  cannot  see  what  more  I  can  well  do  than  I  am  doing 
already.  I  am  in  school  regularly  during  the  appointed  hours,  I  try 
to  get  the  scholars  along,  I  do  all  that  I  can  to  get  more  scholars, 
and  in  every  way  that  I  can  think  of  endeavor  to  promote  the  inter- 
ests of  my  patrons.  Can  I  do  more  than  this?  You  advise  me  to 
give  up  other  studies  for  the  present  and  devote  myself  to  my  calling. 
Here  I  do  not  understand  what  you  mean,  and  it  is  because  I  wish 
to  explain  that  I  write  so  soon.  If  it  is  necessary  that  I  give  up  my 
studying  I  ought  to  do  it  at  once.  Still  I  cannot  understand  how  it 
would  benefit  my  scholars  or  my  patrons.  I  spend  as  many  hours 
in  school  as  it  is  customary  here  to  do  (six),  and  I  intend,  if  my  pa- 
trons will  allow  it,  to  take  an  hour  more  before  long.  Now  when  1 
am  out  of  school  I  may  as  well  do  something  as  nothing.  I  have 
been  accustomed  for  years  to  reading  a  great  deal.  If  I  do  not  read 
something  solid  and  profitable  I  cannot  help  reading  things  that  are 
light  and  useless.  Will  not  my  patrons,  then,  if  they  are  sensible 
people,  think  more  of  me,  both  as  a  man  and  teacher,  if  they  see  me 
endeavoring  to  gain  useful  knowledge,  than  if  I  read  only  light  stuff 
or  even  nothing  at  all  ?  But  perhaps  you  mean  that  I  ought  to  give 
up  Greek.  I  undertook  it  more  on  account  of  Dodge's  frequent  and 
persistent  persuasions  than  anything  else.  But  although  I  have 
made  but  little  progress,  I  have  become  interested  in  it,  and  I  cannot 
see  why  I  may  not  as  well  devote  to  that  as  anything  else  these 
leisure  hours  which  it  is  not  in  my  power  to  spend  for  the  interest 
of  my  employers.  Do  not  understand  me  now  as  being  unwilling  to 
follow  your  advice.  I  only  ask  you  to  explain,  to  tell  me  what  I 
ought  to  do,  and  it  shall  be  done.  Please  write  to  me  on  this  subject 
as  soon  as  you  can. 

Major  Broadus's  reply  must  have  been  satisfactory,  for 
the  diary  says  : 

Friday,  May  2,  1845  •'  Recommenced  my  studies  last  evening*    I 
want  to  try  to  stick  to  it,  but  I  don't  know  whether  I  can. 

On  May  28,  1845,  Major  Broadus  writes  with  much  un- 


certainty  as  to  the  wisdom  of  the  Augusta  Convention,1 
for  fear  it  may  not  turn  out  well,  but  hoping  for  the  best. 
During  all  this  period  Mr.  Broadus  was  remarkably  atten- 
tive to  his  church  duties,  including  prayer  meeting  and 

Thursday,  June  26 :  Wrote  to  W.  A.  W.  last  evening.  Spent  the 
evening  and  night  at  home,  studying  like  a  clever  fellow.  During 
this  week,  Greek,  Latin,  French,  music,  vocal  and  instrumental, 
have  all  gone  ahead  in  fine  style.  **  Too  many  irons  in  the  fire," 
say  you  ?  Not  if  I  could  stick  to  it ;  but  next  week  I  shall  go  to  the 
singing  school  again  and  get  my  head  full  of  the  girls,  and  then 
good-bye  Greek. 

Previous  to  this  time  postage  had  been  twenty-five  cents 
a  letter  and  it  was  paid  by  the  recipient.  Now  it  was 
reduced  to  five.  There  were  still  no  envelopes.  Dr. 
Broadus  often  delighted  in  the  postal  system  as  one  of 
the  great  triumphs  of  modern  civilization.  He  never 
mailed  a  letter  that  was  to  go  half-way  around  the  world 
for  five  cents  without  being  stirred. 

He  thinks  of  trying  to  go  to  Columbian  College  with 
Whitescarver  and  John  Pickett,  and  wants  to  clear  one 
hundred  dollars  next  year  from  his  teaching. 

Wednesday,  Oct.  15,  1845  •  Spent  last  evening  and  night  at  home 
in  hard  study.  When  I  returned  from  Culpeper,  I  determined  to  try 
to  devote  my  leisure  hours  more  closely  to  my  studies.  Thus  far  I 
have  been  doing  pretty  well  and  I  flatter  myself,  nay  I  have  reason 
to  believe,  that  if  I  can  persevere  in  much  application,  I  may  by  the 
close  of  next  year  read  Greek  with  ease.  Already  difficulties  are 
removed  which  two  weeks  since  seemed  insurmountable.  I  have 
made  arrangements  to  obtain  a  Greek  Testament  and  hope  that,  ere 
long,  I  shall  be  reading  the  New  Testament  in  the  original  tongue. 

In  November  his  father  returned  to  the  legislature  and 
soon  arrangements  were  made  for  John  to  make  his  father 
a  visit  in  Richmond.  His  father  in  two  long  letters  gave 

1  Organization  of  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention. 


him  minute  directions  about  traveling  by  rail.  The  jour- 
ney was  safely  accomplished  and  John  greatly  enjoyed 
this  first  glimpse  of  the  world. 

Thursday,  Jan.  29,  1846  :  I  commenced  last  night  reading  a  work 
on  anatomy.  I  want  you  not  to  mention  that  I  am  studying  medi- 
cine, as  I  don't  wish  to  have  it  tattled  about  at  all. 

Thursday,  Feb.  3,  1846:  Spent  last  night  at  home,  examining 
the  skulls.  The  doctor1  is  very  kind  and  accommodating,  sits  with 
me  every  night,  and  shows  me  every  os  and  process  and  foramen 
that  I  can't  find  myself. 

Monday,  March  23,  1846 :  Finished  on  Saturday  night  the  first 
volume  of  my  anatomy. 

J.  A.  B.  to  T.  W.  LEWIS : 

WOODLEY  SEMINARY,  Feb.  26,  1846:  And  you  have  at  last 
made  the  discovery  that  "  There  is  no  place  like  home,"  have  you? 
That,  my  dear  sir,  is  what  every  one  thinks  when  first  he  leaves 
home  and  friends  to  "  go  into  a  strange  land."  Such,  at  least,  were 
my  feelings ;  and,  indeed,  for  months  I  thought  I  could  never  be 
happy  anywhere  else.  Such  notions,  however,  have  long  since 
passed  away,  and  one  place  is  to  me  now  almost  as  another.  1  still 
love  my  home  and  kindred  as  devotedly,  I  am  persuaded,  as  I  ever 
did,  but  I  feel  not  now  that  sense  of  utter  loneliness  which  once  I 
felt  when  away  from  them.  Strange  that  we  can  so  soon  become 
accustomed  to  different  situations,  that  we  may  so  easily  bend  our- 
selves to  suit  our  circumstances.  But,  though  strange,  it  is  a  bless- 
ing ;  for,  were  I  doomed  to  a  continuation  of  such  feelings  as  I  had 
soon  after  I  left  home,  my  lot  would  be  miserable  indeed. 

You  inquire  if  I  never  think  about  preaching.  I  answer,  I  do ; 
but  I  always  come  to  the  conclusion  that  preaching  is  not  my  office. 
Not  because  I  consider  a  call  to  the  ministry  to  consist  in  some  supei- 
natural2  intimation,  for  I  believe  that  to  be  very  little  more  than  an 
earnest  and  ardent  desire  for  the  work,  but  because  I  do  not  think  1 
am  qualified  for  it.  I  do  not  say  this  because  I  wish  you  to  say  the 
contrary,  but  because  I  am  endeavoring  to  tell  you  candidly  my 
real  thoughts.  I  know  that  my  mental  capabilities  are,  in  some  re- 
spects, not  inconsiderable,  but  I  was  not  ucut  out"  for  a  public 
speaker ;  1  have  not  that  grace  of  manner  and  appearance,  that 

*  Dr.  Kerfoot 

2  But  when  he  did  feel  called  to  preach,  he  thought  differently  and  believed  In  *  call 
of  the  Holy  Spirit. 


pleasant  voice,  that  easy  flow  of  words,  which  are  indispensably 
necessary  in  him  who  would  make  impressions  on  his  fellows  by 
public  speaking. 

Such  were  some  of  the  reasons  which  induced  me  some  months 
since  to  give  up  well-nigh  all  idea  of  becoming  a  preacher.  1  am 
now,  in  conformity  with  the  wishes  of  my  relatives,  and  particularly 
my  father,  devoting  some  of  my  leisure  hours  to  the  study  of  the 
"  healing  art."  The  gentleman  with  whom  I  board  was  formerly  a 
practising  physician  ;  he  is  an  intelligent  and  accommodating  man, 
and  has  a  supply  of  "  books  and  bones,"  so  that  I  get  along  with 
anatomy  without  much  difficulty. 

You  speak  of  my  being  so  much  disposed  to  be  that  butterfly 
thing  called  a  "  ladies'  man."  I  lament  that  I  so  well  deserve  the 
name.  Ofttimes  I  determine  and  redetermine,  resolve  and  reresolve 
that  I  will  not  waste  so  much  time  m  fluttering  around  the  fair,  but 
it  really  seems  that  I  cannot  help  it.  I  feel,  and  bitterly,  that  "  much 
of  my  time  has  run  to  waste,"  but  I  cannot  husband  that  which  is 
now  passing  by,  as  I  would,  as  I  should. 

You  have  twenty  scholars ;  you  outnumber  me,  then,  by  four,  for 
I  have  but  sixteen.  I  may  have  more,  and  may  have  less ;  'tis  a 
matter  of  no  consequence  to  me. 

I  never  saw  Brown's  Grammar;  what  are  its  characteristics? 
what  is  there  in  his  plan  that  is  new  ?  I  am  using  now  Murray, 
Kirkham,  and  Smith,  all  three,  and  I  can  hardly  say  which  I  con- 
sider the  best. 

The  diary  closes  May  n,  1846.  It  is  a  most  interest- 
ing narrative  of  the  passing  of  the  boy  into  the  man. 
His  letter-book  makes  mention  of  two  letters  to  the  Win- 
chester "Republican  "  and  one  to  the  Winchester  "  Vir- 
ginian/' during  the  last  months  of  his  stay  in  Clarke. 
Thus  early  did  his  career  as  a  newspaper  writer  begin. 

Mr.  Broadus,  like  his  father,  took  the  keenest  interest 
in  the  society  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance,  an  organi- 
zation which  did  much  good.  In  May,  1846,  he  was 
asked  to  deliver  an  address  before  the  Berryville  Total 
Abstinence  Society.  He  wrote  the  speech  out  in  full. 
On  the  back  of  the  manuscript  Doctor  Broadus  had 
written,  "  This  affair  (my  first  effort)  was  prepared  in 


the  summer  of  1846  by  appointment  of  the  Berryville 
T.  A.  Soc'y  ;  but  the  day  was  rainy,  and  the  speech 
could  not  be  delivered.  Pity  !  "  The  address  shows 
that  the  youth  of  nineteen  years  had  the  power  to  seize 
strong  arguments  and  put  them  into  striking  speech. 
For  the  comfort  of  other  young  orators  it  is  worth  noting 
that  there  is  a  touch  of  the  sophomore  (to  whom  Doctor 
Broadus  so  often  paid  his  respects)  in  the  peroration  : 

Be  excelsior  our  motto,  our  watchword  onward,  and  let  us  never 
cease  from  our  labors  until  the  power  of  intemperance  shall  be  tram- 
pled in  the  dust  and  the  proud  flag  of  total  abstinence  shall  wave 
over  every  hilltop  of  our  native  land. 

EDMUND  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

CULPEPER,  June  10,  1846 :  In  your  last  you  mentioned  that  you 
had  promised  to  make  a  temperance  speech.  I  hope  that  you  did  so 
and  that  you  had  "  liberty  and  light "  or  rather  "  light  and  liberty." 
But  if  you  failed,  what  of  it?  Would  you  be  the  first  who  failed  in 
the  first  effort?  Speaking  does  not  come  naturally;  although  the 
organs  are  given,  their  use  must  be  taught.  Children  learn  to  talk  by 
tuition,  or  the  organs  would  lie  dormant.  Public  speaking  requires 
practice  after  vou  know  how  to  speak ;  there  is  a  certain  degree  of 
confidence  necessary  to  enable  a  speaker,  young  or  old,  to  do  justice 
to  his  talents  or  his  knowledge  of  the  subject ;  practice  alone  can 
give  that  in  the  right  way  or  in  the  right  degree.  A  man  may  be 
bold  and  dauntless  and  care  but  little  what  he  says  or  how  he  says 
it.  That  is  not  the  confidence  I  like  to  see.  In  the  first  place,  a 
speaker  ought  to  know  something,  or  rather,  a  good  deal,  of  the  sub- 
ject on  which  he  speaks,  and  then  if  he  is  master  of  language  enough 
to  express  his  ideas,  without  an  effort  for  words,  he  may  confidently 
expect  success,  and  may  be  easy.  It  is  not  always  expedient  to  say 
in  a  public  speech  all  that  is  true — a  proper  selection  should  be  made 
so  as  to  produce  effect,  and  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  anything 
which  would  offend  or  shock  the  audience.  Of  course  all  that  is 
said  should  be  true,  whether  there  is  to  be  a  reply  or  not  It  gives 
the  audience  confidence  in  the  speaker  without  which  but  little  good 
can  ever  be  effected.  But  why  should  I  be  telling  you  all  this — your 
own  good  sense,  observation,  and  Mr.  Dodge  can  supply  you.  Let 
us  hear  from  your  effort. 

Your  mother's  health  is  not  good,  and  mine  is  not  as  good  as 


common ;  the  rest  are  well.  There  is  no  neighborhood  news,  or 
very  little.  Carry  gives  you  the  gossip  of  our  community.  .  . 

The  great  Baptist  anniversaries  are  going  on,  you  know.  Well, 
they  mean  well  and  are  right  in  their  objects.  Is  there  not  danger 
that  they  go  too  fast  in  some  things?  You  have  no  idea  of  the 
amount  of  zeal  manifested  in  the  cities  on  the  subject  of  foreign  mis- 
sions. This  is  all  right,  but  1  fear  still  the  political  effect  of  the 
division  between  North  and  South.  Everything  which  tends  to 
estrange  and  sever  the  feelings  of  the  people  of  different  sections  of 
the  Union,  weakens  so  far  the  Union  itself,  and  renders  more  prob- 
able what  is  already  dreaded  by  every  patriot.  I  have  often  heard 
it  advocated  on  the  ground  that  it  would  stimulate  both  sides  and 
more  would  be  done  in  the  cause  of  missions.  That  may  be  so ; 
but  ought  we  to  endanger  our  existence  as  a  republican  government 
and  lose  the  guaranty  of  religious  liberty,  or  liberty  of  conscience,  in 
the  effort  to  increase  the  stimulus  to  work  even  in  a  good  cause?  Do 
not  think  me  unfriendly  to  missions — it  is  not  so ;  but "  the  world 
was  not  made  in  a  day."  On  the  contrary,  the  great  Artisan  em- 
ployed six  distinct  days  to  build  a  world  which  he  could  have 
spoken  into  existence  in  all  its  perfection  as  easily  as  he  said,  "  Let 
there  be  light,  and  there  was  light."  We  are  to  be  the  instruments 
of  carrying  forward  the  designs  of  the  Almighty  in  evangelizing  the 
world  ;  but  we  ought  to  be  satisfied  to  feel  our  way,  and  not  assume 
that  that  is  the  great  good,  and  sacrifice  every  other  blessing  to  that 

Your  coat  and  vest  are  made.  Inform  us  directly  whether  we 
shall  have  them  carried  to  you  by  Brother  Grimsley,  or  whether 
you  will  wait  till  you  come  over  to  see  us  at  harvest  We  had  only 
one  day  meeting  on  the  fifth  Sunday,  and  then  only  our  pastor,  on 
account  of  the  rainy  weather ;  so  you  would  have  been  disappointed 
had  you  come. 

In  June,  1846,  Major  Broadus  corresponded  with  Hon. 
J.  C.  Cabell  about  obtaining  a  position  at  the  University 
of  Virginia  in  order  to  give  John  a  university  education. 
This  correspondence  led  to  the  offer  of  the  new  office  of 
steward  for  State  students.  The  faculty,  through  Mr. 
Cabell,  urged  his  acceptance  of  the  place.  So  Major 
Broadus  took  up  his  abode  on  Monroe  Hill  in  the  fall. 
He  made  his  arrangements  to  move  September  i.  He 


urged  John  to  be  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  ses- 
sion if  his  kind  friends  in  Clarke  would  let  him  off. 
Preaching  was  still  in  John's  mind.  The  study  of 
"  bones  "  did  not  satisfy  him.  He  was  working  his  way 
toward  the  light  and  sought  the  help  of  his  intimate 
friends.  Still  he  pushed  the  question  of  preaching  away 
from  him.  He  was  going  to  be  a  physician,  and  he  had 
the  chance  of  going  to  the  University  of  Virginia.  That 
was  the  alluring  prospect  now  before  him.  But  God  laid 
his  hand  on  him.  Writing  to  his  father,  August  n,  he 
says : 

Last  evening  I  reached  home  from  Upperville,  where  I  had  been 
since  Saturday,  attending  the  meeting  of  the  Salem  Union  Associa- 
tion. What  occurred  there  I  can  tell  you  when  we  meet. 

What  John  had  to  tell  his  father  we  know  from  his  own 
words  in  his  memorial  of  A.  M.  Poindexter : l 

In  August,  1846,  while  pursuing  the  agency  for  Columbia  College, 
he  [Poindexter]  attended  the  Potomac  Association — or  was  it  not 
then  called  Salem  Union  ?— at  Upperville,  Fauquier  County,  and 
preached  two  sermons,  which  are  vividly  remembered  by  at  least  one 
person  who  was  present,  and  which  may  be  referred  to  as  illustrating 
the  usefulness  of  many  kinds  which  Dr.  Poindexter  always  con- 
nected with  agency  work.  A  youth  who  had  been  teaching  school 
in  that  vicinity  two  or  three  years,  had  just  been  released  m  order 
to  enter  the  University  of  Virginia  and  study  medicine.  For  three 
years  a  professed  Christian,  he  had  often  thought  about  the  question 
of  becoming  a  minister,  but  considered  himself  to  have  finally  decided 
that  it  was  not  his  duty.  On  Sunday  Dr.  Poindexter  preached  upon 
"  Glorying  in  the  Cross."  The  young  man  had  often  heard  with 
enthusiasm  and  delight  such  truly  eloquent  preachers  as  Barnett 
Grimsley,  Cumberland  George,  and  Henry  W.  Dodge;  but  he 
thought,  that  Sunday  at  Upperville,  that  he  had  never  before  imag- 
ined what  preaching  might  be,  never  before  conceived  the  half  of 
the  grandeur  and  glory  that  gathers  sublime  around  the  Cross  of 
Christ.  .  . 

The  next  morning  Doctor  Poindexter  was  requested  to  preach  at 

1  "Sermons  and  Addresses,"  pp.  397-399 


eleven  o'clock  in  the  church,  the  Association  adjourning  to  hear  him. 
The  sermon  was  one  which  he  often  preached  in  the  journey  ings  of 
later  years  on  the  Parable  of  the  Talents.  Impressing  the  duty  of 
Christian  beneficence,  he  adopted  a  plan  which  will  be  remembered 
by  many  as  characteristic.  He  mastered  the  complete  sympathy  of 
many  hearers,  the  prosperous  farmers  of  that  beautiful  region,  by  ar- 
guing long  and  earnestly  that  it  was  right  for  the  Christian  to  gather 
property,  and  right  to  provide  well  for  his  family.  Excellent  brethren 
were  charmed.  No  preacher  had  ever  before  so  fully  justified  the 
toil  and  sacrifices  by  which  they  had  been  steadily  growing  rich. 
They  looked  across  the  house  into  the  faces  of  delighted  friends. 
They  smiled  and  winked  and  nodded  to  each  other  in  every  direction. 
But  when  the  preacher  had  gained  their  full  sympathy,  the  sudden 
appeal  he  made  to  consecrate  their  wealth  to  the  highest  ends  of  ex- 
istence, to  the  good  of  mankind  and  the  glory  of  Christ,  was  a  tor- 
rent, a  tornado  that  swept  everything  before  it.  Presently  he  spoke 
of  consecrating  one's  mental  gifts  and  possible  attainments  to  the 
work  of  the  ministry.  He  seemed  to  clear  up  all  difficulties  pertain- 
ing to  the  subject ;  he  swept  away  all  the  disguise  of  self-delusion, 
all  the  excuses  of  fancied  humility ;  he  held  up  the  thought  that  the 
greatest  sacrifices  and  toils  possible  to  a  minister's  lifetime  would  be 
a  hundred-fold  repaid  if  he  should  be  the  instrument  of  saving  one 
soul.  Doubtless  the  sermon  had  many  more  important  results  which 
have  not  fallen  in  the  way  of  being  recorded ;  but  when  intermission 
came,  the  young  man  who  has  been  mentioned  sought  out  his  pastor, 
and  with  a  choking  voice  said :  "  Brother  Grimsley,  the  question  is 
decided ;  I  must  try  to  be  a  preacher."  For  the  decision  of  that  hour 
he  is  directly  indebted  under  God  to  A.  M.  Poindexter ;  and  amid  a 
thousand  imperfections  and  shortcomings,  that  work  of  the  ministry 
has  been  the  joy  of  his  life. 

He  knew  now  what  a  call  to  preach  was.  So  he  left 
Clarke  County  the  last  of  August  with  a  throbbing  heart- 
He  was  deeply  grateful  to  his  friends  there,  especially  to 
Doctor  and  Mrs.  Kerfoot,  for  their  many  kindnesses  to 
him.  He  rode  his  father's  riding-horse,  Dick,  over  the 
mountains  to  Culpeper  with  many  thoughts  in  his  heart. 
The  glorious  Blue  Ridge  had  a  new  meaning  to  him  now. 
The  whole  world  had  opened  out  to  him  since  he  had  first 
crossed  the  mountains  into  Clarke.  He  was  reaching  out 


after  it.  He  had  gone  away  two  years  before  with  fear 
and  trembling ;  he  came  back  with  solemn  and  mighty 
purposes.  A  few  days  here  in  the  old  scenes  and  he  was 
off  to  the  university  to  the  larger  life  to  which  God  was 
calling  him. 


Whose  high  endeavors  are  an  inward  light 
That  makes  the  path  before  him  always  bright ; 
Who  with  a  natural  instinct  to  discern 
What  knowledge  can  perform,  is  diligent  to  learn. 

— Wordsworth 

THE  University  of  Virginia  offered  the  most  thorough 
education  to  be  had  in  this  country  in  the  forties. 
The  wisdom  of  Thomas  Jefferson's  educational  ideal  has 
long  been  justified,  if  its  full  recognition  was  slow  of  foot. 
Nearly  every  essential  idea  that  was  incorporated  by  Mr. 
Jefferson  in  the  University  of  Virginia  for  the  first  time 
in  America  has  since  been  adopted  and  enlarged  upon  by 
older  and  wealthier  universities.  Virginia's  primacy  in 
the  highest  educational  standards  is  as  true  as  her  early 
leadership  in  statecraft.  Prof.  Herbert  B.  Adams,  associ- 
ate professor  of  history  in  Johns  Hopkins  University,  has 
furnished  a  fascinating  account  of  the  inception,  growth, 
and  influence  of  the  University  of  Virginia.1  This  able 
work  is  written  from  original  sources  and  is  amply  illus- 
trated. No  more  noble  contribution  to  the  history  of 
American  education  has  been  made.  The  Commissioner 
of  Education,  Mr.  N.  H.  R.  Dawson,  writing  to  Mr.  Lamar, 
Secretary  of  the  Interior,  commending  the  treatise  for 
publication,  gives  the  following  unstinted  praise  to  Jef* 
ferson  and  the  University  of  Virginia : 

1  U,  S.  Bureau  of  Education.  Circular  of  Information,  No.  i,  1888.  "  Contribu- 
tions to  American  Educational  History."  by  Herbert  B.  Adams.  No  a,  "Thomas 
Jefferson  and  the  University  of  Virginia,"  by  Herbert  B.  Adams,  Ph.  D.,  225  pp< 
See  also  Gessner  Harrison's  article  In  Duycklnck's  "Cyclopaedia  of  American 



To  the  University  of  Virginia,  Jefferson's  creation,  the  whole  coun- 
try is  indebted  for  the  following  distinguished  services  to  the  higher 
education:  (i)  The  recognition  of  real  university  standards  of  in- 
struction and  scholarship.  (2)  The  absolute  repression  of  the  class- 
system,  and  the  substitution  of  merit  for  seniority  in  the  award  of 
degrees.  (3)  The  first  complete  introduction  of  the  elective  system. 
(4)  The  establishment  of  distinct "  schools,"  in  which  great  subjects 
were  grouped  ;  for  example,  ancient  languages,  modern  languages, 
mathematics,  law,  and  politics ;  each  school  having  its  autonomy 
and  its  own  standard  of  graduation.  (5)  The  institution  of  constitu- 
tional government,  in  academic  form,  with  an  appointed  president  or 
chairman  of  the  faculty,  holding  office  for  one  year,  but  eligible  for 
re-appointment  by  the  Board  of  Visitors.  (6)  The  promotion  of  self- 
government  among  the  students,  with  the  cultivation  of  an  esprit  de 
corps  sustaining  high  standards  of  academic  honor  and  scholarship. 

The  University  of  Virginia  exerted  such  an  overmas- 
tering power  on  John  A.  Broadus's  whole  nature  through 
all  the  years  that  an  adequate  idea  of  this  noble  institu- 
tion is  necessary  in  order  to  understand  his  mental  habits. 
Twelve  years  of  Doctor  Broadus's  life  were  spent  in  close 
connection  with  the  University,  and  the  Southern  Baptist 
Theological  Seminary,  to  which  the  rest  of  his  life  was 
given,  was  patterned  after  it.  But  for  the  impress  of  the 
University  system  upon  him,  the  elective  method  of  study 
could  never  have  been  implanted  in  the  Seminary. 

Comparatively  few  persons,  even  in  the  South,  are 
familiar  with  the  important  facts  connected  with  the 
founding  of  the  University  of  Virginia.  Before  Jefferson's 
day  American  higher  education  was  a  very  simple  affair. 
The  older  English  educational  standards  were  reproduced 
by  the  Puritan  at  Harvard  College  and  the  Cavalier  at 
William  and  Mary.  Both  institutions  followed  the  beaten 
track  with  similar  curricula.  "  Jefferson's  propositions 
for  the  modification  of  this  ancient  scholastic  curriculum 
represent  the  first  current  of  modern  ideas,  which  began 
in  1779,  at  Williamsburg,  to  flow  into  American  life."1 

1 "  Thomas  Jefferson  and  the  University  of  Virginia,"  p.  41. 


Jefferson's  sojourn  in  Paris  had  brought  him  in  contact 
with  French  education  at  the  time  when  sympathy  for 
French  institutions  was  very  strong  m  the  United  States. 
While  there  (1786)  he  had  become  interested  in  a  gigan- 
tic scheme  of  the  French  savant,  Quesnay,  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  national  academy  at  Richmond,  Virginia, 
which  should  be  a  reproduction  of  the  great  academy  at 
Paris,  with  branches  at  New  York,  Philadelphia,  etc.  It 
was  no  less  than  an  effort  to  reproduce  French  Catholic 
culture  in  the  United  States  with  Richmond  as  the  center. 
The  building l  in  Richmond  was  actually  secured  and  one 
member  appointed  to  organize  it,  but  the  French  Revolu- 
tion smashed  this  grand  scheme  all  to  pieces  and  saved 
the  South  and  the  country  from  the  dominance  of  French 
culture  over  our  Saxon  institutions.  But  Jefferson  did  get 
the  idea  of  distinct  schools  of  art  and  science  from  Paris. 
He  had  become  profoundly  interested  in  higher  education 
in  Europe.  He  felt  that  the  stability  of  free  institutions 
rested  upon  the  education  of  the  people.  So  he  sought  the 
best  models  the  world  over,  at  Edinburgh,  Geneva,  Paris, 
Oxford,  Cambridge,  Rome.  He  once  actually  thought  of 
importing  the  faculty  of  Geneva  bodily  to  Virginia,  but 
Washington  opposed  it.  Jefferson's  advocacy  of  religious 
liberty  necessitated  the  establishment  of  an  unsectarian 
school,  unlike  William  and  Mary  College,  his  alma  mater. 
Though  a  Unitarian  himself,  says  Adams,  he  did  not  wish 
to  promulgate  his  religious  views  through  educational  in- 
stitutions. He  decided  to  devote  his  closing  years  to  the 
work  of  education.  His  system  comprised  three  grades 
of  schools  :  various  district  schools  in  each  county,  acad- 
emies, a  State  university. 

As  to  the  relative  importance  of  the  University  and  common  schools 
for  the  people  of  Virginia,  he  once  said  in  a  letter  to  a  friend,  Joseph 

*  This  building;  was  used  for  the  meeting  of  the  convention  that  adopted  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States- 


C.  Cabell,  January  13,  1823 :  "  Were  it  necessary  to  give  up  either 
the  primaries  or  the  University,  I  would  rather  abandon  the  last, 
because  it  is  safer  to  have  the  whole  people  enlightened  than  a  few 
in  a  high  state  of  science  and  the  many  in  ignorance.  This  last  is 
the  most  dangerous  state  in  which  a  nation  can  be.  The  nations 
and  governments  of  Europe  are  so  many  proofs  of  it." L 

He  labored  earnestly  to  get  local  taxation  for  free  schools 
as  early  as  1796,  but  failed.  Again  in  1818  State  sub- 
sidy alone  could  be  secured,  the  counties  being  unwilling 
to  tax  themselves  for  public  schools.  Not  till  1870  did 
Virginia  awake  to  Jefferson's  ideas  about  popular  educa- 
tion. He  addressed  himself  vigorously  to  higher  educa- 
tion, hoping  to  create  sentiment  for  popular  education, 
and  so  worked  from  above  downward  through  trained  and 
enlightened  men.  Perhaps  Jefferson  would  have  failed 
in  putting  into  actual  shape  his  ideals  of  university  educa- 
tion but  for  the  timely  aid  of  Hon.  J.  C.  Cabell,  who  in 
1806  returned  from  a  three  years'  stay  in  European  uni- 
versities, where  he  also  had  obtained  broader  ideas  of 
education  than  existed  at  William  and  Mary,  his  alma 
mater.  Cabell  wished  to  rejuvenate  William  and  Mary 
by  establishing  a  museum  of  natural  history.  Jefferson 
declined  to  help,  but  his  private  secretary,  Col.  Isaac  A. 
Coles,  suggested  to  the  ambitious  young  Cabell  that  he 
enter  the  legislature,  and  instead  of  trying  to  enlarge  an 
old  institution,  seek  to  found  a  new  one.  Thus  in  1807 
came  to  Cabell  "a  declaration  of  independence  in  the 
matter  of  higher  education  in  Virginia."  Cabell  took 
this  advice,  entered  the  legislature  in  1809,  in  two  years 
more  the  State  Senate,  and  stayed  there  until  1829  after 
the  complete  triumph  of  Jefferson's  plans.  Doctor  Adams 
pointedly  says  that,  without  CabelPs  aid,  "  Jefferson's 
university  ideal  would  never  have  been  realized,  at  least 
in  his  lifetime." 

1  "  Thomas  Jefferson  and  the  University  of  Virginia/*  p,  3,4. 


After  the  appropriation  was  made  by  the  State  Senate, 
there  was  difficulty  in  deciding  where  the  new  institu- 
tion should  be  established.  There  was  a  sharp  conflict 
between  William  and  Mary,  Washington  College,  and 

Jefferson  was  determined  to  have  Central  College 
(which  he  had  enlarged  from  Albemarle  College),  one 
mile  from  Charlottesville,  made  the  university.  He 
pointed  out  that,  if  a  line  through  the  State  were  drawn 
in  almost  any  direction,  it  would  go  through  Charlottes- 
ville. He  thus  carried  his  point  over  the  rivalries  of  the 
East  and  the  West.  The  commission  recommended  Cen- 
tral College  for  the  new  university  seat,  with  Jefferson's 
ideas  of  instruction.  Edward  Everett  reviewed  Jefferson's 
whole  scheme  in  the  "North  American  Review,"  Jan- 
uary, 1820.  Fierce  opposition  sprang  up  in  the  legislature, 
Mr.  Cabell  rose  in  his  might  and  publicly  and  privately 
convinced  the  opponents  of  the  bill,  establishing  the  uni- 
versity at  Charlottesville.  On  January  25,  1819,  it  was 
done.  Cabell  had  brought  on  hemorrhage  of  the  lungs  by 
exposure  and  loss  of  sleep  while  working  for  this  meas- 
ure. He  and  Jefferson  had  won  at  last.  Jefferson  was 
made  the  first  Rector  of  the  Board  of  Visitors.  From 
Monticello  he  could  look  down  on  the  university  grounds 
with  his  spy  glass  and  even  watch  the  bricks  placed  in 
the  walls.  He  busied  himself  with  every  detail.  The 
university  was  his  "pet."  He  drew  numerous  plans  and 
made  an  original  conception  of  an  academic  village  with 
monastic  cloisters  and  classic  architecture,  Doric,  Ionic, 
and  Corinthian.  The  beautiful  lawn  with  its  double  row 
of  trees,  the  noble  line  of  professors'  houses  and  students' 
lodgings  (East  Lawn  and  West  Lawn)  fronted  by  classic 
colonnades,  the  farther  rows  of  students'  dormitories  on 
each  side  (East  Range  and  West  Range)  present  a  har- 
monious and  stately  picture.  Each  professor's  house  had 


some  feature  of  famous  buildings  of  antiquity,  but  the 
crown  of  all  was  the  Rotunda  at  the  head  of  the  lawn, 
whose  proportions  were  modeled  after  the  Pantheon,  re- 
duced to  one-third  the  size.1  The  capitals  of  the  col- 
umns on  the  portico  were  made  in  Italy,  and  Italian 
workmen  were  imported. 

Mr.  Jefferson  created  a  unique  university  plant  and 
the  most  beautiful  one  in  America.  In  1824  Professor 
Ticknor,  of  Harvard,  made  a  visit  to  Thomas  Jefferson  at 
Monticello.  He  wrote  as  follows  to  the  historian  Prescott 
about  the  elective  system  : 

It  is,  however,  an  experiment  worth  trying,  to  which  I  earnestly 
desire  the  happiest  results  ;  and  they  have  to  begin  it,  a  mass  of 
buildings  more  beautiful  than  any  thing  architectural  in  New  England, 
and  more  appropriate  to  a  university  than  can  be  found,  perhaps,  in 
the  world.2 

As  a  result  of  this  visit  Professor  Ticknor  succeeded 
in  introducing  several  of  Jefferson's  ideas  into  Harvard 
College,  though  with  much  opposition.  President  Way- 
land,  of  Brown,  afterward  made  a  similar  visit  to  the 
University  of  Virginia.  He  was  favorably  impressed  and 
strongly  advocated  the  elective  system  of  instruction  and 
other  features  of  the  University  of  Virginia.  Jefferson 
insisted  on  a  high  order  of  professors.  All  came  from 
abroad  save  two  ;  for  obvious  reasons  the  chairs  of  Law 
and  Political  History  and  Science  could  be  better  filled 
by  Americans.  The  new  teachers  all  gave  prestige  to 
the  institution.  Professors  Blaetterman,  Long,  Key, 
Bonnycastle,  and  Dunglison,  brought  fame  from  abroad, 
while  Professors  Tucker  and  Lomax  represented  strength 
at  home.  The  doors  were  opened  in  1825.  Jefferson 

1  The  Rotunda  was  burned  October  27, 1895.  It  was  a  sad  Sunday  for  the  Univer- 
sity. The  Rotunda  has  since  been  restored  and  several  other  buildings  have  been 

3  M  Thomas  Jefferson  and  the  University  of  Virginia,"  p  174, 


died  in  1826,  leaving  as  one  of  the  phrases  he  wished 
inscribed  on  his  tomb  :  "  Father  of  the  University  of 

It  is  impossible  to  estimate  the  influence  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia  over  the  educational  system  of  the  South 
and  of  the  North  as  well.  Professors,  lawyers,  statesmen, 
physicians,  ministers,  and  business  men  have  poured 
from  its  walls.  No  honorary  degrees  have  ever 
been  conferred.  Its  M.  A.  was  the  highest  scholastic 
degree  in  this  country.  This  was  before  the  introduction 
of  the  specializing  Ph.  D.  Original  research  and  exact- 
ing work  was  the  atmosphere  from  the  start.  In  after 
years,  looking  back  upon  it,  Doctor  Broadus  said : 

The  noblest  legacy  they  have  left  us  is  this— that  the  very  genius 
of  the  place  is  -work.  No  professor  or  student  of  susceptible  soul  can 
establish  himself  here  without  feeling  that  there  breathes  through  all 
the  air  this  spirit  of  work,  a  noble  rage  for  knowing  and  for  teach- 

The  leading  professors  in  the  University  when  Mr. 
Broadus  entered  in  1846,  were  Gessner  Harrison,  W.  B. 
Rogers,  J.  L.  Cabell,  R.  E.  Rogers,  E.  H.  Courtenay,  M. 
Schele  de  Vere,  W.  H.  McGuffey,  John  B.  Minor,  and 
John  Staige  Davis.  Some  of  these  had  been  at  the 
University  only  a  short  while,  but  they  were  all  men 
of  great  ability.  He  came  under  the  spell  of  three 
teachers  in  particular  :  Harrison,  McGuffey,  Courtenay. 

Gessner  Harrison  was  one  of  the  first  three  graduates 
of  the  institution.  When  Prof.  George  Long  returned  to 
England  in  1828  he  recommended  this  young  man  to  suc- 
ceed him  as  professor  of  ancient  languages.  He  had  ex- 
pected to  practise  medicine,  but  gave  up  that  ambition  for 
the  classics.  This  professor  of  nineteen  years  began  to 
do  some  of  the  most  original  study  and  thorough  teaching 
"n  this  country.  Long  sent  him  "Bopp's  Comparative 

1  Memorial  of  Gessner  Harrison,  in  "  Sermons  and  Addresses."  p.  347. 


Grammar,"  just  out  and  used  nowhere  else  in  America. 
He  eagerly  devoured  it.  The  students  talked  flippantly 
of  "Old  Gess's  humbuggery,"  but  he  stuck  to  his  ety- 
mology and  philology.  He  went  to  the  root  of  things. 
By  degrees  he  won  his  spurs.  He  was  working  along 
right  lines  and  began  to  kindle  enthusiasm  for  genuine 
scholarship.  He  became  the  leading  spirit  of  the  Univer- 
sity and  did  much  to  uplift  Southern  educational  ideals. 
He  was  greatly  gifted  in  the  use  of  illustration.  He  had 
keen  fondness  for  Roman  history,  making  it  fascinating 
indeed.  His  common  sense,  quiet  humor,  simplicity,  and 
devout  piety  adorned  a  wealth  of  learning.  His  examin- 
ations were  very  rigid.  One  year,  out  of  a  hundred  and 
fifty  in  senior  Latin,  only  twenty-six  were  graduated.  A 
story  is  told  by  Doctor  Broadus  that  one  day  a  student 
came  out  of  Professor  Harrison's  office  with  a  broad 
smile.  His  friends,  waiting  their  turn,  asked  if  he  had 
passed.  "  No/'  he  said,  "  but  old  Gess  said  that  I  came 
nigher  to  it  than  any  fellow  that  didn't  pass."  Doctor 
Harrison  was  the  author  of  a  Latin  grammar  and  a  work 
on  Greek  prepositions.  He  was  made  Chairman  of  the 
Faculty  repeatedly.  In  1859,  to  niake  better  provision 
for  his  family,  he  left  the  institution  to  establish  a  high 
school  for  university  aspirants.  He  died  in  1862  from 
fever  caught  while  nursing  a  sick  son.  Doctor  Broadus, 
*in  concluding  a  noble  panegyric  on  Gessner  Harrison, 
said : 

And  let  it  be  the  last  word  spoken  to-day  concerning  Gessner 
Harrison,  spoken,  as  it  were  in  his  name  to  the  professors  and  stu- 
dents of  the  University  that  he  loved  so  well :  Sirs,  brothers,  FEAR 

Professor  McGuffey  had  come  to  the  chair  of  moral 
philosophy  in  1845.  He  was  a  gifted  teacher,  pursuing 
the  Socratic  method.  He  taught  the  student  to  think. 

1  "  Sermons  and  Addresses,,"  Memorial  of  Gessner  Harrison,  p.  347. 


Doctor  Broadus  always  remembered  with  emotion  the 
first  time  that  Doctor  McGuffey  asked  him  his  own 
opinion  on  a  point  in  philosophy.  It  marked  an  epoch 
in  his  intellectual  life.  Dr.  Geo.  B.  Taylor,  of  Italy, 
says  that  he  often  found  himself  overcome  with  feel- 
ing in  Doctor  McGuffey's  class-room.  He  had  great 
charm  of  expression  and  strongly  advocated  extempore 
speaking.  His  series  of  school  readers  is  familiar  to 
many.  J.  A.  B.  was  fond  of  telling  a  story  of  a 
gentleman  who  confided  to  him  his  great  admiration  for 
Doctor  McGuffey  as  a  writer,  pointing  to  the  selection  in 
the  Fifth  Reader,  "To  be  or  not  to  be/'  as  an  example  1 
Professor  Courtenay  had  held  the  chair  of  mathematics 
since  1842.  He  was  a  very  able  teacher.  Clear  state- 
ment, unwearied  repetition,  and  courtly  manners  espe- 
cially characterized  him.  Professor  Courtenay  was  the 
author  of  a  work  on  differential  and  integral  calculus. 

As  a  teacher  Doctor  Broadus  combined  the  excellencies  of  three 
men  by  whom  he  had  been  strongly  influenced:  Gessner  Harrison, 
the  patient,  careful  seeker  after  principles;  William  H.  McGuffey, 
the  quickenerof  sluggish  intellects  into  activity;  and  E.  H.  Court- 
enay, the  lover  of  exact  statement.1 

Dr.  Broadus  often  spoke  of  the  different  methods  pur- 
sued by  these  teachers  with  a  student's  difficulty.  Pro- 
fessor Courtenay  would  patiently  repeat  his  original  clear 
statement  until  the  man  saw  it ;  Professor  McGuffey 
would  seek  to  get  the  student's  point  of  view  so  as  to 
point  out  the  difficulty  and  remove  it ;  Professor  Harrison, 
with  his  brilliant  imagination,  would  turn  every  color  of 
the  rainbow  on  the  subject  till  it  flashed  before  the  stu- 
dent's mind. 

There  were  about  a  hundred  and  fifty  matriculates  in 
1846;  the  number  rose  to  nearly  three  hundred  before 

H.  H.  Harris,  "Religious  Herald/'  March  sa,  1895. 


Broadus'  student  days  were  over,  and  soon  thereafter 
seven  hundred  crowded  the  University,  the  highest 
number  ever  attained.1  A  number  of  John  A.  Broadus's 
fellow-students  became  distinguished  in  after  life :  Gen- 
eral Roger  A.  Pryor,  of  the  New  York  bar ;  Hon.  Wm. 
Wirt  Henry,  of  Richmond  ;  E.  R.  Pollard,  author  of "  The 
Lost  Cause";  Prof.  John  Hart,  Virginia;  Rev.  C.  A. 
Briggs,  D.  D.,  of  Union  Theological  Seminary ;  Rev.  Ti- 
berius Gracchus  Jones,  D.  D.,  Virginia;  Col.  Wm.  Le 
Roy  Broun,  Alabama ;  Hon.  F.  W.  M.  Holliday,  Virginia ; 
Bishop  James  A.  Latane,  Baltimore;  Col.  Alfred  T. 
Rives,  Virginia ;  Charles  Dabney,  son  of  "The  Southern 
Planter";  Nat.  Tyler,  editor  of  the  " Richmond  En- 
quirer " ;  Gen.  W.  C.  Wickham ;  Dr.  Edward  Warren 
(Warren  Bey) ;  Judge  Fernando  Farrar  (Johnny  Reb)  ; 
Gen,  Sam'l  Garland ;  Prof.  F.  H.  Smith,  of  the  Univer- 
sity; Prof.  C.  H.  Judson,  of  Furman  University;  Prof. 
Chas.  S.  Venable,  of  the  University;  Prof.  James  D. 
White,  of  Washington  and  Lee.  Many  others  also  be- 
came men  of  power  and  mark.  Much  of  the  flower  of 
the  South  was  here.  Dr.  Broadus  often  said  that  a  stu- 
dent gained  as  much  from  his  college-mates  as  from  his 
professor.  Mr.  Broadus  roomed  with  his  old  friend  W. 
A.  Whitescarver.  He  once  said  of  him  :  "  He  is  the  only 
man  I  never  found  anything  wrong  in.  We  talk  about 
saints.  William  is  one." 

Mr.  Broadus  was  well  prepared  in  Latin  at  Albert  G. 
Simms'  school,  but  was  poorly  off  in  algebra,  French, 
and  Greek,  having  picked  these  studies  up  himself. 
Hence  he  took  advantage  of  the  elective  system,  select- 
ing a  rather  irregular  ticket.  The  points  in  this  pro- 
gramme to  be  noted  were  his  taking  moral  philosophy 
the  first  year  and  then  finishing  mathematics  in  two 

1  In  the  "  Alumni  Bulletin/'  May*  1895,  there  is  a  graphical  record  of  the  student 
attendance  from  1835  to  1894 


years  with  practically  no  preparation  and  giving  a  year 
to  graduate  mathematics,  graduating  in  Greek  in  two 
years  when  he  knew  nothing  to  start  on  save  what  he 
had  picked  up  himself  m  Clarke  County,  and  giving  four 
years  to  his  degree  when  he  might  have  taken  it  in 
three.  He  and  his  room-mate  would  take  long  walks 
and  drill  each  other  on  the  Greek  forms  to  make  up  for 
lack  of  training  in  them.  He  devoted  one  vacation  also  to 
Greek.  With  what  relish  this  brilliant  student  absorbed 
everything  in  the  University  !  The  hunger  after  knowl- 
edge which  had  stirred  his  soul  in  the  rides  over  the 
Blue  Ridge  was  being  gratified.  He  was  drinking  deep 
at  this  pure  spring.  No  man  ever  quaffed  here  who 
drew  more  refreshment  and  inspiration.  His  whole  na- 
ture expanded,  his  powers  grew,  his  prowess  came  rapidly. 
He  found  delight  in  the  whirl  of  his  great  opportunities. 
He  was  open  to  all  that  passed  before  him,  while  his 
horizon  widened  with  every  step  up  the  mountain.  Hon. 
W.  W.  Henry  says  that  he  considered  him  the  strongest 
man  at  the  University.  But  some  could  not  understand 
his  habit  of  working  so  hard.  Some  even  said  :  "  He  is 
only  a  plodder."  He  had  the  reputation  of  studying  all 
night  because  Whitescarver  sat  up  late  and  he  got  up 
early,  thus  keeping  the  light  burning  nearly  all  night. 
Professor  Smith  says  of  him  :  "If  genius  is  the  ability 
and  willingness  to  do  hard  work,  he  was  a  genius."  He 
avoided  overloading  himself,  so  as  to  be  able  to  master 
every  detail  and  make  it  his  own.  Humdrum  work  was 
done  conscientiously.  He  did  not  try  to  "  cut "  and  then 
"cram"  for  examination.  He  practised  what  he  after- 
wards so  earnestly  preached  to  his  students.  At  first  he 
had  such  difficulty  with  his  mathematics  that  he  was  dis- 
posed to  give  it  up,  having  really  no  preparation,  but 
Professor  Courtenay  made  him  persevere  until  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  in  it  as  much  as  in  the  other  schools, 



and  it  was  regarded  as  his  favorite  study.  Although 
generally  at  the  veiy  front  in  his  classes,  he  did  not  ex- 
cite the  jealousy  of  the  student  body.  Prof.  F.  H.  Smith 
characterizes  his  student  life  thus  : * 

He  cultivated  a  great  power  of  application  and  grew  to  have  a 
great  ability  to  work,  and  was  not  ashamed  that  otheis  should 
know  it  The  wonderful  result  of  this  steady,  methodical  industry 
was  that  in  after  years  he  could  do  unheard-of  things  in  the  briefest 
time.  His  disciplined  faculties  were  so  under  his  will  that  the  result, 
while  natural,  was  surprising.  .  .  He  demanded  of  himself  the  best 
he  could  do  in  all  that  he  did.  The  resulting  clearness  and  correct- 
ness of  his  thinking  begat  that  limpid,  lucid,  crystalline  purity  of 
expression  which  marked  his  writing  and  speaking. 

Mr.  Broadus  became  an  active  member  of  the  Jefferson 
Society,  the  largest  in  the  University.  Here  he  had  to  de- 
bate with  men  like  Holliday,  Henry,  and  Pryor.  He  had 
a  favorite  place  in  the  woods,  near  the  cemetery,  where 
he  would  walk  and  study  his  speeches,  wearing  a  path 
in  the  forest.  The  habit  of  composing  addresses  while 
walking  remained  with  him.  Mr.  Henry  says  that 
Broadus  was  the  best  debater  in  the  Jefferson,  besting 
Pryor  and  Holliday,  when  he  locked  horns  with  them. 
In  June,  1848,  he  delivered  the  valedictory  address  for 
the  society,  a  distinguished  honor  for  his  second  year. 
In  the  fall  of  that  year  the  society  formally  asked  for 
the  publication  of  this  address.  The  subject  was  "  Na- 
tional Literature."  Here  is  a  characteristic  extract  : 

What  nobler  purpose  for  the  young  man  who  is  just  going  out 
from  college,  than  that  he  will  contribute  to  the  progress  of  letters? 
I  cannot  but  be  persuaded  that  either  directly  or  indirectly  you  will 
do  this.  But  whether  it  be  in  literature  or  in  other  pursuits,  that  you 
seek  for  usefulness  and  distinction,  one  thing  remember— the  price 
of  all  success  is  toil,  hard  and  umemitting, 

Mr.  Broadus  found  time  for  active  religious  work  in 

1  *'  Seminary  Magazine/'  April, 


various  ways,  in  the  students'  prayer  meetings,  teaching 
a  Bible  class,  and  conducting  a  Sunday-school  in  the 
Ragged  Mountains.  In  after  life  he  often  said  that  a 
man  was  not  fit  to  go  as  missionary  to  China  who 
would  not  work  with  the  needy  at  his  own  doors.  He 
showed  that  piety  and  scholarship  were  not  incompatible. 
His  charming  personality  made  him  popular. 

He  was  a  loyal  Christian,  for  whom  even  the  wicked  never  had  a 
word  of  disrespect.  It  was  wonderful,  the  universal  kindliness  felt 
by  the  bad  and  good  alike  for  him.1 

I  remember  a  fine  young  fellow-student,  who  was  no  Christian, 
showing  me  his  autograph  book,  in  which  Broadus  had,  at  his  re- 
quest, written  a  line.  It  was  only  three  words  in  Greek,  *v  <r«  tWepet, 
*'  one  thing  thou  lackest"  A  finer  compliment  and  yet  more  faithful 
admonition  could  scarcely  be  conceived.2 

Many  years  afterwards  a  seminary  student  from  Texas 
bore  to  Doctor  Broadus  a  message  from  an  honored 
physician  in  that  State  who  said  that  he  had  never  been 
able  to  forget  that  sentence  in  his  album,  and  he  trusted 
now  that  he  had  found  the  "  one  thing  lacking/' 

On  June  22,  1847,  a  great  shadow  came  over  his  life. 
He  was  sent  for  quickly,  and  on  entering  his  mother's 
room,  only  heard  her  say,  "My  son,"  as  she  passed 
away.  She  died  of  a  sudden  and  severe  attack  of  heart 
disease.  She  had  given  John  the  true  ideal  of  woman- 
hood, and  taught  him  from  his  earliest  years  that  beauti- 
ful reverence  for  women  which  was  so  thoroughly  a  part 
of  his  character. 

General  John  H.  Cocke,  of  Fluvanna,  one  of  the 
oldest8  and  most  efficient  members  of  the  Board  of  Visit- 
ors, in  the  fall  of  1848,  writes  to  Major  Broadus,  urging 
him  to  exert  his  influence  among  the  students  in  behalf 

1  Prof.  Smith,  "Seminary  Magazine,"  April,  1895. 

*  Prof.  Smith,  "  Religious  Herald."  April  4,  x8gj. 

*  General  Cocke  was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Central  College,  and  one  of  the 
original  members  of  the  University  Board. 


of  temperance.  Some  reproaches  had  been  cast  on  the 
University  on  the  score  of  intemperance.  Major  Broadus 
had  long  been  a  prominent  figure  in  the  Sons  of  Temper- 
ance. In  fact,  before  General  Cocke's  anxiety,  Major 
Broadus  had,  with  the  co-operation  of  James  Alexander, 
John  B.  Minor,  and  others,  already  established  a  Division 
of  this  Order  in  the  University.  In  1848,  young  Broadus 
appears  as  Worthy  Patriarch,  having  joined  the  Order 
the  year  before.  He  was  now  in  much  demand  as  a 
temperance  orator  before  Divisions  in  various  parts  of 
the  State. 

Doctor  Harrison,  the  Chairman  of  the  Faculty,  was 
much  opposed  to  anything  like  espionage  over  the  Uni- 
versity men.  He  believed  in  expecting  the  men  to  be 
gentlemen  and  treating  them  as  such.  There  is  diffi- 
culty, in  the  nature  of  the  case,  in  striking  the  right  note 
in  the  discipline  of  a  large  number  of  young  men,  more 
or  less  raw  and  full  of  life.  Doctor  McCosh  similarly 
had  a  severe  struggle  when  he  took  hold  of  Princeton, 
but  succeeded  in  greatly  toning  up  the  institution.  Mr, 
Broadus  early  formed  the  habit  of  praying  regularly  and 
often  for  schools  of  learning,  teachers,  and  students. 
Many  persons  may  remember  how,  at  the  opening  of  the 
school  session,  he  would  make  public  appeal  for  prayer 
for  the  schools  of  the  country.  Mr.  Jefferson's  free  sys* 
tern,  while  developing  manhood,  likewise  called  for  sym- 
pathetic interest  and  spiritual  guidance. 

A  letter  of  Mr.  G.  W.  Hansbrough,  a  native  of  Orange 
County,  to  Doctor  Hiden,  gives  a  striking  example  of  the 
manner  in  which  Doctor  Broadus  impressed  himself  upon 
his  comrades,  even  in  his  youth  : 

When  I  was  a  little  over  sixteen  and  he  twenty-two,  we  were 
students  at  the  University  and  room-mates  at  his  father's  house. 
We  were  both  members  of  the  Jefferson  Debating  Society.  One 
night  Mr.  B.  came  into  our  room  much  excited,  and  told  me  that 


in  a  debate  he  had  uttered  some  language  of  severe  criticism  on  one 
S.  P.,  who  resented  what  he  considered  an  insult,  and  had  promptly 
written  and  sent  Mr.  B.  a  peremptory  demand  for  an  apology ;  and 
Mr.  B.  requested  me  to  take  his  answer.  Not  being  of  a  very 
pacific  disposition,  I  took  some  part  in  dictating  the  answer,  and 
it  was  not  particularly  conciliatory.  P.  was  a  law  student,  about 
twenty-five  years  old,  tall  and  handsome,  and  very  much  of  the 
peacock  in  character  and  manner.  I  took  the  answer ;  it  was  not 
satisfactory  to  his  Haughtiness.  On  my  return,  I  found  old  Major 
Broadus  in  our  room  with  John.  When  he  saw  the  note  I  had  car- 
ried, he  said:  "John,  John,  this  will  never  do.  You  were  wrong; 
such  style  of  speech  was  wholly  inconsistent  with  your  profession 
and  purposes  in  life.  You  must  forthwith  send  an  unconditional 
apology."  Much  loath,  I  took  the  apology  to  the  irate  gentleman, 
who  accepted  it,  but  with  the  conditions  that  "  the  apology  should 
be  made  as  public  as  was  the  insult."  Well,  at  the  next  meeting  of 
the  society,  I  was  present.  John  A.  Broadus  was  not  naturally  of  a 
very  meek  disposition.  But  on  that  occasion  he  arose,  and  in  a 
manner  indicating  a  deep  sense  that  he  was  wrong,  went  on  to 
acknowledge  his  error  in  most  impressive  tones,  gaming  at  every 
word  the  utmost  sympathy  of  his  hearers,  apologizing  not  so  much 
to  his  adversary,  but,  as  it  were,  in  the  presence  of  his  Lord  and 
Master,  whom  he  confessed  to  having  justly  offended  by  giving 
way  to  sinful  anger,  and  indulging  in  unseemly  sarcasm.  I  could 
perceive  in  the  countenances  of  all  around  me  a  manifestation  of 
unusually  heightened  respect  and  admiration  for  Mr.  Broadus,  and 
a  corresponding  disapprobation  and  contempt  for  his  adversary. 
Upon  his  concluding  his  statement,  a  silence  of  subdued  sympathy 
and  appreciation  prevailed  for  a  considerable  time.  From  that  hour 
John  A.  Broadus  stood,  as  ever  since  he  has  stood,  on  a  plane 
infinitely  higher,  whilst  P.  sank  to  a  much  lower  one.  The  feelings 
I  entertained  were  those  of  awe  in  contemplating  a  height  and 
grandeur  of  character  of  which  I  had  never  before  suspected  the 
existence ;  and  ever  since,  I  have  watched  his  career  with  interest, 
regarding  him  as  perhaps  the  greatest  man  Virginia  has  produced 
in  the  present  century* 

During  one  session  of  his  university  course  he  taught 
the  daughters  of  Professors  Courtenay  and  Howard,  and 
the  son  of  Professor  Harrison.  He  was  very  careful  to 
work  out  all  the  mathematical  problems  at  every  point. 


He  was  using  an  algebra,  recommended  by  Professor 
Courtenay,  which  had  a  large  number  of  curious,  original 
problems.  On  finding  three  that  baffled  his  skill,  he 
took  them  to  Professor  Courtenay,  who  solved  one, 
pointed  out  that  one  was  wrongly  stated,  and  freely  con- 
fessed that  he  himself  could  not  solve  the  third. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  BICKERS  : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Feb.  3,  1849:  Sister  C.1  is  married 
and  gone.  .  .  I  might  have  been  sad,  if  1  would ;  sad,  not  because 
she  has  married  the  man  she  has,  my  friend  of  many  years,  a 
friend  whom  every  trial  has  but  rendered  more  fondly  dear,  but 
because  my  sister,  who  it  seemed  to  me  had  become  indispensably 
necessary  to  my  happiness,  is  gone,  and  1  am  left  alone,  as  desolate 
as  an  only  child,  with  none  who  can  so  well  sympathize  in  my  joys 
and  sorrows,  none  to  counsel  and  aid,  as  a  fond  sister  only  can. 
But  I  have  striven,  and  successfully,  against  everything  like  sad- 
ness. One  thing,  however,  I  have  learned  that  I  did  not  know 
before,  that  when  dear  friends  part,  they  who  stay  must  always 
sorrow  more  than  those  who  go.  I  have  had  experience  now  in 
both.  Our  mamma  is  very  kind  and  affectionate,  and  I  love  her 
most  sincerely.  She  must  needs  have  many  troubles  as  the  head 
of  such  a  household  as  this,  yet  nothing  that  I  can  do  shall  be  want- 
ing to  make  her  happy. 

THOMAS  L.  SNEAD  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND  COLLEGE,  April  20, 1849:  The  contingency  to  which 
I  referred,  when  at  the  University,  exists  sooner  than  I  anticipated. 
The  professorship  of  mathematics  in  this  college  has  been  vacated 
by  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Robertson  and  I  hope  that  J  may  be  allowed 
to  represent  you  to  the  Board  of  Trustees  as  willing  to  supply  the 
vacancy.  I  fear  that  no  inducements  that  they  can  offer  will  be 
sufficient  to  lead  you  to  forego  the  pleasure  of  passing  another  year 
at  the  University,  and  of  carrying  off  the  M.  A.  which  awaits  you, 
but  I  will  hope  for  the  best,  and  tell  you  what  out  people  may  do 
for  you*  The  college  goes  fully  into  operation  this  year  for  the 
first  time.  The  number  of  students  during  the  present  session  has 
been  seventy-two.  ,  .  Be  good  enough  to  write  an  answer  as  soon 

1  His  sister  Carrie  had  married  W.  A.  Whitescarver,  an4  his  fvffw  ha4  njarrted 
Miss  Somervi  lie  Ward* 


as  you  conveniently  can,  and  allow  me  to  insist  on  a  favorable 

But  Mr.  Broadus  kept  to  his  M.  A.  How  often  in  after 
years  he  exhorted  his  students  to  stick  to  their  course  of 
study  and  not  be  lured  away  by  calls  to  this  or  that,  but 
to  "think  of  their  probable  life  as  a  whole  and  do  what 
they  would  be  glad  of  at  the  end." 

On  June  4,  1849,  Mr.  Broadus  preached  his  first  ser- 
mon. It  was  at  the  Mount  Eagle  (Presbyterian)  Church, 
in  Albemarle  County.  The  text  was  from  Ps.  62  :  8, 
"  God  is  a  refuge  for  us." 

Mrs.  L.  L.  Hamilton,  of  Charlottesville,  then  a  child 
near  Keswick,  writes  as  follows  concerning  this  first 
sermon : 

Dr.  William  McGuffey,  professor  of  moral  philosophy  in  the 
University  of  Virginia,  had  charge  of  the  church.  Being  sick  on 
this  particular  Sunday,  he  sent  down  one  ot  his  students  "  to  fill  his 
place/'  And  well  did  he  fill  it.  The  doctor  was  dry  and  logical  and 
preached  more  to  the  head  than  to  the  heart.  On  this  day,  which  I 
well  remember,  there  stood  up  in  his  place  a  slightly  built,  dark- 
haired  youth,  scarcely  twenty1  years  of  age,  who  spoke  as  I  never 
heard  man  speak  before  of  our  gracious  Saviour.  There  was  some- 
thing in  his  manner  very  entreating,  veiy  touching,  very  convincing. 
After  the  sermon  all  were  eager  to  find  out  the  name  of  the  student 
who  had  filled  so  acceptably  the  learned  professor's  place.  That  day 
was  the  first  time  I  ever  saw  or  heard  the  name  "  John  A.  Broadus." 
I  was  about  eleven  years  of  age,  I  wish  1  could  recall  the  text,  but 
I  well  remember  the  impression  made  upon  me  by  its  charming  sim- 
plicity. He  had  made  comprehensible,  even  to  the  mind  of  a  child, 
great  Bible  truths. 

His  next  sermon  was  July  2,  at  New  Salem,  Culpeper, 
his  home  church,  always  a  trying  experience  to  the 
young  preacher.  On  this  occasion  the  text2  was  i  Tim. 

1  Really  over  twenty-two. 

2  Doctor  Broadus  left  two  large  notebooks  filled  with  dates,  places,  and  texts  of  all 
the  sermons  preached  during  his  whole  life,  a  good  practice  for  all  preachers,    It  Is 
thus  profitable  to  see  some  of  his  homiletical  habits.    The  first  book  has  also  a  list 


4:8.  He  now  had  two  sermons.  On  the  afternoon  of 
the  same  day  he  preached  his  sermon  from  Ps.  62  :  8 
at  John  Lewis's  home  in  Culpeper.  On  August  3  he 
preached  at  Berryvilleon  Lam.  3  :  33.  The  subject  was 
chosen  because  it  was  a  "Fast  Day."  August  31  he 
preached  at  the  Brick  Church,  Culpeper,  during  the 
session  of  the  Shiloh  Association.  This  time  his  text 
was  Gal.  3:1.  On  September  3  he  preached  at  Cul- 
peper Court-House  from  Luke  8  :  39.  He  now  had  five 
sermons  and  had  preached  at  all  the  scenes  of  his  early 

In  September,  1849,  he  was  asked  to  be  permanent 
supply  for  the  Charlottesville  Baptist  Church.  His  bro- 
ther Madison  wants  him  to  do  it,  "  for  you  can  preach," 
he  says.  His  brother  had  previously  felt  grave  doubts 
of  his  success.  However,  he  wisely  declined  the  com- 
mittee's urgent  request  fiom  the  church.  Their  petition 
showed  their  estimate  of  the  young  preacher.  They 
urged  that  here  he  could  "cultivate  those  superior  tal- 
ents which  have  been  committed  to  you,  as  we  prayer- 
fully hope,  for  very  great  usefulness  in  the  vineyard  of 
our  Master." 

During  the  next  session  (the  last)  he  pteached  seven 
times  for  the  country  churches  around  Charlottesville. 
Once  during  the  spring  of  1850  he  preached  for  the  col- 
ored Baptist  congregation  of  Charlottesville.  His  text 
on  this  occasion  was  Heb.  4  :  16.  Rev.  J.  R.  Scott1  had 
often  urged  him  to  study  "  Butler's  Analogy  "  and  preach 
to  the  Negroes.  He  always  commended  to  his  students 
this  sound  advice. 

During  the  last  session  John  A.  Broadus  was  one  of 
the  editors  of  the  "  Jefferson  Monument  Magazine,"  and 

of  the  themes  and  texts  of  Rev.  J.  R.  Scott,  Chaplain  at  the  University  while  Mr 
Broadus  was  a  student, 
i  See  "  Broadus's.  History  of  Preaching,"  p.  108. 


exhibited  great  diligence  in  securing  contributions  from 
old  students  and  other  prominent  friends  of  the  Univer- 
sity. He  was  also  the  leader  of  the  chapel  choir,  and 
thus  found  useful  his  music  which  he  had  learned  in 
Clarke.  Prof.  F.  H.  Smith  entered  as  a  student  this 
year.  He  and  Mr.  Broadus  soon  became  warm  friends. 
He  thus  describes  Broadus  : 

My  first  meeting  with  him  was  in  October,  1849,  at  the  students' 
weekly  prayer  meeting,  then  held  on  Sunday  afternoon  in  the  parlor 
of  Mr.  Addison  Maupin.  It  was  just  after  my  first  matriculation  in 
the  University.  At  a  certain  stage  of  the  meeting  a  student  of  strik- 
ing personal  appearance  and  bright  dark  eyes  glowing  with  the  light 
of  intellect  rose  to  speak  and  drew  the  attention  of  all.  I  was  at 
once  impressed  with  the  force,  propriety,  and  simplicity  of  his  brief 
utterances.  There  were  a  maturity  and  sense  in  what  he  said  that 
marked  him  as  no  common  student.  I  soon  learned  that  he  was 
John  A.  Broadus,  the  son  of  Major  Edmund  Broadus,  who  lived  on 
Monroe  Hill,  near  by.  We  were  thereafter  thrown  much  together. 
We  often  met  at  Dr.  Gessner  Harrison's  house,  being  attracted 
thither  by  similar  reasons.  In  that  drawing  room  young  Broadus 
could  gratify  his  uncommon  taste  for  and  enjoyment  of  instrumental 
and  vocal  music.  He  was  quite  a  singer,  and  while,  like  others  of 
us,  he  had  no  great  voice,  he  more  than  made  up  for  the  deficiency 
by  the  thoroughness  of  his  knowledge  of  the  art  of  music  and  the 
precision  of  his  execution — qualities  which,  I  afterwards  found,  be- 
longed to  all  that  he  did  in  every  department  of  effort.1 

Mr.  Broadus's  health  was  not  so  good  the  last  session. 
He  began  to  feel  the  severe  strain  of  his  exertions  and 
was  neglecting  his  regular  walks.  A  young  friend  of  his 
consented  to  walk  with  him  every  afternoon.  Thus  he 
gained  exercise  and  inspiration  in  the  company  of  the 
charming  woman  who  was  soon  to  become  his  wife. 
Miss  Harrison's  sympathy  and  approbation  buoyed  him 
during  all  this  stress  of  work.  She  was  thus  able  to  bring 
out  the  side  of  his  nature  that  school  life  usually  warps. 

In  the  spring  of  this  closing  session  Mr.  Broadus  ac- 

1  "  Religious  Herald,"  March  21,  1895. 


cepted  a  position  to  teach  at  Bremo,  the  home  of  General 
Cocke,  in  Fluvanna.  There  was  a  cloud  before  him 
during  these  months  on  account  of  his  father's  health, 
which  was  gradually  but  surely  failing.  He  had  come  to 
the  University  to  educate  his  boy  and  succeeded,  but  he 
died  June  27,  1850,  two  days  before  John  was  to  deliver 
his  graduating  address.  As  he  stood  by  his  father's  bed- 
side, he  said  :  "I  shall  not  make  my  graduating  speech, 
father.1'  "Yes,"  said  his  father,  "for  I  am  dying." 
Major  Broadus's  death  caused  widespread  regret  all  over 
the  State,  for  he  was  a  man  of  mark  and  of  great  per- 
sonal worth  and  force  of  character.  The  speech  was 
afterwards  published  in  the  "Jefferson  Monument  Mag- 
azine," for  January,  1851,  and  created  marked  interest. 
The  subject  was:  "Human  Society  in  its  Relation  to 
Natural  Theology."  The  address,  a  tribute  to  the  power 
of  Doctor  McGuffey  over  him,  showed  maturity  and 
vigor.  There  were  six  who  received  the  degree  of  M.  A, 
on  graduating  day,  June  29.  John  A.  Broadus  and  Rich- 
ard Davis  were  four-year  men  ;  W.  W.  Henry  and  R.  P. 
Latham,  three-year  men ;  Wm.  LeRoy  Broun  and  John  T. 
Points,  two-year  men.  Three  entered  the  ministry — 
Broadus,  Points,  and  Davis;  one  (Broun)  became  a  pro- 
fessor; two  entered  the  law  (Henry  and  Latham).  Mr. 
Broadus,  of  course,  was  not  present.  Dr.  Gessner  Har- 
rison, chairman  of  the  faculty,  remarked  in  noting  his  ab- 
sence, that  the  University  had  never  turned  out  a  better 
scholar.  One  can  only  imagine  the  mingled  emotions 
with  which  young  Broadus  closed  his  scholastic  career  at 
the  University.  Light  and  shadow  were  strangely  mingled 
on  that  day.  Already  large  things  were  being  said  of  him. 
Hon.  W.  W.  Henry  says  that,  as  he  watched  him  at  the 
University,  he  came  "to  predict  for  him  a  great  future." 
Long  years  afterwards,  Prof.  F,  H,  Smith  will  call  this 
vouth  the  University  of  Virginia's  "greatest  alumnus." 



Dreams,  books,  are  each  a  world ;  and  books,  we  know, 
Are  a  substantial  world,  both  pure  and  good. 

— Word&wortb. 

LET  no  one  think  that  Mr.  Broadus  had  given  up  his 
intention  of  preaching  because  he  had  accepted  a 
position  as  tutor  in  the  delightful  home  of  Gen.  J.  H. 
Cocke  (Bremo,  in  Fluvanna  County).  He  was  in  no 
hurry  to  assume  the  heavy  responsibilities  of  the  pastor- 
ate. This  school  in  the  country  offered  a  period  of  quiet 
reflection  and  study  to  the  overworked  University  gradu- 
ate. General  Cocke  was  a  stanch  friend  of  the  Univer- 
sity. It  was  this  interest  that  attracted  him  to  Mr. 

GENERAL  COCKE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BREMO,  April  22,  1850 :  Yours  of  the  i6th  inst  was  duly  re- 
ceived. My  offer  through  Doctor  McGuffey  was  made  in  reference 
to  the  very  small  school  now  in  my  house,  consisting  of  five  schol- 
ars and  two  day  scholars  from  the  neighborhood.  .  .  If  we  can  add 
five  more  scholars  as  boarders,  I  would  be  willing  to  increase  the 
number  to  ten,  and  in  that  case  I  should  allow  you  fifty  dollars  in 
addition  for  each  scholar  over  five.  .  .  It  may  be  proper  here  to  re- 
mark, in  adding  to  the  boarding  pupils,  I  wish  the  school  to  be  select. 
I  should  be  unwilling  to  take  any  pupil  over  the  age  of  my  two 
grandsons,  both  of  whom  are  now  in  their  fourteenth  year,  unless 
they  could  be  vouched  for  as  boys  of  more  than  ordinary  good  breed- 
ing and  good  character. 

BREMO,  May  10,  1850 :  In  reply  to  your  inquiry  as  to  the  com- 
mencement of  the  school,  the  first  Monday  in  October  is  the  time 
I  shall  prefer,  if  suitable  to  your  convenience. 


Nobody  can  fail  to  be  pleased  with  young  Henson,1  he  is  a  prod- 
igy. I  shall  not  fail  to  do  all  I  can  to  get  him  into  the  University. 

Sunday,  July  14,  1850,  Mr.  Broadus  preached  for  the 
first  time  for  the  Charlottesville  Baptist  Church,  his  text 
being  Heb.  n  :  6.  He  had  steadily  resisted  the  tempta- 
tion to  spoil  his  University  course  by  too  much  preaching. 
How  often  in  later  years  he  poured  this  advice  into  ears 
all  too  unwilling  to  heed.  He  always  insisted  that  it  was 
far  better  to  be  thorough  in  one's  educational  foundation, 
so  as  to  have  all  the  more  to  build  on,  than  to  rush  head- 
long through  one's  school  days  at  breakneck  speed.  Let 
his  example  be  a  lesson  in  self-restraint  to  every  ambi- 
tious young  preacher  who  is  lured  into  too  many  outside 
activities.  If  a  theological  seminary  had  been  accessible 
to  Mr.  Broadus  he  would  eagerly  have  sought  its  advan- 
tages. He  strongly  felt  the  need  of  theological  training 
and  for  advice  wrote  to  Mr.  Scott,  who  had  recently  been 
chaplain  at  the  University,  a  minister  of  culture  and 
ability.  Mr.  Scott's  letter  shows  what  was  then  con- 
sidered the  theological  outfit  of  a  young  minister. 

REV.  J.  R.  SCOTT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

PORTLAND,  ME.,  July  23,  1850:  I  am  favorably  impressed  with 
what  you  say  of  your  arrangements  for  the  coming  year.  You 
will  lose  nothing  by  teaching,  while  your  situation  at  General 
Cocke's  will  afford  you  facilities  for  making  many  valuable  ac- 
quaintances, for  quiet  study,  and  for  acquiring  practical  skill  in 
preaching.  You  will  find  it  both  pleasant  and  profitable  to  inter- 
pose between  the  University  and  your  future  sphere  of  public  activ- 
ity, whatever  and  wheiever  it  may  be,  a  period  of  retirement,  in 
which  to  digest  your  past  acquisitions,  observe  the  indications  of 
Providence,  and  lay  your  plans  the  more  definitely  and  deeply  for  a 
useful  and  honorable  careen  I  could  wish  that  after  the  expiration 
of  your  engagement  in  Fluvanna,  you  might  pass  some  time  at  a 

1  P.  S,  Henson.  Fluvanna  was  famous  for  its  persimmons.  Doctor  Henson  often 
remarked  that  Fluvanna  only  raised  persimmons  and  men,  but  they  were  men.  Young 
Henson  was  a  "  boy  "  preacher,  but  one  who  was  wisely  sent  to  school  and  gained  an 


theological  institution,  but  I  am  by  no  means  so  solicitous  in  your 
case  as  I  should  be  in  that  of  one  who  was  averse  to  study,  or  knew 
not  how  1o  study  progressively,  or  had  lower  aims. 

You  ask  me  to  advise  you  with  regard  to  books — "something 
which  will  serve  somewhat  as  a  foundation  for  theological  study." 
Bearing  in  mind  what  you  have  I  will  do  the  best  I  can.  I  would  not 
be  satisfied  without  at  least  enough  of  Hebrew  to  enable  me  to  ap- 
preciate the  force  of  any  criticism  on  the  original  text.  Of  course, 
here,  you  will  naturally  look  to  Doctor  Harrison  for  guidance.  Doc- 
tor McGuffey  too,  will  doubtless  take  much  pleasure  in  making  you 
many  valuable  suggestions  on  books  in  various  departments.  You 
will  find  much  reliable  information  in  **  Stuart's  Critical  History  and 
Defense  of  the  Old  Testament  Canon,"  and  m  "  Kitto's  Biblical 
Cyclopaedia,"  the  former  costing  about  a  dollar  and  a  quarter  and 
the  latter  six  or  seven  dollars.  In  theology,  Knapp  and  Turrettin, 
or  any  of  the  Genevan  divines,  go  well  together.  These  cost,  I 
suppose,  some  ten  dollars.  Neander  is  the  prince  of  ecclesiastical 
historians.  Some  of  his  biographies,  such  as  his  "  Life  of  Christ," 
and  "Life  of  Chrysostom,"  would  interest  and  benefit  you  much, 
although  you  must  keep  a  good  eye  to  his  notions  on  inspiration. 
Gieseler's  "  Church  History  "  you  will  find  valuable  for  its  succinct- 
ness, «.  *.,  of  the  text,  the  notes  being  very  full.  Ten  dollars  might 
be  spent  here  to  very  good  purpose.  Robinson  and  Smith  are,  of 
course,  the  Scripture  geographers.  By  the  by,  you  would  do  well  to 
take  the  " Btbliotheca  Sacra"  the  back  numbers  of  which  also  are 
quite  a  thesaurus.  Our  own  "  Christian  Review,"  I  hope,  is  now 
likely  to  be  worth  patronage.  Three  dollars  a  year,  published  by 
Ballard  &  Colby,  New  York.  Bloomfield's  Greek  Testament, 
though  very  defective  in  its  theology,  is  probably  as  good  an  au- 
thority on  the  state  of  the  Greek  text  as  you  will  find.  Four  dollars. 
You  would  do  well  to  dip  into  the  old  English  divines  occasionally — 
Howe,  Owen,  South,  Jer.  Taylor,  Leighton,  and  Barrow.  I  need  not 
say  make  Butler  a  •oade  mecum.  Should  you  wish  to  settle  your  views 
on  the  atonement,  read  Symington  and  Jenkyn,  and  you  will  prob- 
ably take  a  mean  between  them,  and  hit  about  right.  You  will  de- 
rive much  benefit  from  filling  up  leisure  hours  with  reading  Robert 
Hall,  Foster,  Wayland's  "  University  Sermons,"  and  William  R.  Wil- 
liams' "  Miscellanies."  But  I  am  only  telling  you  what  you  know 
already,  as  well  as  I  do.  Should  any  suggestion  in  relation  to  your 
course  occur  to  me  hereafter,  I  should  be  happy  to  communicate  it  to 
you,  if  you  will  pardon  the  meagreness  of  the  above. 

You  know  my  opinion  of  your  lady-love.    At  least,  I  think  I  have 


expressed  it  to  you.  If  I  never  did,  I  will  now  say  that  I  consider 
Maria  Harrison  as  one  of  the  very  choicest  young  ladies  with  whom 
I  had  the  happiness  of  becoming  acquainted  in  Virginia.  She  is  no 
meie  toy.  With  all  of  feminine  delicacy  that  could  be  asked,  she  is 
rich  in  substantial  excellencies.  She  will  never  play  the  Uue  with  you, 
and  yet  she  will  not  tolerate  you  in  mental  rust-gathering.  I  do  in- 
deed congratulate  you,  and  (you  may  whisper  it  in  her  ear)  her  too. 

GENERAL  COCKE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BREMO,  August  i,  1850:  I  am  glad  to  learn  your  willingness  to 
preach  to  our  people  at  our  chapel.  Christians  in  our  country  have 
an  awful  account  to  settle  for  their  neglect  of  the  slave  population. 
I  have  been  long  desirous  to  do  what  I  could  in  that  way ;  would  to 
God  I  could  say  my  skirts  were  clear. 

W.  LE  ROY  BROUN  to  J.  A.  B  : 

MlDDLEBURG,  VA  ,  August  6,  1850:  There  is  also  another  sub- 
ject in  which  I  imagine  you  feel  some  interest,  and  in  regard  to 
which  I  would  like  to  have  your  advice.  The  question  is  as  to  the 
continuation  of  the  magazine  next  session.  Probably  you  are  not 
aware  that  an  effort  will  be  made  at  the  beginning  of  the  session  to 
discontinue  its  further  publication,  and  indeed,  should  the  students 
order  its  continuance  great  difficulty  will  be  experienced  in  getting 
subscribers.  As  many  of  the  old  students  will  refuse,  and  from 
their  influence  many  of  the  new  ones  will  fear  to  enter  upon  it,  I 
am  in  favor  of  relinquishing  the  attempt,  unless  we  can  get  good 
assurances  that  each  number  will  be  filled  with  good  contributions. 

For  the  good  of  the  University  we  must  abandon  the  idea  of  rais- 
ing a  monument  to  Jefferson,  unless  we  effect  a  change. 

What  plan  do  you  propose?  I  wish  you  could  be  with  us  all  for  a 
while  next  year,  and  then  we  might  hope  for  its  success. 

Probably  with  the  aid  of  a  little  "  wire  working,"  etc.,  we  may  get 
the  current  in  its  favor  at  the  very  beginning,  and  then,  with  a  few 
good  backers,  failure  will  be  impossible. 

But  this  is  certain,  we  must  give  up  the  ship  unless  we  see  clearly 
that  we  will  far  surpass  everything  of  the  kind  published  in  the 

In  August  we  find  Mr.  Broadus  back  in  Culpeper  visit- 
ing his  brother,  J.  M.  Broadus,  his  sister,  Mrs*  Bickers, 
and  other  friends,  and  preaching  at  Culpeper  Courf 


House,  apparently  in  a  revival.  On  Monday  (second 
Monday),  August  12,  a  presbytery  assembled  at  New 
Salem  for  the  ordination  of  Mr.  Broadus  ;  the  church  had 
called  for  his  ordination  at  the  July  meeting.  The  sermon 
was  preached  by  Rev.  H.  W.  Dodge.  Rev.  Barnett 
Grimsley  and  Rev.  Cumberland  George  assisted  in  the 
exercises.  J.  M.  Broadus  acted  as  clerk. 

GENERAL  COCKE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BREMO,  Aug.  23,  1850 :  I  am  authorized  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Moore, 
pastor  of  the  Baptist  church  at  the  Fork  Union  in  this  vicinity,  and 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Tyree,  of  Powhattan,  to  invite  you  to  come  over  and 
assist  them  in  the  winding  up  of  a  meeting  of  ten  days  and  still 
continued  with  increasing  interest. 

The  last  of  August  Mr.  Broadus  attended  the  Shiloh 
Association,  which  met  this  year  at  Bethel  Church,  four 
or  five  miles  from  the  house  of  Mr.  George  Ficklin,  where 
a  few  weeks  before  Rev.  James  P.  Boyce  and  his  bride 
had  been  visiting. 

If  Boyce  had  remained  a  little  longer,  he  would  have  attended  also, 
for  he  was  fond  of  Associations,  and  two  who  were  destined  to  toil 
so  long  together  would  have  met  years  before  they  did  meet.  Haw- 
thorne has  a  quaint  story  to  illustrate  how  things  come  very  near 
happening,  and  do  not  happen.1 

Mr.  Broadus  "was  frightened  by  being  asked  to 
preach"  before  a  Baptist  Association,  and  apparently 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  MARIA  HARRISON  : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Sept.  9,  1850 :  .  .  Sunday  morning 
I  heaid  Mr.  Bennett 3  for  the  first  time— very  good  sermon.  He  had 
to  leave,  and  asked  me  to  preach  for  him  in  the  evening.  I  obeyed 
and  did  it.  Had  a  full  house,  indeed  crowded,  but  I  fear  they  won't 
continue  to  turn  out  so  for  me,  for  I  spoke  almost  an  hour,  I  reckon, 

„*  Broadus1  s  "  Memoir  of  James  P.  Boyce/'  footnote,  p.  8x 
*  Methodist  minister  in  Char lottesvi lie. 


and  am  afraid  there  seemed  to  be  a  great  deal  of  youthful  extrava- 
gance in  what  was  said.  However,  let  it  go.  Your  pa  was  there 
in  the  morning  and  went  down  with  me  at  night.  .  . 

Will  you  speak  of  me  and  of  my  regard  to  your  dear  grandmamma 
and  to  all  the  family.  I  have  no  disposition  to  make  speeches  about 
it,  but  I  bore  away  with  me  many  pleasant  feelings  and  I  cherish 
now  many  delightful  recollections  of  Harnsonburg  and  its  citizens, 
and  especially  those  whom  I  loved  before  as  your  friends,  but  love 
still  more  now  as  my  own.  Do  not  forget  my  warm  regards  to  Mr. 
Stevens  and  to  your  Aunt  Margaret.  .  . 

May  God  bless  you,  dearest  Maria,  and  help  you  to  trust  m  him, 
and  to  believe  in  Jesus,  the  Saviour  of  the  lost.  May  he  piotect  you 
in  all  your  goings — may  he  grant  to  you  and  to  me  what  is  most  to 
be  desired,  a  life  of  active  usefulness,  a  death  of  Christian  peace,  a 
final  admittance  to  his  own  presence  in  heaven. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Sept.  n,  1850  :  I  have  been  succeed- 
ing so  beautifully,  since  Monday  afternoon,  when  I  wrote,  in  doing 
nothing,  that  I  want  you  to  join  me  in  rejoicing.  To  be  sure,  I  had 
to  go  to  town  and  to  write  letters,  to  visit  the  Misses  McGuffey  last 

night,  and  spend  several  hours  with  Mr.  McG this  morning  in 

conference  about  my  Bible  teaching.  Then  I  have  studied  the  Hebrew 
a  little,  looked  through  Mr.  Davies'  book  on  mathematics,  studied 
several  chapters  of  Chalmers'  Theology,  read  something  in  the 
"Southern  Literary  Messenger"  and  the  newspapers,  and  made 
some  little  progress  in  drawing  off  and  settling  accounts.  It  takes 
some  time  too  for  the  Greek  Testament  and  other  reading,  of 
course.  .  . 

Don't  forget  to  know  those  Hebrew  verbs.    D'ye  hear? 

BREMO,  Monday  afternoon,  Oct.  7,  1850:  We  reached  Bremo 
at  3.30  P.  M.  It  is  certainly  a  pretty  and  pleasant  place.  I  have  no 
"  talent"  for  describing,  and  so  I  will  not  attempt  it.  I  was  pleased 
though,  and  am  pleased,  with  the  appearance  and  arrangement  of 
the  plai.e,  the  house,  and  the  household.  Of  course  I  do  not  expect 
to  be  free  from  annoyances,  but  I  have  a  firm  belief,  yes,  a  very  de- 
lightful assurance,  that  you  and  I  will  be  able  to  spend  the  months 
of  our  abode  here  with  as  little  trouble  as  we  have  any  right  to 

Monday  Night,  nine  o'clock. 

I  have  spoken  of  the  matter  to  the  "  Gen'l,"  and  he  agrees  with 
great  readiness  to  what  is  proposed.  "  A  very  reasonable  proposi- 


tion,"  etc.  "A  very  suitable  plan,"  etc.  "  There  could  most  as- 
suredly be  no  objection,  on  such  an  occasion,  and  he  would  take 
great  pleasure  in  doing  anything  he  can  to  aid  in  the  execution  of 
the  plan."  So  the  matter  is  settled.  .  . 

Well,  but  I  haven't  told  you  yet  whether  I  am  pleased  with  the 
idea.  I  said  the  "  Gen'l "  agreed  to  it,  but  didn't  say  that  I  did.  .  . 

Well,  no  such  thing  was  ever  heard  of  as  a  man's  being  unwill- 
ing to  take  the  most  pleasant,  most  delightful  trip,  after  his  mar-;- 
riage ;  and  now  what  a  splendid  opportunity  for  me  to  distinguish 
myself,  to  become  charmingly  notorious  for  eccentricity !  On  the 
other  hand  though,  so  I  reason  :  It  will  be  very  pleasant  to  ripen  off 
my  green  anyway — especially  in  a  "  Northern  city  " — and  most  of 

all,  in  company  with .    Again,  it  would  be  delightful  to  hear 

Jenny  Lind,  even  without  you — it  will  be  more  delightful  to  be  with 
you  and  not  hear  the  Lind — and,  by  every  principle  of  good  reasoning, 
good  sense,  and  good  taste,  it  is,  it  would  be,  it  must  be  most  de- 
lightful to  hear  the  song  standing  by  her  side  who  first  gave  me 
some  faint  idea  of  the  spirit-moving  power  that  dwells  in  music.  .  . 

Commence  my  school  this  morning— nine  of  the  boys  in  ;  there 
will  most  probably  be  fourteen.  Certain  it  is,  I  have  to  work  hard. 
Even  now,  I  must  cease  writing  to  my  lady  love,  and  look  over  les- 
sons for  to-morrow. 

Preached  yesterday  twice— in  the  afternoon  at  Bremo  chapel. 
The  people  listened,  whether  with  pleasure  and  profit  I  cannot  know. 
I  think  I  shall  not  undertake  the  regular  service  at  the  chapel.  Am 
unwilling  to  turn  out  the  present  incumbent. 

BREMO,  Oct.  14, 1850 :  Another  application  to-day  for  a  pupil.  I 
did  not  see  the  lad  myself  (he  came  to  see  about  it),  but  he  told 
"  Gen'l "  he  would  go  home  and  learn  what  his  father  thought 
best.  I'll  take  in  several  more  if  they  will  board  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, for  (did  you  know  it  ?)  I  calculate  upon  having  after  a  while 
a  little  occasional  aid  in  managing  some  of  the  beginners  from  a 
highly  competent  friend  of  mine.  .  . 

Now  just  please  to  understand  me,  I  am  not  arranging  to  make  you 
a  country  schoolmaster's  assistant,— no,  no,  it  is  bad  enough  to  be 
a  country  schoolmaster's  wife,— I  have  only  been  thinking  that  you 
might  sometimes,  when  it  was  convenient  and  if  it  was  agreeable  to 
you,  go  in,  especially  if  I  happened  to  be  pressed,  and  hear  little 
Moseley  or  someof  the  Memoiiter  Latin  Grammar  Lessons,  and  so  on. 

BREMO,  Friday,  Oct.  18,  1850:  I  find  it  difficult  to  "  arrange  the 
lectures,"  very  difficult.  Just  think,  out  of  twelve  boys  I  have  five 



different  classes  in  Latin,  two  in  Greek,  two  in  geometry,  four  in 
algebra,  one  boy  studying  arithmetic ;  then  there  is  the  thirteenth, 
little  Moseley,  who  is  of  course  by  himself  altogether.  We  have 
made  a  little  beginning  in  the  study  of  Scripture  history ;  I  divide 
all  the  boys  into  two  classes,  each  reciting  every  other  day— the 
smaller  ones  are  to  read  some  of  the  narratives,  as  the  story  of 
Abraham,  of  Jacob,  of  Joseph,  of  Moses,  of  Samson,  etc.,  the  other 
class  are  reading  the  history  connectedly,  with  some  little  atten- 
tion to  chronology.  I  do  not  want  to  try  to  teach  them  theology 
for  more  reasons  than  because  I  don't  know  it  myself.  Nor  do 
I  seek  to  have  them  study  the  Bible  particularly—it  is  only  to  in- 
duce them  to  r&ad  it  with  interest  and  attention  and  to  give  them 
such  helps  in  understanding  and  remembering  the  history  (for  it  is 
as  sacred  history  that  we  read  it)  as  my  information  and  time  will 
permit.  I  am  glad  to  find  that  the  boys  take  a  good  deal  of  interest 
in  the  reading,  though  I  have  not  been  able  to  get  more  than  five 
or  ten  minutes  to  talk  with  them  about  what  they  have  been 
reading.  I  am  sure  it  can  be  made  interesting.  I  wish  much  that 
I  knew  more  about  it,  and  had  more  time. 

There  are  a  number  of  things  which  ought  to  be  going  on  in 
school,  that  I  have  not  been  able  yet  to  attend  to  at  all.  Many  of 
the  boys  ought  to  read  for  exercise— all  ought  to  wr tit— some  to  spell. 
And  then,  geography,  modern  and  ancient,  and  I  know  not  how 
many  more  things.  When  and  how  I  am  to  attend  to  all  these  is 
more  than  I  can  at  present  exactly  see  through,  but  I  mean  to  toil 
on.  Many  a  time  I  have  had  to  encounter  difficulties,  and  not 
always  without  success  ;  and  I'll  labor,  yes,  labor  on.  It  is  good  for 
us  sometimes  to* be  troubled,  since  it  drives  us  to  the  Great  Com- 
forter ;  for  it  is  good  to  feel  our  weakness  and  insufficiency,  and  then 
go  to  the  Source  of  Strength. 

I  am  prone  to  impatience,  and  I  see  that  I  shall  have  many  a  bat- 
tle to  fight  with  myself— may  I  always  be  conqueror. 

About  the  piano,  I  am  glad  of  course.  I  had  made  up  my  mind 
to  get  one,  although  my  scanty  resources  might  not  very  well  afford 

it.  General  C would  not  dream  of  being  unwilling  for  you  to 

bring  a  piano  with  you— I  mean,  to  bring  one  here  of  your  own.  It 
was  only  the  idea  of  my  getting  one  that  I  thought  possibly  he 
might  dislike.  As  to  the  flute,  I  shall  not  be  apt  (at  least  not  often) 
to  spoil  your  music  in  that  way ;  but  I  want  to  overcome  the  foolish 
feeling  which  makes  me  unwilling  to  blow  at  all,  because  I  know  I 
cannot  do  it  well ;  for  the  same  feeling  applied  to  other  things  would 
stop  all  my  singing,  preaching,  teaching,  and  everything  else.  In- 


deed,  I  think  of  only  one  thing  I  am  able  to  do  well,  and  that  is— 
\<we  you. 

BREMO,  Nov.  5,  1850 :  It  is  a  pleasant  thought  to  me,  Maria  dear- 
est, that  before  there  would  be  occasion  for  me  to  write  to  you  again, 
you  will  have  become  fully  my  own.  It  has  been  a  most  delightful 
correspondence  I  have  had  with  you  this  long  time,  as  my  affianced. 
Welcome,  welcome,  and  precious  have  been  those  frequent  messen- 
gers from  my  beloved  one.  My  heart  bounds  at  the  very  remem 
brance  of  the  delight  with  which  I  have  so  often  gazed  upon  the 
well-known  characters  in  which  you  trace  my  name.  The  little  mis- 
sives of  last  session,  that  long  letter  from  Harrisonburg,  and  all  the 
precious  ones  since  I  left  the  University,  all  together  form  a  rich 
treasure,  that  will  be  preserved  while  I  have  power  to  preserve  any- 
thing. .  . 

It  seems  to  me  I  love  you  more  and  more,  dear  Maria,  as  that  day 
approaches,  and  I  have  an  idea  that  is  even  so  with  you.  Oh,  that 
your  hopes  of  enjoyment  in  the  society  of  the  man  you  love  may 
not  be  disappointed  !  Sometimes  I  cannot  but  fear,  yet  such  times 
come  not  often—you  were  made  to  be  loved,  I  will  love  you,  you 
will  be  happy. 

The  wedding  took  place  at  Dr.  Harrison's  house,  Nov. 
13,  1850.  On  the  following  day  the  happy  couple  set 
out  for  Philadelphia  to  visit  the  bride's  grandfather,  Mr. 
Tucker.  The  Academy  of  Design  gave  Mr.  Broadus  his 
first  opportunity  for  studying  fine  pictures  and  statues. 
He  always  found  keen  delight  thereafter  in  art.  They 
returned  by  Richmond  and  took  the  canal  boat  up  the 
James  to  Seven  Islands  and  thence  to  Bremo. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. 

CULPEPER,  Nov.  19,  1850:  I  have  authority  enough  to  justify 
me  in  presenting  to  "  John  and  his  Lady  "  such  lively  congratula- 
tions, as  one  having  a  high  appreciation  of  the  connection  you  have 
formed  might  be  expected  to  offer.  You  have  reached  the  highest 
point  of  human  felicity— henceforth,  not  a  wave,  etc.,  etc.  Is  that 
the  idea?  No,  you  are  too  wise  for  that. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VA.,  Dec.  23, 1850 :  Maria  has  come  to-day  to 


pay  us  a  visit  from  her  new  home  at  General  Cocke's,  where  her 
husband,  Rev.  John  A.  Broadus,  teaches  a  school.  She  was  mar- 
ried a  little  more  than  a  month  ago  to  a  young  Baptist  minister  who 
graduated  here  last  June  as  M,  A.,  and  who  is  a  young  man  of 
much  promise.  He  has  no  fortune,  but  has  an  uncommonly  excellent 
education  and  fine  abilities.  I  think  he  is  well  calculated  to  make 
her  happy,  and  we  have  willingly  committed  her  to  the  care  of  the 
same  Providence  which  has  guided  us  hitherto. 

Dr.  Geo.  B.  Taylor  kindly  allows  us  to  quote  from  the 
manuscript  of  his  sketch  of  Dr.  Broadus  for  the  new 
volume  of  "Virginia  Baptist  Ministers,"  by  his  son,  Dr. 
Geo.  Braxton  Taylor : 

Well  do  I  remember  my  first  meeting  with  Broadus.  We  were  both 
teaching  in  Fluvanna  County,  Va.,  he  a  private  school  at  General 
Cocke's  place,  Bremo,  and  I,  just  graduated  from  Richmond  College, 
"an  old  field  school "  in  the  Fork  neighborhood.  We  met  in  1850  at 
the  James  River  Association,  Cumberland  Co.  [Booker's  meeting- 
house.] I  then  for  the  first  time  heard  him  preach,  his  text  being, 
"  O  foolish  Galatians,  who  hath  bewitched  you  ? "  and  a  very  witch- 
ing sermon  it  was.  But  no  less  a  spell  did  he  cast  over  me  by  his 
manner  and  conversation.  He  accepted  me  at  once  as  a  friend,  per- 
haps for  my  father's  sake,  as  I  loved  him  at  once  for  his  own.  He 
had  come  on  horseback  and  I  in  a  buggy  with  Mr.  Hen  son,  the 
father  of  Dr.  P.  S.  Henson,  who,  seeing  how  agreeable  it  would  be 
to  us  both,  very  amiably  gave  his  seat  m  the  carriage  to  Broadus 
and  took  the  horse,  which  was  rather  a  hard  trotter.  That  long 
ride  together,  which  however  seemed  short,  being  so  pleasant, 
cemented  our  friendship  more  than  brief  interviews  during  a  series 
of  years  could  have  done.  It  is  certain  that  from  that  date  he  was 
an  elder  brother  to  me  and  treated  me  with  such  frank  kindness  that 
I  always  felt  perfectly  free  in  my  intercourse  with  him.  His  six 
years  of  seniority,  and  more  than  proportional  attainments,  inspired 
my  respect ;  but  all  fear  was  cast  out  by  perfect  love,  while  from  that 
time  to  our  last  meeting  in  that  autumn  of  1887  he  called  me  George 
in  a  way  that  was  music  to  my  soul.  One  little  incident  of  that  day 
is  worth  mentioning.  We  stopped  by  a  wayside  spring  to  drink, 
and  when  I  wished  to  serve  him  first,  he  made  a  mock  bow  nearly 
to  the  ground,  accompanying  it  with  some  playful  protest  before  ac- 
cepting the  gourd.  Not  more  refreshing  was  the  water  of  that  spring 
than  the  gayety  which  naturally  welled  up  in  him  whenever  he  was 


with  intimate  friends  and  the  pressure  of  work  and  care  for  the  mo- 
ment removed.  This  capacity  of  his,  so  pleasant  to  all  who  en- 
joyed his  companionship,  was  invaluable  to  himself  as  relieving  the 
strain  on  life's  silver  cord. 

During  his  stay  in  Fluvanna  he  preached  several  times  at  the 
Brick  Church,  people  gathering  from  far  and  near  to  hear  him,  and 
as  the  pastorate  was  vacant  he  was  invited  to  it.  It  was  a  position 
pleasant  and  important,  but  one  of  the  brethren  shrewder  than  the 
rest  saw  that  the  brilliant  young  preacher  was  destined  to  a  loftier 
flight  and  could  not  under  any  circumstances  have  long  remained 

In  February  Mr.  Broadus  receives  official  notice  of  his 
election  to  the  professorship  of  ancient  languages  in 
Georgetown  College,  Kentucky. 

WM.  F.  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

SHELBYVILLE,  KY.,  February  22,  1851 :  This  morning  I  received 
a  letter  from  one  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Georgetown  College 
informing  me  that  you  had  been  unanimously  elected  to  fill  the  chair 
of  ancient  languages  in  said  college.  You  will,  of  course,  be  officially 
informed  of  your  appointment ;  but  such  is  my  anxiety  for  you  to 
accept,  that  I  cannot  forbear  to  write  you  a  private  note  on  the  sub- 
ject. Though  I  am  a  member  of  the  Board,  I  did  not  attend  last 
week,  because  I  knew  that  you  would  be  nominated,  and  delicacy 
dictated  that  I  should  have  no  hand  in  your  election. 

And  now,  my  good  boy,  let  your  uncle  advise  you  to  accept  this 
call.  The  college  stands  in  the  front  rank  of  Western  institutions, 
with  an  able  president,  and  a  Board  of  Trustees  second  to  none. 
Our  denomination  is  strong  and  wealthy  in  Kentucky,  and  the  col- 
lege is  rapidly  rising  in  their  affections. 

GESSNER  HARRISON  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  March  3, 1851 :  I  received  your  letter 
mentioning  your  Georgetown  College  appointment,  yesterday,  and 
have  looked  at  the  subject  as  carefully  and  with  as  much  fairness  as 
I  could.  But  I  ought  to  say  that  I  am  hardly  capable  of  weighing 
justly  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  such  an  appointment.  .  . 
I  would  seriously  doubt  if  this  be  such  an  offer  as  you  ought  to 

r.  It  blocks  up  your  way  to  the  ministry.  If  you  had  duties  to  en- 
gage your  time  and  talents,  your  theological  studies  must  be  aban- 


doned.  If  your  duties  did  not  thus  engage  you  they  cannot  be 
worthy  of  your  acceptance.  And  either  way,  you  cannot  expect  to 
preach  and  fairly  go  through  the  routine  of  college  duty. 

2.  Although  the  country  in  which  Georgetown  College  is  situated 
is  cheap  to  live  in,  judging  from  the  charge  for  board,  your  salary  of 
one  thousand  dollars  would  afford  you  little  more  than  a  bare  sup- 
port, after  buying  books,  etc. 

3.  You  can't  divine  beforehand  the  disappointments  of  being  a 
member  of  a  faculty  of  which  the  members  have  no  individuality, 
the  president  being  the  unit  that  stands  with  the  public  ( and  with  the 
trustees)  for  the  fractions  which  alone  the  other  professors  represent. 
This  supposing  the  president  to  be  a  fair-minded  gentleman.    The 
presumption  may  be  either  way.    This  objection  is  not  weaker  but 
stronger  for  all  sectarian  colleges    In  these  a  professor  is  limited  for 
his  reputation  to  his  own  sect— not  quite,  but  mainly,  and  as  the  sum 
total  of  it  is  necessarily  smaller  it  is  more  easily  absorbed  by  the 
president  for  some  pre-existing  reputation  with  his  sect,  commonly 
derived  from  popular  preaching  talent,  rather  than  from  his  scientific 
or  literary  attainments. 

4.  But  even  were  this  untrue,  what  field  is  open  to  a  man  of  higher 
aim  where  the  course  of  study  is  so  ordered  by  the  Board  of  Trustees 
(or  say  the  president)  that  the  professor  must  be  superficial,  more  or 
less,  or  derange  the  system  ?    He  has  one  resource  alone,  /.  *.,  to 
publish  books. 

5.  Lastly,  you  can  do  better  if  you  choose  to  teach  for  a  time, 
within  the  borders  of  Virginia,  and  retain  your  independence.    And 
then,  when  you  choose  you  can  enter,  Providence  opening  the  way, 
upon  your  chosen  calling,  that  of  the  ministry. 

There  are  my  views,  set  down  hurriedly  for  lack  of  time,  but  well 
considered  and  decided.  I  wish  you  to  attach  no  weight  to  them  be- 
yond what  they  carry  with  them.  If  you  think  differently,  and  you 
choose  to  accept,  I  would  still  suggest  that  you  should  reserve  to 
yourself  the  right  to  enter  the  ministry  so  soon  as  you  think  that 
you  ought. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B, : 

CULPEPER,  March  5, 1851 :  I  have  no  difficulty  in  deciding  that 
you  would  best  accept  the  Georgetown  offer,  if  (and  I  believe  it  is  so) 
the  college  there  is  a  respectable  affair,  and  if  you  can  venture  now 
upon  a  professorship  that  necessarily  includes,  as  I  suppose  ancient 
languages  in  Georgetown  College  does,  the  Hebrew.  I  have  always 
concurred  with  Doctor  McGuffey  in  the  opinion  that  you  are  to  spend 


your  life  as  a  college  man.  .  .  It  occurs  to  me  that  you  may  have 
difficulty  in  deciding  to  abandon  the  plans  you  may  have  formed  for 
being  a  learner  yet  longer— theology,  etc.  Well,  is  not  President 
Reynolds  a  theologian?  a  biblical  scholai  of  considerable  eminence? 
And  might  not  contact  with  him  be  as  profitable  to  you  as  any  other 
position  you  can  hope  soon  to  have?  And  would  not  your  opportu- 
nity for  extra  study  be  as  good  then  as  it  is  now  ?  I  cannot  suppose 
that  the  professor  of  ancient  languages  in  Georgetown  College 
must  necessarily  give  up  his  theological  studies  any  more  than  the 
professor  of  everything  in  Bremo  College.  I  confess  that,  if  in 
order  to  accept  this  plan  you  must  necessarily  turn  your  back  upon 
the  ministry,  my  decision  might  be  very  different,  but  I  will  not  think 
that  any  such  necessity  exists. 

DR.  W.  H.  McGUFFEY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  March  13, 1851 :  Doctor  Harrison  in- 
forms me  that  you  hold  under  advisement  an  appointment  from 
Kentucky.  Allow  me  to  hint  (without  intending  to  obtrude  advice) 
two  or  three  things  in  favor  of  your  accepting  the  place  offered : 

1.  It  would  almost  certainly  lead  to  your  transfer  (as  soon  as  that 
would  be  worth  your  attention)  to  a  place  in  the  theological  sem- 
inary at  Covington,  Ky.,  near  Cincinnati,  the  best  endowed  and 
most  desirable  institution  of  your  church  in  the  United  States. 

2.  It  would  be  no  bar,  but  the  contrary,  to  your  receiving  an  ap- 
pointment in  the  University  of  Virginia  (when  a  vacancy  occurs) 
that  you  were  (and  had  been)  a  professor  in  a  college,  etc. 

3.  Should  neither  of  these  result,  nor  anything  of  this  sort,  a  so- 
journ of  three  or  four  years  in  the  West  would  not  be  of  any  detri- 
ment to  you  (nor  your  good  lady,  I  ask  her  pardon),  and  we  can 
bring  you  back  and  reintroduce  you  to  the  Old  Dominion  as  chap- 
lain to  the  University  of  Virginia  when  it  is  the  turn  of  the  Baptist 
Church  to  furnish  the  incumbent. 

What  was  he  to  do  ?  The  questions  involved  were 
larger  than  the  mere  removal  to  another  State,  or  whether 
it  would  be  an  agreeable  position.  His  whole  career  in 
large  measure  hung  upon  the  decision.  Should  he  com- 
mit himself  to  teaching  ?  He  had  decided  to  preach  and 
was  steadily  preparing  himself  for  that  high  mission.  His 
work  in  Fluvann-a  was  only  designed  to  be  temporary. 


His  friend  Whitescarver  writes :  "  It  is  what  I  have  been 
fearing  and  what  I  have  been  expecting."  Finally  he 
sees  his  duty  and  declines. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CULPEPER,  March  28,  1851 :  Your  letter  received  this  morning, 
I  confess  rather  surprises  me.  I  expected  you  to  accept  the  George- 
town appointment,  confidently  expected  it,  and  have  told  many  per- 
sons that  you  would,  in  all  probability,  leave  Virginia  next  fall. 
Well,  perhaps  there  is  wisdom  in  your  decision,  but  if  there  is,  I 
acknowledge  my  judgment  is  at  fault.  So  far  as  I  am  personally 
concerned,  I  am  glad  that  you  are  (I  feel  so)  not  so  far  from  me.  .  . 

As  to  the  additional  d  I  have  but  little  to  say,  further  than  that  / 
shall  probably  never  adopt  it.  Certainly  I  shall  not,  if  it  is  to  be 
considered  an  abandonment  of  my  father's  name.  That  name  is  hon- 
orable enough  for  me,  and  more  sacred  than  any  other.  I  did  make 
the  change  once,  and  pursued  it  for  several  years,  but  afterwards 
got  back.  Father's  positive  refusal  to  yield  to  Uncle  William's  sug- 
gestions, is,  now  that  he  has  passed  away,  a  law  that  I  cannot  be 
persuaded  to  violate. 

WAI.  F.  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

FRANKFORT,  KY.,  March  30,  1851 :  Yesterday  I  was  in  George- 
town— saw  Doctor  Reynolds  and  several  members  of  our  Board. 
They  had  just  received  your  letter,  declining  the  appointment.  Oh, 
how  disappointed  was  I,  they,  all  of  us.  It  was  agreed  that  I  should 
visit  you  during  my  trip  to  Virginia  which  I  am  to  enter  upon  in  a 
few  days,  and  urge  your  acceptance.  I  think  I  can  convince  you 
that  you  ought  to  come,  and  then  I  take  it  for  granted  that  you  will 
come.  Nothing  will  be  done  here  towards  filling  the  vacancy  until  I 
see  you,  and  the  Board  hears  from  me. 

I  suppose  you  have  heard  of  my  house  burning.  I  lost  nearly  all 
my  earthly  substance.  But  I  am  in  good  spirits.  I  think  I  shall  teach 
no  more ;  at  any  rate  not  now.  But  I  expect  to  continue  in  Kentucky, 
though  I  may  not.  Excuse  haste.  I  will  soon  see  you  face  to  face. 
Prepare  for  a  siege.  I  am  commissioned  to  get  you  to  Kentucky,  and 
cannot  easily  be  turned  aside  from  it.  My  love  to  my  niece.  I  wish 
she  may  be  ready  to  aid  me  in  my  effort  to  bring  you  here. 

Mr.  Broadus  would  not  decide  great  questions  off- 
hand. He  took  time  to  see  a  subject  in  all  its  bearings 


so  that  he  could  reach  a  wise  decision  and  one  that  would 

ANDREW  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

SHELBY  CO.,  KY,,  March  3,  1851 :  I  am  sorry  that  I  am  so  little 
qualified  to  reply  to  your  inquiry  as  to  "how  far  Calvinism  should 
be  carried."  I  know  but  little  about  "  isms,"  and  desire  to  "  know 
nothing  among  the  people  but  Jesus  Christ  and  him  crucified."  My 
plan  has  been,  since  I  have  been  in  the  ministry,  to  avoid  as  much 
as  possible,  all  controversy  on  religious  subjects.  In  this  course,  I 
have  enjoyed,  no  doubt,  far  more  peace  of  mind  than  I  should  have 
done  had  I  been  a  controversialist.  It  is  a  point  well  settled  in  my 
mind  that  God  always  acts  in  accordance  with  an  eternal  purpose, 
else  how  can  many  portions  of  his  word  be  reconciled?  I  am  also 
well  convinced  that  Christ  and  the  apostles,  in  their  appeals  to  man- 
kind, recognized  no  impediment  in  the  way  of  any,  but  called  upon 
*'  all  men  everywhere  to  repent."  Now  because  I  cannot  fathom 
the  mystery  connected  with  God's  sovereignty  and  man's  accounta- 
bility, I  must  not  run  into  fatalism,  as  some  do ;  but  the  safe  plan, 
in  my  judgment,  is  that  of  Christ  and  his  apostles,  alluded  to  above. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CULPEPER,  Feb.  24,  1851 :  As  to  preaching,  could  you  not  give 
the  colored  people  the  same  sermon  that  you  put  upon  Fork  Union  ? 
Our  ablest  and  most  popular  ministers  do  that,  and  why  not  you  ? 
Perhaps,  though,  there  is  not  distance  enough  between  the  localities. 
That  is  all  important.  My  opinion  has  always  been  that  you  ought 
to  preach  as  frequently  as  possible.  The  habit  of  speaking  is  a  great 
acquisition.  Your  idea  is  that  the  habit  formed  must  be  a  good  and 
a  chaste  one.  Well,  maybe  so.  You  ought  to  know. 


PHILADELPHIA,  March  17,  1851 :  A  letter  from  your  mother,  this 
morning,  mentioned  you,  Mr.  B.  and  George,  and  she  told  us  of  Mr. 
Bioadus'  appointment  in  Kentucky.  I  had  no  doubt,  but  his  talents 
would  give  him  a  name  abroad,  as  well  as  at  home,  but  I  hope  when 
he  leaves  Virginia  (if  he  ever  should)  that  you  will  come  nearer  to 
us.  .  . 

Give  my  love  to  Mr.  B.,  for  I  must  love  those  who  love  you  and 
you  love  so  much,  I  hope  before  long  he  will  bring  you  to  see  us, 
and  stay  more  than  four  days ;  it  may  be,  that  he  will  be  coming  to 


publish  some  valuable  treatise  on  teaching,  say  some  literary  work  ; 
there  I  go  again  at  my  old  trade  of  castle  building.  .  . 

Did  you  ever  ask  Aunt  Caroline  to  send  you  the  pattern  you  prom- 
ised me  of  your  wedding  caps.  I  have  a  desire  to  get  it,  both  the 
shape  of  the  cap  and  the  bobbin-work  pattern.  . 

F.  H.  SMITH  to  J,  A.  B. : 

UNIVERSITY,  March  31,  1851:  Your  last  letter  contained  some 
instructions  with  regaid  to  the  publication  of  the  essay  which  I  en- 
deavored to  attend  to.  I  saw  Doctor  Harrison  in  reference  to  the 
preliminary  note  and  the  result  was  the  simple  introduction  you  saw 
at  the  bottom  of  the  page.  I  trust  that  the  number  of  copies  sent 
was  sufficient.  There  are  some  on  hand  yet  (of  the  extra  copies), 
and  if  you  wish  it,  1  will  enclose  you  more.  As  to  the  reception  of 
the  essay  here,  it  would  be  a  work  of  supererogation  to  say  any- 
thing. The  magazine  has  been  supported  very  well  indeed  for  sev- 
eral months.  There  has  been  no  dearth  of  contributions  as  in  the 
beginning  of  the  session.  The  impression  is  that  it  will  be  discon- 
tinued at  the  conclusion  of  the  present  session  and  it  will  certainly 
require  all  the  profits  of  last  year  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  present. 
In  view  of  this  and  the  fact  that  the  legislature  has  refused  to  con- 
sider the  motion  to  erect  the  statue,  the  University  will  for  many 
years  probably  be  without  any  such  memorial  of  her  founder.  For 
my  own  part,  I  consider  the  institution  itself  to  be  his  most  glorious 

I  heard  a  short  time  since  that  you  had  been  offered,  or  elected  to 
a  professorship  in  a  college  in  Kentucky.  Mrs.  Harrison  of  course 
was  strongly  opposed  to  a  proceeding  which  would  remove  you  so 
far  from  home,  and  indeed  all  seemed  gratified  when  intelligence 
came  that  you  had  declined  the  invitation.  By  the  way,  did  you 
hear  how  near  you  came  (unknown  to  yourself)  to  a  call  from  one 
of  the  Richmond  churches  ?  Bob  Coleman  told  me  that  on  occasion 
of  a  vacancy  there  he  had  taken  the  liberty  to  suggest  your  name  to 
the  authorities.  From  what  he  said  I  apprehend  it  only  needed  a 
personal  acquaintance  to  have  turned  the  scale  of  a  doubtful  vote. 

I  suppose  that  you  have  by  this  time  been  thoroughly  indoctri- 
nated into  all  the  quiet  gravity  and  domesticity  of  a  genuine  bene- 
dict. If  theie  is  any  man  within  the  limits  of  my  acquaintance 
whom  circumstances  seem  to  compel  to  be  happy,  that  one  is  your- 
self. I  wish  you  would  not  forget  your  experience  for  1  hope  to  re- 
ceive a  great  deal  of  good  advice  from  you,  not  many  years  hence. 
A  letter  from  home,  a  few  days  ago,  informed  me  that  their  wish. 


was  that  I  should  not  enter  active  life  for  seven  years,  or  more,  yet. 
I  thought  to  myself  that  there  would  be  a  disappointment  either  of 
their  expectations  or  mine,  not  of  the  latter  if  I  can  help  it.  I  expect 
ta  live  oyster-fashion  for  the  greater  part  of  this  week.  Mary  (the 
prefix  Miss  is  too  formal  and  cold)  has  gone  into  the  country  to  stay 
a  few  days,  in  what  direction  she  was  unable  to  inform  me,  except 
that  the  initial  movement  was  up  the  Hamilton  road. 

I  am  sustaining  at  present  here  a  kind  of  shuttlecock  character, 
knocked  about  between  old  Professor  Schele,  Doctors  Rogers  and 
McGuffey,  while  I  see  looming  up  in  the  dark  distance  an  additional 
force  in  the  shape  of  the  A.  M.  Reviewers.  Oh,  how  I  sigh  for 
those  good  old  days  of  Virgil's  pastorals  when  there  was  nothing  to 
do  but  "recumb"  under  the  shade  of  a  "patulus"  beech,  sing 
songs,  and  attend  to  sheep.  Glorious  old  Tityrus,  disturbed  by  no 
44  corkings  "  and  paying  for  no  midnight  oil !  Mixed  math,  is  get- 
ting beautifully  indefinite  about  this  time.  Some  of  us  are  decidedly 

moonstruck,  a  misfortune  due  to  P 7s  blunder  of  placing  the  lunar 

theory  first  Col.  Croset  happening  to  be  in  company  with  Mr. 
Courtenay,  the  other  day,  inquired  what  his  mixed  class  was  doing, 
and  on  being  told  that  they  were  engaged  in  discussing  some  knotty 
points  on  the  planetary  theory,  rolled  up  his  eyes,  raised  his  hands, 
and  gave  a  most  doleful  whistle. 

JAMES  THOMAS,  JR.,  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  May  22,  1851 :  I  have  not  the  pleasure  of  a  personal 
acquaintance  with  you.  Though  I  feel  so,  being  intimate  with  your 
friends  and  relations,  and  especially  on  long  and  intimate  terms  of 
friendship  with  your  revered  father.  .  . 

My  main  object  now  in  writing  is  to  induce  you  to  come  down 
to  our  anniversaries,  which  commence  to-morrow  week.  We  desire 
much  to  see  you  here  and  I  trust  you  will  feel  it  your  duty  to  come 
and  begin  at  once  to  throw  all  your  influence  in  these  great  entei- 
prises.  It  would  give  myself  and  family  great  delight  if  you  would 
come  and  bring  Mrs.  Broadus  with  you.  Just  come  to  my  house. 
It  would  take  you  but  a  few  days. 

Do  come.  Doctor  Fuller  will  be  at  the  house  on  Sunday  next 
and  I  hope  will  stay  until  after  the  meetings,  though  I  have  but  little 
hope  of  it. 

At  the  meeting  in  Richmond,  in  1851,  appeared  a  young  man, 
who,  along  with  two  other  brethren,  gave  in  their  names  as  dele- 
gates from  Fork  Union  Church  in  Fluvanna  County.  Enough  was 


known  of  the  young  man  to  lead  the  committee  on  church  services 
to  appoint  him  to  preach.  This  he  did,  and  in  a  day  or  two  returned 
to  his  school  in  Fluvanna  County.  His  name  was  John  A.  Broadus.1 

He  was  assigned  to  preach  at  the  First  Church,  and  his 
text  was  i  Cor.  I  :  23.  Mr.  James  Thomas  was  so  much 
interested  in  his  young  friend  after  this  visit  and  sermon 
that  he  requested  him  to  order  a  large  lot  of  books  for 
himself  at  his  expense.  (The  bill  amounted  to  eighty 

In  a  memorial  address  on  Doctor  Broadus,  Professor 
C.  L.  Cocke  says  of  this  occasion  : 

He  was  appointed  to  preach  on  Sunday  night  in  the  First  Baptist 
Church.  Before  the  hour  had  arrived,  that  spacious  auditorium  was 
crowded  to  overflowing.  Expectation  was  on  tiptoe,  and  most  in- 
tense. Every  eye  was  turned  toward  the  aisles  to  catch  a  glimpse 
of  the  young  preacher.  He  was  so  youthful  in  appearance,  so  frail, 
so  diminutive,  an  old  brother  sitting  by  whispered  in  my  ear,  "  He 
will  fail."  Soon  with  slow  and  graceful  step  he  approached  the 
desk  and  announced  the  opening  hymn.  In  clear  tones,  with  no 
tremor  of  voice  or  manner,  he  read  the  several  stanzas  and  took  his 
seat.  The  old  brother  whispered  again,  "  He  will  not  fail."  And 
fail  he  did  not ;  he  fully  sustained  his  early  fame.  His  sermon  was 
equal  to  the  demands  of  the  great  and  trying  occasion, — no  gush,  no 
attempt  at  mannerism  or  display  of  learning ;  it  was  the  pure  gospel 
in  simple,  earnest,  well-chosen  diction,  and  impressively  delivered. 
From  that  hour  to  the  day  of  his  death,  Doctor  Broadus  always  met 
occasions.  He  never  allowed  his  reputation  to  outrun  his  ability  or 
his  merit. 

JAMES  THOMAS,  JR.,  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  June  5,  1851 :  We  had  a  Mass  Education  Meeting 
on  Monday  night  at  which  it  was  proposed  to  raise  an  endowment  of 
one  hundred  thousand  dollars  for  Richmond  College.  Some  twelve  or 
thirteen  thousand  dollars  was  subscribed  on  the  spot,  a  very  small 
number  of  our  brethren  either  from  town  or  county  present.  From 
the  spirit  prevailing  I  trust  good  will  come.  Brother  Poindexter  was 
appointed  agent.  I  now  have  strong  hopes  that  our  denomination 

1  "  Religious  Herald,"  Nov.,  1896. 


in  the  State  will  rally  around  this  college  and  make  it  what  it  ought 
to  be— one  of  the  first,  worthy  of  the  denomination  and  of  the  State. 

Another  result  of  this  Richmond  visit  was  an  invitation 
to  be  pastoral  supply  of  the  Grace  Street  Church,  Rich- 
mond, during  the  absence  of  the  pastor,  Dr.  E.  Kings- 
ford,  in  Europe.  He  was  to  receive  the  regular  salary, 
but  he  declined  this  unanimous  call. 


UNIVERSITY,  June  19,  1851 :  I  have  heard  from  Mary  Spencer 
the  most  gratifying  accounts  of  the  impression  made  by  Mr.  Broadus 
in  Richmond.  Cousin  F.  Gwathmey  wrote  she  heard  he  preached 
a  very  fine  sermon,  and  Mr.  Smith  said  he  heard  a  letter  read  from 
a  lady  in  Richmond  who  said,  "  She  had  heard  of  Mr.  Broadus,  but 
he  far  surpassed  her  expectations."  The  general  impression  seems 

to  be  that  Mr.  B had  accepted  a  call  to  Richmond,    Cousin  F 

seemed  very  happy  in  the  prospect  of  having  her  "  sweet  little 
cousin."  Aunt  Otwayanna  said  she  was  silent  as  long  as  she  sup- 
posed there  was  any  chance  of  Mr.  B 's  accepting  a  call  to 

Lynchburg,  but  hearing  he  had  declined  coming,  she  very  openly 
expressed  her  opinion  as  to  its  being  a  very  wise  decision  on  his 

The  church  in  Lynchburg  made  renewed  efforts  to  get 
Mr.  Broadus  as  pastor.  Finally,  August  25,  a  formal  and 
unanimous  call  was  extended  him  to  succeed  J.  W.  M. 
Williams,  D.  D.,  who  had  gone  to  Baltimore.  At  the 
same  time  the  Petersburg  Church  wanted  him.  The 
church  at  Scottsville  called  him.  He  was  wanted  at 
Huntington  and  Rockdale,  Md.  The  Fork  Union  Church 
now  gave  him  a  call.  He  was  asked  to  open  a  school 
near  Charlottesville.  His  perplexities  multiplied. 


WINCHESTER,  Aug.  12,  1851:  Has  Mr.  Broadus  determined  upon 
taking  the  tutorship?  I  do  hope  that  he  has,  for  unconsciously  I 
have  been  thinking,  ever  since  I  heard  of  it,  that  we  should  have 
you  both  with  us  next  year.  I  suppose,  however,  that  he  finds  it 


very  difficult  to  decide  upon  what  appointment  to  take,  as  he  has 
so  many  to  choose  between. 

The  position  of  assistant  instructor  had  been  created 
and  was  offered  to  Mr.  Broadus  and  to  Mr.  Smith,  the 
one  in  ancient  languages,  the  other  in  mathematics. 

F.  H.  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LEESBURG,  Sept.  4, 1851 :  Mary  wrote  to  me  (you  must  know 
that  we  correspond)  a  few  days  since,  informing  me  among  other 
things  that  you  had  not  decided  upon  any  occupation  for  the  ensuing 
year,  and  would  probably  remain  at  the  University.  I  presume  that 
you  will  of  course  accept  the  situation  in  the  school  of  Ancient  Lan- 
guages if  you  remain.  I  am  heartily  glad  that  there  is  any  prospect 
of  your  remaining  with  us.  My  position  will  be  quite  lonely  if  I 
have  no  acquaintance  or  friend  occupying  either  of  the  other  places 
•—and  this,  though  a  very  selfish  reason,  would  operate  to  make  me 
happy  to  have  you  with  us.  Besides,  I  want  you  to  resume  your 
old  station  as  superintendent ;  and  there  is  also  the  prayer  meeting, 
which  stands  in  need  of  some  reanimation,  and  which,  I  hope,  will 
take  a  better  position  the  coming  year. 

He  was  likewise  called  to  the  pastorate  of  the  Char- 
lottesville  Baptist  Church.  Now  he  began  to  see  his 
way.  The  pastorate  of  Charlottesville  could  be  taken 
in  connection  with  the  work  in  the  University.  He  could 
thus  be  both  preacher  and  teacher.  So  he  accepted  both 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VA.,  Sept.  5,  1851 :  Dear  Brethren:  I  have  re- 
ceived your  letter  of  the  5th  inst.  informing  me  of  my  election  as 
pastor  of  the  Charlottesville  Baptist  Church,  and  also  an  extract 
made  by  the  clerk  from  the  minutes  of  a  called  meeting  held  Sept 
5,  with  reference  to  the  subject.  As  the  arrangement  proposed  is 
somewhat  peculiar  it  is  exceedingly  desirable  to  both  the  Church  and 
myself  that  there  be  no  ground  left  for  misapprehension  in  any  re- 
spect. I  think  it  is  proper  for  me  to  state  as  distinctly  as  possible 
what  I  understand  to  be  the  duties  expected  to  be  performed,  they 
being  in  fact  also,  the  extent  of  labor  which  I  felt  it  at  all  practicable 
for  me  to  undertake. 


1.  I  am  to  preach  every  Sabbath  morning. 

2.  On  Sabbath  evening  to  attend  a  prayer  meeting  and  take  such 
part  in  the  conduct  of  it  as  is  customary  for  a  pastor  to  take  in 
prayer  meetings  held  by  the  church,  making  any  remarks,  and  giv- 
ing any  aid  in  general  towards  rendering  the  meeting  interesting 
which  I  may  find  consistent  with  my  other  engagements  and  duties. 

3.  As  to  visiting  and  the  kindred  pastoral  duties,  I  am  wholly  ex- 
empted from  them  as  a  regular  duty.    I  will  visit  among  the  mem- 
bers, especially  the  poor  and  the  sick,  to  whatever  extent  I  may  find 
it  in  my  power.    With  this  understanding  of  the  proposition,  1  am 
disposed  to  become  the  pastor  of  your  church.    I  trust  that  I  do  this 
with  something  of  a  proper  spirit.    I  pray  and  earnestly  beg  that  all 
the  brethren  will  continually  unite  with  me  in  praying  that  the  con- 
nection may  tend  to  our  mutual  edification  and  enjoyment,  and  to 
the  promotion  of  religion  among  the  people.    I  shall  be  grateful  if 
this  letter  be  entered  among  the  minutes  of  the  church. 

His  salary  as  pastor  was  five  hundred  dollars.  He  had 
preached  fifty -seven  times  before  he  undertook  the  Char- 
lottesville  work. 


HARRISONBURG,  Sept.  10,  1851 :  I  am  truly  delighted  to  hear 
that  Mr.  Broadus  has  at  last  determined  to  remain  with  us  next  ses- 
sion, although  with  you  I  have  had  my  doubts  as  to  whether  it  were 
the  best  thing  for  him ;  but  as  his  decision  is  made,  you  know  all 
things  are  for  the  best,  and  we  can  certainly  enjoy  each  other's 
society  more  than  under  any  other  circumstances*  I  hope  that  I  will 
be  there  to  hear  his  first  sermon  in  Charlottesville.  What  is  the 
prospect  for  the  new  Baptist  church  which  they  were  to  build? 


Enflamed  with  the  study  of  learning  and  the  admiration  of  virtue ; 
stirred  up  with  high  hopes  of  living  to  be  brave  men  and  worthy 
patriots,  dear  to  God,  and  famous  to  all  ages. 

— Milton 

MR.  BROADUS  was  now  pastor  of  the  church  that 
he  had  declined  while  a  student,  and  was  teach- 
ing in  the  great  University  whose  walls  he  had  so  re- 
cently left.  It  was  coming  back  home. 

During  the  year  in  Fluvanna  he  had  been  learning  by 
teaching  and  preaching.  As  he  began,  so  he  went  on, 
so  he  closed  his  career — learning,  teaching,  preaching. 
It  may  be  worth  noting  that  the  very  year  that  John  A. 
Broadus  entered  upon  his  severe  labors,  James  P.  Boyce, 
just  from  Princeton,  became  pastor  at  Columbia,  South 
Carolina;  Wm.  Williams,  recently  from  Harvard  College, 
assumed  pastoral  work  in  Alabama ;  and  Basil  Manly, 
after  Newton  and  Princeton  and  a  pastorate  in  Alabama, 
came  to  Richmond  as  pastor  of  the  First  Church.  But 
the  lines  of  meeting  for  these  four  were  years  ahead. 

Mr.  Broadus  took  up  heroically  his  double  burden  at 
Charlottesville  and  the  University.  He  had  not  antici- 
pated an  easy  time.  He  knew  full  well  the  University 
standards  of  work.  Gessner  Harrison  was  still  there.  He 
had  his  own  high  ideals  of  preaching.  His  audiences 
would  be  composed  of  the  varied  classes  of  a  good-sized 
town,  besides  the  University  circles  who  would  be  some- 
what under  his  influence.  With  his  aspiring  nature  he 
could  be  inferior  in  neither  pulpit  nor  teacher's  chair. 
We  find  him  still  working  vigorously  at  Knapp,  Tur- 


rettin,  Dwight,  and  Andrew  Fuller.  He  had  undertaken 
an  enormous  amount  of  work  and  his  friends  were  solici- 
tous about  his  health. 

DR.  W.  H.  HARRISON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WIGWAM,  Jan.  3,  1852 :  Will  you  excuse  a  little  impertinence, 
perhaps  a  great  presumption?  I  had  the  pleasure  last  summer  at 
Bremo,  of  spending  a  brief  time  with  you,  long  enough,  however, 
to  interest  me  greatly  m  you,  for  I  saw  that  God  had  committed  to 
you  great  talents  with  the  promise  of  rare  usefulness,  and  I  feared 
that  unless  you  could  be  induced  to  change  your  habits  and  allow 
yourself  more  exercise  and  more  recreation  that  the  cistern  would 
soon  be  broken  and  the  jewel  which  he  had  chosen  change  its  cas- 
ket. It  was  this  fear  which  prompted  a  conversation  which  I  then 
held  with  you ;  it  is  the^  same  fear  which  now  emboldens  me  to 
trespass  upon  your  patience  and  the  more  earnestly  because  I  know 
that  your  duties  have  been  greatly  increased,  and  I  learn  from  my 
friend  Gresham  that  your  application  is  constant  and  your  health 
manifestly  failing.  I  would  earnestly  entreat  you,  dear  brother,  to 
"  pause  and  think  before  you  farther  go."  Think  of  the  noble 
spirits  who  have  gone  before  you,  who  by  the  course  you  are  now 
pursuing,  shortened  their  stay  on  earth  and  were  cut  off  in  the  dawn 
of  usefulness.  Sydney,  Kirke  White,  Andrew  Nichol,  Cowper, 
etc.,  all  the  victims  of  over-study  and  continual  neglect  or  transgres- 
sion of  God's  physical  laws.  And  you,  dear  sir,  will  not  be  an  ex- 
ception. Your  course  must  be  short  unless  you  change  it  speedily. 
And  m  this  day  of  daily  development,  why  should  you  wish  to 
shorten  your  stay  on  earth,  why  leave  so  early  the  vineyard  in 
which  the  Master  had  so  much  work  for  you?  God  give  you  wis- 
dom and  all  of  us  grace  to  live  according  to  all  of  his  laws,  natural 
as  well  as  revealed,  physical  as  well  as  moral.  .  . 

P.  S.  And  you  preached  lately  from  the  text  "  Rejoice  always." 
Glorious  text !  Would  that  I  could  have  heard  you ! 

DR.  JAMES  B.  TAYLOR  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Jan.  29,  1852 :  Please  accept  my  thanks  for 
your  letter  of  the  26th  inst  It  evinces  an  interest  m  the  cause  of 
missions  such  as  inspires  the  hope  that  you  may  be  honored  of  God 
in  its  promotion.  It  is  a  melancholy  fact  that  few  of  our  brethren  In 
the  ministry  are  desirous  of  acquainting  themselves  with  the  history 
of  those  operations  which  relate  to  the  spread  of  the  gospel,  and 



therefore  ill  prepared  to  inform  others.  Hence  the  comparative 
listlessness  of  the  churches  on  this  subject.  I  am  happy  to  believe, 
however,  that  an  improvement  in  these  respects  is  taking  place. 
Our  brethren  are  beginning  to  understand  that  the  spirit  of  missions 
is  no  other  than  the  gospel  spirit — the  spirit  of  Christ. 

WM.  F.  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

FORKS  OF  ELKHORN,  Feb.  18, 1852 :  Your  inquiry  with  reference 
to  the  views  of  our  brethren  here,  on  the  revision  question,  requires 
some  care  lest  I  fail  to  give  you  a  full  view  of  the  subject.  .  . 

For  my  own  part,  I  am  as  nearly  neutral,  in  regard  to  this  matter, 
as  a  man  of  my  temperament  can  be  in  regard  to  any  important 
measure.  I  grant  that  many  and  important  improvements  might  be 
made  in  King  James'  version,  and  indeed  I  have  long  wished  that 
the  obscure  words  so  often  to  be  met  with  in  it  were  all  removed. 
But  whether  this  could  now  be  done,  and  by  the  Baptists  alone,  with- 
out endangering  the  interests  of  our  denomination  (and  thereby  of 
the  truth),  is  a  question  which  I  have  not  yet  settled.  .  . 

I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  obtain  a  copy  of  the  "  Memoirs  "  of 
our  distinguished  relative,  A.  Broaddus.  The  work  has  not  been 
sent  westward.  1  wish  you  would  suggest  to  his  son  (I  suppose 
you  see  him  frequently)  that  the  work  would  sell  rapidly  in  Ken- 
tucky. Many,  very  many  old  persons,  who  came  to  this  State  from 
Virginia,  think  of  him  with  almost  the  veneration  due  to  an  inspired 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

CULPEPER  COURT  HOUSE,  March  16,  1852 :  You  mentioned 
your  call  to  California,  but  did  not  intimate  your  mind  in  regard  to 
it.  Three  thousand  dollars  a  year,  as  Billy  Allen  used  to  say,  sounds 
well  on  water.  Suppose,  however,  nothing  like  money  could  tempt 
you  away  from  civilization. 

J.  A.  B,  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS  : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Tuesday,  March  23, 1852 :  One  mo- 
ment I  must  take,  just  to  tell  you  how  busy  I  am  .  , 

Students  made  a  great  bonfire  on  the  lawn  last  night,  and  put  it 
out,  I  believe,  with  the  engine,  which  is  still  standing  out  there.  .  . 

When  you  get  "  little  precious  "  off  where  none  can  see  or  hear, 
kiss  her  five  times,  and  tell  her  'tis  for  father." 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  March  25,  1852:  ,  .  Never  mind,  I 
feel  better  to-day,  and  I  mean  to  spare  myself  the  balance  of  the  week 


as  much  as  possible,  so  that  when  wife  and  baby  come  back  they 
may  find  the  husband-father  blooming  and  lovable.  .  . 

Couldn't  sleep  this  morning,  and  was  ready  for  breakfast  before- 
hand— sat  down,  and  read  some  more  of  **  Die  widen  Schtoane."  Oh, 
it  is  so  pretty !  And  then  I  love  the  story  because  it  has  Elise  m 
it.  .  . 

I  wonder  if  you  will  be  done  Bancroft  sure  enough  when  you  come 

A.  M.  BARBOUR  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CAMBRIDGE  UNIVERSITY,  March  29, 1852 :  The  object  of  this 

note  is  to  request  you  if  possible  to  send  me  a  copy  of  Doctor  Har- 
rison's "  Latin  Grammar."  I  will  pay  any  price  for  one  if  it  can 
be  secured.  I  have  gotten  into  several  discussions  with  these  fellows 
here  on  the  languages  and  have  given  some  of  them  a  very  severe 
drubbing  on  Latin  and  Greek  and  shown  them  that  they  know 
but  little  of  Latin  or  Greek  really.  But  now  I  am  subject  to  daily 
assault  as  I  am  the  only  man  here  from  our  school.  Therefore  I 
want  to  keep  myself  thoroughly  and  perfectly  armed  for  them.  I 
consider  that  "  Grammar  "  the  best  extant  and  there  is  no  favor  you 
could  do  which  would  be  so  acceptable  as  to  procure  me  a  copy. 

I  like  the  Law-school  here  pretty  well.  Here,  everything  is 
voluntary  and  nothing  compulsory.  But  then  to  one  who  is  desir- 
ous of  learning,  it  is  a  fine  school.  They  have  an  elegant  library, 
and  Moot  Courts  twice  every  week.  Their  Academic  department 
cannot  compare  with  ours.  I  know  I  never  was  a  good  scholar  and 
am  now  rusty,  but  can  stump  any  of  the  Seniors  here,  even  their 
very  best  men.  The  fact  is,  they  don't  know  how  to  study  or 
teach  the  languages. 

New  positions  continued  to  be  pressed  upon  Mr. 
Broadus.  President  White  wished  him  to  succeed  him 
at  Wake  Forest  College,  N.  C  ;  the  professorship  of 
Ancient  Languages  in  Columbian  University  was  urged 
upon  him  ;  and  he  was  sought  by  the  E.  Street  Church, 
Washington.  His  health  was  breaking  down  and  he  was 
on  the  way  to  Rawley  Springs. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

COCKE'STAVERN,  i. 30 P.M.,  Wednesday,  Sept.  i :  .  .  .  At  ten 
o'clock,  Mr.  Blair,  the  Presbyterian  preacher  came  in.  I  was  intro- 


duced,  and  he  invited  me  to  go  down  to  Hillsboro  and  be  at  the 
temperance  meeting,  which  some  while  ago,  you  may  remember,  he 
invited  me  to  attend.  It  is  less  than  a  mile  from  here,  but  I  declined, 
after  considering.  An  extempore  temperance  speech  must  needs 
savor  of  the  humorous,  and  I  am  in  no  mood  for  humor ;  besides 
that,  some  of  those  who  would  be  present  stood  with  me  last  week 
around  my  sister's1  grave.  Oh,  may  the  load  of  affliction  that 
weighs  me  down  when  men  are  not  knowing  it,  be  sanctified  to  my 
spiritual  good !  May  her  holy  life,  and  this  her  hopeful,  happy  death 
be  the  life  and  death  of  her  so  unworthy,  yet  so  richly-blessed, 
"baby"  brother!  Oh,  that  sister  was  dear  to  me,  dearer  than 
any  knew,  dearer  than  I  knew  myself,  yet  she  is  gone !  But  then, 
she  is  gone  to  heaven ;  and  I  can  hope,  humbly  and  trustingly,  that 
by  the  grace  of  God  I  shall  see  my  sister  Carry  again,  and  part 
from  her  no  more.  My  dear  Maria,  be  a  Christian,  with  all  your 
heart,  now. 

VIRGINIA  HOTEL,  STAUNTON,  Sept.  i,  1852:  I  feel  inclined  to 

write.  I  shall  speak  of  nothing  but  very  little  things  in  my  adven- 
tures, things  that  I  know  would  interest  no  other  being,  but  which 
my  own  little  wife  will  read  with  pleasure— on  the  same  principle  that 
I,  when  in  Clark,  used  to  love  the  very  strings  with  which  my  sis- 
ters had  tied  up  my  bundles. 

You  perceive  that  there  was  room  for  me  in  yesterday's  stage. 
Had  an  Irish  woman  and  her  son  of  some  twelve  years  on  the  seat 
with  me,  who  seemed  fresh.  I  tried  with  due  respect,  to  find  whether 
either  of  them  could  speak  at  all  an  old  Irish  dialect ;  both  said  they 
couldn't,  though  the  old  woman  said  many  of  the  people  could.  I 
believe  they  thought  I  was  poking  fun  at  them.  I  walked  two  miles 
up  the  mountain.  The  Irish  about  the  tunnel,  etc.,  are  said  to  be 
wretchedly  degraded.  A  young  man  from  Waynesboro  told  me 
that  the  women  even  were  often  drunk  there  in  the  streets,  and  with 
the  most  vulgar  language.  When  the  women  are  degraded,  there 
is  little  hope. 

Got  very  warm  walking.  It  was  growing  dusk  when  I  returned 
to  the  stage,  where  I  soon  became  very  chilly  and  was  uneasy. 
Didn't  speak  of  it,  but  buttoned  up  my  coat.  This  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  a  lady  on  the  back  seat — she  had  a  little  girl  with  her, 
and  I  had  before  amused  her  out  of  a  bad  humor  into  a  mighty  good 
one  with  the  pictures  in  '*  Harper  "—who  began  inquiries  about  my 
health,  and  advised  the  borrowing  of  an  overcoat  which  a  young 

1  Mrs.  Whitescarver. 


man  was  not  wearing.  I  wrapped  it  about  me  and  was  comfortable. 
Had  much  talk  with  the  lady,  starting  from  the  child,  about  educat- 
ing children,  and  afterward  with  her  companion,  a  young  lady, 
(both  from  the  North  originally)  about  slavery,  "  Uncle  Tom's 
Cabin,"  etc.  Upon  slavery  in  general  and  in  particular,  and  after- 
ward upon  pronunciation,  e.  g.,  garden,  etc.,  she  was  very  Northern, 
and  I  intensely  Southern,  but  we  agreed  to  disagree,  and  got  on 
pretty  well.  .  . 

RAWLEY  SPRINGS,  Sept  4,  1852:  Thump,  thump,  splash, 
splash,  over  stones  and  through  the  countless  crossings  of  the 
river,  came  an  old  buggy  with  a  lame  horse,  bearing  your  pre- 
cious husband  yesterday  evening  to  this  delectable  spot.  My  epi- 
thet is  applied  half  in  earnest,  half  in  irony.  In  many  respects, 
I  like  this  place  exceedingly  well.  I  have  always  loved  the  moun- 
tains ;  more,  perhaps,  because  my  father  and  mother  were  raised 
among  the  eastern  spurs  of  the  "Ridge,"  than  for  any  reason.  I 
love  to  see  the  steep  hills,  I  love  to  climb  them.  I  love  to  stand, 
as  I  did  this  morning  on  the  summit  of  a  precipice,  and  look  down 
over  the  little  glen  between  the  mountains,  with  its  dashing  stream 
that  really  seems  to  have  fretted  itself  into  a  fury,  actually  foam- 
ing with  rage  because  the  rocks  won't  get  out  of  its  way — to  take 
off  my  hat  and  let  the  breeze  that  sweeps  down  the  glen  play  on 
my  brow,  cooling  its  heat  and  blowing  back  the  hair,  and  mak- 
ing me  feel  free  and  fresh  and  joyous,  till  I  almost  think  I  am  a 
man,  or  rather  till  I  feel  myself  a  boy  again.  I  dieam  over  for  a 
moment  some  of  my  boyhood's  dreams  about  a  hunter's  life  in  the 
woods  and  on  the  mountains.  I  do  love  this,  and  verily  I  have 
almost  grown  romantic  in  speaking  of  it.  There  is  something  in 
the  mountains  that  always  stirs  my  soul  more  than  anything  else  in 
nature.  I  love  the  very  toil  of  climbing  them— to  draw  myself  up 
steep  banks  by  the  bushes,  and  think  of  the  lucky  Indian  of  Potosi, 
to  jump,  more  boldly  than  anywhere  else  I  could  venture,  from  one 
great  rock  to  another,  and  wonder  if  it  mightn't  be  a  pleasant  thing 
to  be  a  chamois— to  come  back  to  the  little  half-grown  river,  and 
standing  on  one  of  the  many  rocks  that  lie  scattered  about  in  the 
stream,  to  hold  my  hands  as  if  I  wanted  to  stop  the  current,  and  then 
again  and  again  and  many  times  to  lift  up  the  bright,  clear,  spar- 
kling water  and  let  It  cool  my  face.  I  love  all  this  dearly,  and  am 
speaking  of  it  now  in  a  way  which  will  make  my  dear  little  wife 
laugh  at  my  extravagance.  .  . 

Major  C of  Stafford,  knew  my  father  very  well,  and  makes 


a  great  fuss  over  me,  and  Mr.  Jamie  C makes  himself  as 

agreeable  as  ever  he  can,  which  isn't  much,  and  Mr.  Van  Lear,  of 
Augusta,  is  a  student  of  Washington  College,  and  we  agree  won- 
drously  in  our  insinuations  about  the  Institute.  .  . 

I'll  drink  the  water  to  the  very  limit  of  endurance,  I'll  eat  enough 
to  make  Mr,  Sites'  cook  think  several  new  visitors  have  just  come 
in  before  every  meal,  I'll  climb  the  hills  many  times  m  many  di- 
rections, I'll  try  hard  to  catch  one  trout  from  the  streams,  for  my 
father  used  to  catch  trout  when  he  was  a  boy,  I'll  read  as  much  as, 
with  so  many  other  important  things  to  do,  I  can  find  time  to  read. . . 

What  you  say  of  your  religious  feelings  gives  me  some  pain,  but 
much  more  pleasure ;  pain,  because  you  have  somehow  misunder- 
stood me,  and  perhaps  that  has  caused  you  suffering — but  great 
pleasure  because  I  now  confidently  believe  you  are  fairly  in  the 
right  way,  that  however  trembling,  you  are  laying  hold  upon  the 
hope  set  before  you  in  the  gospel.  .  . 

I  should  be  glad  to  see  you  join  the  church ;  and  my  only 
personal  request  is,  that  whenever  you  go  forward,  it  may  be  at  a 
time  when  I  can  be  present.1 

Now  and  always,  my  dear  Maria,  I  do  pray  and  will  pray,  that 
you  may  come  rapidly  up  to  the  stature  of  a  full-grown  Christian, 
that  you  may  be  earnest  and  devoted,  and  that  the  peace  of  God, 
which  passeth  all  understanding,  may  keep  your  heart  and  mind 
through  Christ  Jesus. 

RAWLEY  SPRINGS,  Sept  9, 1852 :  I  have  finished  "  Uncle  Tom's 
Cabin."  It  is  exceedingly  well  written,  having  some  passages  of 
rarely  equaled  power,  and  being  altogether,  so  far  as  I  can  judge,  a 
very  remarkable  book.  It  contains  much  that  is  true,  and  much 
that  is  untrue ;  will  do  some  good,  and  a  great  deal  of  harm,  among 
the  Northerners. 

I  am  reading  now  *'  Mary  Lundie  D."    Oh,  it  is  beautiful !  ,  .  . 

I  am  often  regretting  the  necessity  of  being  thus  absent  from  my 
wife  and  our  babe,  and  have  to  exert  myself  to  keep  down  a  sort  of 
restless  feeling. 

I  ought  to  regret  yet  more,  that  I  find  it  hard  to  be  as  much  en- 
gaged about  personal  religion  as  1  ought  to  be.  I  do  not  love  the 
Bible  as  1  ought  to  love  it — do  not  read  it  with  such  relish  and  zest 
as  I  ought  to  feel.  I  do  not  take  a  right  interest  in  prayer.  Alas! 

1  Mrs.  Broadus  soon  after  joined  the  Methodist  Church,  in  which  she  had  been 
brought  up. 


your  husband  is  a  very  poor  Christian,  Maria.  Will  you  not  pray  for 
him  that  he  may  have  more  of  every  Christian  grace,  and  be  en- 
abled, in  his  private  life  and  his  public  labors,  to  glorify  God? 

STAUNTON,  Sept.  17,  1852 :  I  must  write  a  note  to  Will,  which  he 
will  probably  receive  to-morrow  some  time,  informing  him  of  my  re- 
turn and  my  purpose  to  be  at  Mountain  Plain,  Sunday.  Then  I  must' 
devote  the  morning  to  my  sermon.  I  have  done  scarcely  anything' 
at  it  yet,  and  though  I  feel  very  little  like  thinking,  it  will  be  only 
worse  to-morrow,  and  I  must  try  to  think  of  something  to  say.  My 
subject  (Matt.  23  :  37)  is  prolific  enough,  one  would  think,  yet  my 
ideas  are  very  scanty,  and  I  feel  that  it  must  be  a  barren  sermon. 
Yet  the  Lord  often  blesses  our  weakness,  more  than  our  greater 
strength.  Oh,  that  he  may  establish  the  work  of  my  hands  upon 
me.  Will  my  wife  pray  for  me,  that  my  so  feeble  labor  may  not  be 
in  vain  in  the  Lord  ?  Oh,  that  I  could  see  sinners  among  my  people 
converted !  It  lies  like  a  burden  on  my  heart,  the  thought  that  there 
are  so  many  unconverted  men  and  women  who  look  to  me  for  almost 
their  only  instruction,  so  many  in  the  road  to  hell,  with  no  voice  but 
mine  to  warn  them  of  their  danger  and  invite  them  to  Jesus.  Alas ! 
how  cold  have  been  my  warmest  feelings,  how  dull  my  most  earnest 
appeals.  The  Lord  in  mercy  forgive  me,  that  so  often,  so  constantly, 
I  have  neglected  my  duty.  1  know  that  I  am  not  fit  to  be  the  instru- 
ment of  good— the  Lord  take  me  and  fashion  and  temper  me,  and 
then  use  me  for  his  glory.  Pray  much  for  me— that  the  love  of 
Christ  may  subdue  the  deceitfulness  and  rebelliousness  of  my  heart, 
and  that  zeal  for  his  glory,  and  pity  for  poor,  perishing  souls,  may 
lead  me  to  work  more  faithfully  in  the  Master's  vineyard.  Pray  for 
the  divine  blessing  upon  my  preaching — especially  upon  the  poor  ser- 
mon of  next  Sunday  night.  Dear  Maria,  do  not  fail. 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Sept.  22, 1852  -.  I  was  engaged  ail 
day  yesterday  in  getting  the  amount  of  the  subscription  for  building 
our  church,  with  a  view  to  giving  the  thing  a  start  Saturday  night 
next.  I  find  a  general  anxiety,  especially  among  the  ladies,  to  have 
it  done,  and  hope  it  will  be  arranged  now,  and  finally.  It  must  cost 
me  much  trouble  and  labor  this  week,  and  will  require  more  wisdom 
than  I  have,  to  harmonize  and  control.  I  will  try.  . 

Mr.  Broadus  pushed  the  enterprise  of  a  new  church 
building.  By  October  6,  1852,  at  the  Wednesday  meet- 
ing, he  had  subscriptions  amounting  to  three  thousand 


dollars.  This  was  a  heavy  burden  to  the  struggling 
church,  but  the  effort  to  bear  it  was  blessed.  A  glorious 
revival  came  in  a  few  weeks.  The  meeting  lasted  from 
October  20  to  November  5.  Rev.  Messrs.  Wm.  F.  Broad- 
dus,  Myrick,  Fife,  Fnsby,  and  Whitescarver  preached, 
while  deep  interest  was  shown  in  the  meeting  by  the 
University  chaplain,  and  the  Presbyterian  and  Methodist 
pastors.  Forty  made  profession  of  religion  and  twenty- 
three  were  baptized.  "  Our  meetings  were  very  quiet 
and  solemn ;  and  there  was  frequently  felt  a  realizing 
sense  of  the  Divine  presence,  which  could  not  but  impress 
the  heart.  Especially  did  we  find  such  pervading  so- 
lemnity in  the  sunrise  prayer  meeting.  The  number  of 
persons  professing  conversion  is  considered  large  for  this 
place/' l  Dr.  Wm.  F.  Broaddus  spoke  of  it  as  "  one  of 
my  old-time  meetings."  J.  M.  Broadus  wrote  :  "  We  are 
glad  of  your  success  in  this  first  great  effort." 

The  church  was  not  built  without  a  debt,  which  hung 
like  a  millstone  on  some  necks.  Many  wished  to  use  it 
as  an  excuse  for  not  giving  to  other  things.  Dr.  R.  J. 
Willingham  tells  the  following  : 

I  remember  in  one  of  Doctor  Broadus's  last  speeches  before  his 
death  he  told  this  incident :  When  he  was  a  young  pastor  in  Vir- 
ginia the  church  had  just  put  up  a  new  building.  On  Saturday  one 
of  his  deacons  met  him  and  the  following  conversation  took  place : 
"  Brother  Broadus,  to-morrow  is  Foreign  Mission  Dav,  is  it  not?n 
"  Yes."  "  Well,  you  will  not  press  the  subject,  will  you? "  "  Why 
not? "  "  We  have  a  debt  on  our  church,  and  ought  to  pay  that." 
The  young  pastor  answered :  "  Do  you  think  that  after  being  blessed 
of  God  in  building  a  house  for  our  comfort  and  convenience  we 
ought  to  neglect  the  lost  souls  out  yonder  for  whom  Christ  died  ? "  He 
went  home,  fell  on  his  knees,  and  prayed  God  for  wisdom  to  lead  his 
people.  He  then  prepared  the  best  sermon  he  possibly  could  on  the 
subject,  and  urged  his  people  to  give.  A  glorious  collection  followed. 
The  people  were  so  rejoiced  that  they  met  Monday  night  at  the  young 
pastor's  house  and  paid  every  dollar  of  the  debt  which  had  been 

1  J.  A.  B,  in  "  Religious  Herald,"  Dec.,  1853. 


worrying  them.    God  honors  those  who  in  his  name  reach  after 
dying  men  and  women. 

Some  of  the  members  of  the  church  remember  to  this 
day  that  sermon,  and  how  Mr.  Broadus  used  with  tre- 
mendous and  wonderful  effect  the  charge  at  Balaklava, 
urging  that  our  Commander  makes  no  mistakes. 

Already  the  young  preacher  was  having  that  strange 
effect  on  other  preachers  so  noticeable  in  after  years. 
Rev.  John  T.  Randolph  was  the  preacher  for  the  Negro 
members  of  the  church  on  Sunday  afternoons.  One 
afternoon  he  was  in  a  "  weaving  way  "  when  Mr.  Broadus 
quietly  stepped  in  and  sat  down.  Instantly  Mr.  Ran- 
dolph collapsed  and  called  on  some  one  else  to  pray. 
Another  time  Broadus  was  absent  from  town  and  en- 
gaged Mr.  P.  S.  Henson  to  preach  for  him.  But  Mr. 
Broadus  unexpectedly  came  back  just  before  the  closing 
prayer.  Doctor  Henson  afterwards  said  that  he  did  not 
know  a  word  of  what  he  was  saying  in  that  prayer.  It 
was  a  source  of  much  regret  to  Doctor  Broadus  that  he 
thus  upset  some  preachers.  In  after  years  he  used  to 
take  pains  to  hear  his  students  when  they  preached, 
and  was  always  disappointed  when  they  failed  to  under- 
stand his  sympathetic  attitude. 

He  had  his  amusing  experiences,  like  other  pastors. 
Once  a  man  a  dozen  miles  away  came  and  urged  him  to 
come  and  marry  him.  "  The  folks  are  all  ready/'  he 
said.  Mr.  Broadus  went  on  horseback  at  his  own  ex- 
pense. The  groom  pompously  paid  him  two  dollars  say- 
ing :  "  Parson,  I  reckon  you  make  right  smart  money, 
marrying  folks." 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WHITESCARVER : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Dec.  27, 1852:  I  want  to  covenant 

with  you  that  we  shall  regularly  pray  for  each  other,  for  our  indi- 
vidual spirituality  and  our  public  usefulness. 
The  Lord  grant  that  your  labors  may  be  greatly  blessed,  that  your 


people  may  become  more  earnest  and  more  godly,  and  that  you  may 
soon  see  sinners  converted ! 

Mr.  Broadus  is  now  in  the  full  tide  of  his  career  as  a 
preacher.  He  has  large  and  definite  plans  for  study  and 
growth  for  long  years  to  come.  He  grapples  with  his 

That  he  did  not  consider  the  Charlottesville  work  a 
sinecure,  a  study  of  his  record-book  will  show.  From 
January  to  June,  in  1853,  he  delivered  a  series  of  four- 
teen Sunday  evening  discourses  on  the  Apostle  Paul. 
Conybeare  and  Howson's  "Life  of  Paul"  he  did  not 
have,  but  he  used  original  sources.  This  series  cre- 
ated a  sensation  and  thronged  the  church  to  overflow- 
ing with  professors  and  students  from  the  University 
and  people  of  all  denominations  from  Charlottesville. 
He  began  on  Wednesday  night,  but  soon  had  to  take 
Sunday  nights  in  the  main  audience  room.  He  used  maps 
to  point  out  the  places  and  each  sermon  grew  in  favor. 
He  had  also  a  printed  scheme  of  these  lectures  as  an  aid 
to  the  audience.  People  would  say  :  "  Paul  will  preach 
to-night."  Interest  in  the  Bible  became  widespread  in 
the  town. 

Pressed  as  he  was  with  double  duty,  his  preaching  reached  high 
water  mark,  and  the  little  Baptist  church  at  Charlottesville  was 
always  crowded,  the  congregation  including  numbers  of  the  students 
and  often  professors  as  well.  Never  can  I  forget  how  I  would  sit 
enwrapped  in  his  eloquence  which  was  scarcely  surpassed  afterwards, 
however  much  he  may  have  grown.  I  think  that  later  his  sermons 
became  more  didactic  and  perhaps  richer  in  the  exposition  of  Scrip- 
ture ;  but  oh,  there  was  then  a  freshness  and  fervor  and  a  flow  of 
thought  and  language ;  and  sentences  from  his  lips  are  still  in  my 
memory  as  if  heard  yesterday.1 

Dr.  W.  D.  Thomas,  who  was  a  student  of  the  Uni- 

1  Doctor  George  B  Taylor.  In  manuscript  for  new  volume  on  *'  Virginia  Baptist 


versity  from  1850  to  1854  (taking  M.  A.),  says  that  John 
A.  Broadus's  preaching  was  rather  bare  of  imagination  at 
first.  He  later  cultivated  his  imagination  till  he  used  it 
with  wonderful  power.  After  a  sermon  of  Mr.  Broadus's 
on  Martha  and  Mary,  a  gentleman  inCharlottesville,  who 
had  just  returned  from  Palestine,  asked  him  when  he 
had  been  there,  so  accurately  had  he  described  the  roads 
from  Jerusalem  to  Bethany.  He  had  been  studying 
Robinson.  The  use  of  his  imagination  became  a  marked 
characteristic  of  his  preaching.  There  was  little  gesture 
in  these  early  days,  some  illustration,  but  no  embroidery. 
Once,  when  asked  the  source  of  his  style,  he  said  it  was 
his  audience.  He  was  compelled  to  put  things  so  as  to 
enlist  the  sympathy  of  the  most  profound  and  the  most 
ignorant.  His  audience  was  cosmopolitan,  and  swept 
the  whole  gamut  of  human  gifts  and  accomplishments. 
He  had  to  blend  depth  and  clearness  in  every  sermon. 
The  constant  effort  to  do  this  created  that  wonderful 
simplicity  which  flowed  like  a  mountain  stream,  so  clear 
and  so  deep.  There  was  tremendous  moral  earnestness 
with  deep  pathos  and  delicate  flashes  of  humor.  His 
magnetism  threw  a  spell  over  his  audience.  People  felt 
that  his  preaching  was  one  of  the  events  of  their  lives 
not  to  be  missed.  There  was  more  than  the  glow  of 
youth  and  genius.  There  was  great  spiritual  power  that 
melted  hearts  to  repentance. 

Some  criticism  naturally  arose  because  he  could  not 
visit  much,  but  he  made  his  visits  tell.  Besides  calling 
on  families,  he  had  a  habit  of  calling  on  one  member  of 
the  family  at  a  time  so  as  to  have  a  chance  for  conver- 
sation on  personal  religion.  These  conversations  often 
led  to  salvation.  One  of  his  flock  well  remembers  one 
such  visit  to  herself,  when  she  was  asked  if  she  prayed. 
She  thought  to  herself:  "If  I  say  'Yes/  he  will  say, 
'Then  why  are  you  not  a  Christian'  ?  "  So  she  said 


"No."  He  prayed  with  her  and  soon  baptized  her. 
Doctor  Broadus  often  said  that  he  knew  of  more  persons 
led  to  Christ  by  his  conversation  than  by  his  preaching. 


UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  April  27,  1853 :  I  reckon  you  have 
heard  of  Mr.  Broadus's  intention  of  taking  up  his  abode  in  Char- 
lottesville  next  session,  but  I  am  sure  I  shall  be  first  to  tell  that  he 
has  actually  rented  a  house  and  that  we  expect  to  go  there  to  live 
about  the  middle  or  last  of  August. 

I  have  been  to  see  the  house  and  was  much  pleased  with  It,  and 
as  I  have  always  fancied  the  idea  of  keeping  house,  hope  to  be 
very  happy  there.  My  head  is  full  of  plans  and  arrangements  and  I 
scarcely  think  of  anything  else,  but  I  excuse  myself  for  being  so 
intent  upon  the  subject,  as  it  is  an  entirely  new  business  to  me  and 
therefore  requires  a  good  deal  of  thought  and  foresight. 

I  am  going  to  give  you  something  to  think  of  too,  and  that  is,  you 
must  make  up  your  mind  to  come  to  see  us  when  we  get  fixed,  for  it 
will  never  do  for  you  not  to  come  to  see  your  little  brother,  as  I  dare 
say  he  still  seems  to  you  to  be.  .  . 

And  ten  days  ago  Mr.  Broadus  and  I  went  to  Richmond  and  spent 
Sunday  in  the  pleasant  household  of  Mr.  James  Thomas.  So  you 
see  we  are  great  travelers,  though  we  do  not  go  very  great  distances 
from  home. 

In  strawberry  season  I  am  to  go  to  Aunt  Maria  Rives'  to  stay  ten 
days,  and  if  I  can  get  the  strawberries  to  last,  I  want  to  wait  until 
the  first  of  June,  as  Mr.  Broadus  will  be  absent  a  week  at  that  time, 
attending  the  June  meetings.  I  should  be  glad  for  Mr.  Broadus  to 
go  about  in  the  country  some  now  as  he  does  not  look  very  well, 
although  his  health  is  better  than  it  usually  is  at  this  time  of  the  year, 
but  he  cannot  spare  time  enough  to  do  him  any  good.  I  hope,  how- 
ever, he  will  have  time  and  opportunity  this  summer  to  recruit  and 
gather  strength  for  the  labors  of  next  year. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS: 

BALTIMORE,  May  14,  1853 :  I  live  a  month  every  day,  though 
yesterday  was  a  very  sickish  and  sleepy  day.  I  came  very  near 
making  a  speech  about  gvoing  this  morning,  but  did  not,  and  am 
glad ;  I  don't  think  it  would  be  in  good  taste  for  me  to  speak  in  so 
august  a  body.1  .  . 

1  Session  of  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention. 


I  am  to  preach  to-morrow  morning  at  the  High  Street  Baptist 
Church.  I  suppose  there  is  some  curiosity  to  hear  a  young  man 
who  bears  a  highly  honored  name,  but  it  is  Wilson's  doings  that  one 
so  young  should  be  among  the  ten  preachers  selected.  I  am  trying 
to  think  only  of  speaking  the  truth  and  doing  good.  I  have  deter- 
mined to  take  the  sermon  you  heard  when  we  came  in  from  Parish's, 
"  My  ways  are  not  your  ways,"  etc. 

FREDERICKSBURG,  Saturday  morning,  June  4,  1853 :  I  reached 
here  last  Thursday  afternoon,  4^  o'clock.  Preached1  that  night  in 
the  Presbyterian  church,  the  Baptist  church  being  small,  to  some 
twelve  hundred  people.  The  sermon  was  about  middling ;  1  believe 
it  is  well  spoken  of.  .  . 

I  know  that  I  am  exciting  expectations,  to  meet  which  will  require 
more  effort  than  I  have  ever  made  before.  Besides,  I  know  that 
I  am  grievously  prone  to  overestimate  men's  opinion  of  me  and 
lamentably  inclined  to  be  vain  when  I  ought  to  be  humble.  Pray 
for  me,  Maria,  that  a  little  applause  may  not  be  permitted  to  turn  my 
weak  head  and  bewitch  my  silly  heart  in  that  I  may  remember  my 
nothingness  and  my  entire  dependence  for  all  true  success  on  the 
Divine  blessing,  and  that  more  than  anything  else  I  may  carry  back 
an  increased  desire  to  labor  for  the  conversion  of  men  to  Christ. 

WM.  F.  BROADDUS2  to  J.  A.  B. : 

MOWINGTON,  June  14,  1853  :  On  the  last  day  of  last  week  I  left 
home  for  a  short  trip,  and  was  gone  three  days.  Your  name  was  in 
the  mouth  of  more  than  one  friend  with  whom  I  met,  most  of  whom, 
by  the  way,  had  both  seen  you  and  heard  your  voice  more  than  once, 
while  the  hosts  of  the  Lord  were  at  the  June  Feast.  I  will  tell  you 
some  things  that  were  said  of  you.  I  have  not  time  to  tell  you  all 
that  I  heard  said  of  you,  for  much  of  our  talk  was  of  you,  and  to 
write  it  all  would  take  more  space  than  this  sheet  would  give  and 
take  more  time  than  I  can  now  spare  for  you.  I  will  give  you  what 
two  friends  said,  and  their  words  may  serve  to  point  out  to  you  what 
you  told  me  you  had  a  wish  to  know — that  is,  what  those  who  heard 
you  preach  and  teach  from  the  word  of  God  thought  of  your  style 
and  your  mode. 

I  shall  give  you  first  the  mind  of  a  man  who  for  twelve  years  has 
had  a  place  in  the  ranks  of  those  who  preach  the  word,  and  whose 
mind  is  strong  and  thought  by  those  who  know  him  to  be  of  a  high 

1  Before  the  Virginia  Baptist  Foreign  Mission  Society     Text,  Matt  ig  :  ao 
*  W.  F.  Broaddus  often  amused  himself  by  writing  letters  In  words  of  one  syllable, 


grade.  In  short,  he  is  a  man  whose  words  would  have  great  weight 
with  all  who  know  him.  He  heard  you  "preach"  and  "speak," 
and  he  thinks  your  whole  mode  the  best  he  has  met  with  in  all  his 
life.  He  says  you  teach  just  what  ought  to  be  taught,  and  in  just 
such  a  way  as  he  thinks  it  ought  to  be  taught,  and  he  would  give  all 
of  this  world's  goods—and  he  has  quite  a  large  stock  of  wealth— if  he 
could  preach  as  you  preach.  And  then  he  said,  that  he  hoped  that 
all  the  young  men  who  heaid  you  would  think  of  you  as  he  did  and 
would  try  to  shape  their  course  by  yours.  But  now,  lest  what  you 
have  just  read  should  lift  you  up  too  much,  I  must  tell  you  what  one 
said  who  does  not  think  of  you  just  as  the  friend  does  whose  words 
you  have  just  read.  This  man  too  is  of  those  who  "preach  the 
word."  He  made  his  first  speech  in  the  "  desk  "  one  year  ere  I  made 
my  first,  and  from  that  time  till  now  has  been  in  the  field.  He  is  a 
good  man  and  has  done  good  for  the  cause  of  Christ,  though  I  must 
own  that  he  has  not  spent  much  time  with  books,  nor  had  much  care 
to  store  his  mind  with  what  great  men  have  said  of  God's  word  and 
ways.  I  took  my  chief  meal  with  him  on  the  last  day  of  last  week, 
and  as  we  sat  at  meat,  he  spoke  of  you.  Said  he :  "  What  he  said 
was  good,  but  how  strange  that  a  young  man  so  well  taught  in  ah 
that  the  books  can  teach  should  use  a  style  so  much  like  that  of  a 
mere  child.  You  ought,"  said  he,  "  to  tell  him  of  it,  and  put  him  in 
mind  that  one  who  knows  so  much  ought  to  use  a  style  more  high, 
a  style  that  fits  such  thoughts  as  he  deals  out  to  those  who  hear 
him."  I  had  hard  work  to  keep  back  a  smile  at  these  words.  I 
thought  how  strange  that  one  so  long  at  work  in  Christ's  cause 
should  wish  to  have  the  truth  set  forth  in  words  of  high  sound. 

It  was  not  alone  as  a  preacher  that  John  A.  Broadus 
had  grown  during  these  two  years.  He  was  assistant 
instructor  of  ancient  languages  in  the  University  and 
lived  with  Doctor  Harrison.  The  room  in  West  Lawn  is 
still  pointed  out  where  the  young  teacher  corrected  Greek 
and  Latin  exercises.  As  a  teacher  he  took  steady  hold, 
winning  the  respect  and  confidence  of  his  pupils.  His 
young  colleague,  Prof.  F.  H.  Smith,  would  hear  students 
speak  of  his  clearness  in  teaching.  Professor  Peters, 
though  not  in  his  class,  sometimes  attended  junior  Greek 
under  him.  He  found  that  the  men  had  confidence  in 
his  scholarship  second  only  to  that  of  Doctor  Harrison. 


Dr.  George  B.  Taylor,  a  member  of  his  Greek  class, 
says : 

His  teaching  traits  then  were,  a  purpose  to  excel  in  his  work,  a 
thirst  for  learning  for  its  own  sake,  a  desire  for  usefulness,  and  fine 
tact.  He  would  sometimes  send  me  a  note  inviting  me  to  his  study 
on  the  lawn,  and  I  have  now  before  me  a  clear  picture  of  him  as  he 
would  be  at  his  table  covered  with  lexicons  and  other  books  of  refer- 
ence, a  shade  over  the  lamp  and  one  over  his  eyes,  intense  serious- 
ness in  his  face,  in  a  word  the  typical  hard  student.  He  already  had 
the  stoop  of  the  man  who  sits  much  at  the  desk,  and  when  in  repose, 
his  face  seemed  almost  sad.  There  was  much  to  do,  for  besides  the 
preparation  of  two  sermons  for  Sunday  and  other  pastoral  duties, 
there  was  the  getting  ready  to  meet  his  classes  and  the  drudgery  of 
correcting  not  less  than  a  hundred  exercises  every  week.  Besides  all 
this,  he  was  constantly  adding  to  his  knowledge  and  laying  broad 
and  deep  the  foundations  for  the  future.  Specially  was  he  at  work 
on  New  Testament  Greek,  bringing  to  it  his  thorough  acquaintance 
with  classic  Greek  and  using  all  the  best  helps.  He  said  to  me  at 
that  time,  "  Though  I  may  not  become  an  authority,  yet  I  wish  to  be 
able  for  myself  to  form  an  independent  judgment  on  all  questions  of 
New  Testament  interpretation."  As  yet  not  many  books  were  on  his 
shelves,  but  he  was  already  beginning  to  gather  a  first-rate  library, 
getting  ready  the  tools  he  needed  and  only  the  best.  In  the  class- 
room he  simply  followed  the  traditions  of  the  University,  rigidly 
questioning  and  insisting  on  exactly  correct  answers,  correcting  mis- 
takes, yet  using  the  utmost  politeness  to  every  student,  no  matter  how 
idle  or  dull.  His  dignified  mien  prevented  disorder,  and  his  keen  wit 
would  have  quelled  it  had  it  appeared.  Any  slight  annoyance  he 
would  abate  by  a  playful,  sub-acid  remark. l 

Mr.  Broadus  took  a  keen  interest  in  the  life  of  the 
students  and  had  intimate  personal  relations  with  many 
of  them,  taking  walks  with  one  or  another.  Prof. 
Thomas  Hume,  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  re- 
calls how,  on  one  of  these  walks  along  the  Chesapeake 
and  Ohio  railroad  track,  he  urged  him  to  consider  if 
preaching  were  not  his  duty. 

Dr.  C.  H.  Toy,  in  a  private  letter,  says : 

1  Sketch  of  John  A.  Broadus,  from  new  volume  of  "  Virginia  Baptist  Ministers  " 


When  I  went  to  the  University  of  Virginia,  in  1852,  he  was  tutoi 
in  Greek,  and  was  regarded  as  an  admirable  Greek  scholar.  He 
was  very  kind  to  me  personally  (I  had  a  letter  of  introduction  to  him), 
but  he  left  the  University  before  I  entered  the  school  of  ancient  lan- 
guages, and  I  did  not  at  that  time  come  under  his  teaching.  His 
acceptance  of  the  charge  of  the  Charlottesville  Baptist  Church  was 
greatly  regretted  in  University  circles ;  it  was  belkved  that  if  he  had 
remained  there  as  teacher  he  would  have  become  an  eminent  Greek  r 
scholar  (and,  as  it  happened,  this  is  what  he  did  become). 

The  burden  of  teaching  and  preaching  had  become  too 
great  and  Mr.  Broadus  was  not  willing  to  give  up  his 
ministerial  work.  So  he  moved  down  to  Charlottesville 
as  a  full-fledged  pastor. 

WM.  F.  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

FLEETWOOD  ACADEMY,  June  27, 1853 :  I  hope  you  are  arrang- 
ing to  be  at  our  camp  meeting  in  Culpeper.  Do  you  know  who 
wrote  "  Phoenix  "  in  the  "  Herald  "  ?  It  is  supposed  in  all  this  region 
that  you  wrote  it. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

BREMO,  August  8, 1853 :  We  reached  Bro.  Jones'  before  eight 
o'clock  Saturday  night,  having  traveled  thirty-three  miles  in  less  than 
seven  hours.  I  was  tired,  but  got  a  pretty  good  night's  rest.  The 
meeting  at  the  Fluvanna  Church  was  still  going  on  yesterday,  but 
we  had  at  the  Brick1  a  great  crowd—very  many  not  getting  in.  I 
preached  in  the  morning  from  the  parable  of  the  Sower,  but  was 
greatly  "hampered,"  and  made  a  poor  affair  of  it.  In  the  after- 
noon, from  the  Publican's  Prayer,  with  more  feeling  than  usual,  a 
good  deal  of  interest.  Four  persons  knelt  for  prayer,  and  several  others 
told  us  at  the  close  of  deep  feeling.  The  prospect  is  very  encouraging. 

Read  a  very  pretty  little  story,  last  evening,  by  the  author  of  "  A 
Trap  to  Catch  a  Sunbeam,"  which  made  me  think  much  of  you,  of 
your  manifestly  growing  affection  for  your  husband,  and,  I  trust,  your 
growing  happiness.  Sometimes  there  comes  over  me  a  dreamy  hope 
that  the  day  may  be  when  I  shall  be  less  unworthy  of  my  dear  wife's 

STAUNTON,  August  22, 1853 :  Till  the  breakfast  bell,  I  can  write. 
The  details  of  my  trip  thus  far  I  will  give  in  a  subsequent  letter.  I 

i  Fork  Union. 


have  enjoyed  it ;  preached  tolerably  well  on  Friday ;  was  elected 
moderator  of  the  Association,  and  have  got  through  pretty  well. 
Stayed  one  night  with  A.  L.  Nelson.  Yesterday  morning  I  preached 
at  the  stand—immense  crowd—came  m  afternoon  to  Staunton,  and 
preached  by  arrangement  in  the  Presbyterian  church.  A  little  too 
much  distinction  and  lionizing.  Oh,  for  the  meek  and  lowly  spirit 
of  him  in  whose  name  I  labor. 


CHARLOTTESVILLE,  September  5, 1853:  Your  letter  of  August  4 
arrived  while  1  was  with  Brother  Whitescarver,  at  his  church  in  Flu- 
vanna,  in  a  meeting  of  days.  We  had  large  congregations,  the 
house  crowded  even  on  week  days,  and  a  good  state  of  feeling 
among  the  people.  Some  of  them  were  rather  disposed  at  first  to  be 
boisterous,  but  before  we  left  there  was  much  of  that  solemn  stillness 
in  which  I  so  much  delight.  Some  seven  or  eight  persons  professed 
conversion  during  our  stay,  and  I  hope  much  good  was  done  that 
only  the  future  will  make  manifest.  That  meeting  and  the  one  at 
Blue  Run,1 1  look  back  upon  as  two  of  the  most  pleasant  seasons  of 
my  religious  life.  I  trust  I  have  to  some  extent  found  it  true  in  the 
spiritual  sense,  that  '*  he  that  watereth  shall  be  watered  also  himself." 
Our  kind  Father  will  not  fail  to  bless  to  our  own  growth  in  grace 
and  comfort  of  love,  any  sincere  effort,  however  feeble,  which  we 
make  to  promote  his  glory  in  the  conversion  of  sinners ;  and  this 
blessing  may  be  realized,  not  only  by  the  preacher  in  the  pulpit,  but 
by  every  Christian  in  private  efforts  to  do  good  to  individuals. 

A  few  days  after  I  returned  from  Fluvanna  and  received  your  letter, 
I  set  out  again  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Albemarle  Baptist  Associa- 
tion, held  in  the  county  of  Augusta.  A  Baptist  Association  is  com- 
posed of  delegates  from  the  churches  in  a  given  district  of  country, 
who  voluntarily  associate  themselves  for  the  purpose.  At  these 
meetings,  commonly  consisting  of  four  delegates  from  each  church, 
letters  are  read,  stating  the  progress  of  the  several  churches  during 
the  past  twelve  months  and  their  present  condition  and  prospect,  with 
statistics.  Reports  are  also  made  by  standing  committees,  which  are 
expected  to  embody  facts  and  arguments  concerning  the  great 
benevolent  operations  of  the  day ;  and  any  other  matters  acted  upon 
that  are  requisite  and  allowable.  The  Association  has  no  control 
over  the  churches,  being  simply  an  advisory  body.  Every  church 
we  consider  a  government  within  itself,  and  all  other  organizations 

1  In  Orange  County.    The  meeting:  was  in  July,  1853. 


for  religious  purposes  must  be  voluntary  and  without  any  authority 
to  rule  the  churches.  Such  is  the  form  of  church  government  which 
we  think  the  New  Testament  sanctions. 

I  hope  that  in  enlarged  acquaintance  with  the  Scriptures,  and 
growing  interest  in  the  progress  of  our  Redeemer's  kingdom,  at 
home  and  abroad,  you  may  find  benefit  and  enjoyment.  Let  me 
recommend  you  to  keep  near  the  simple,  fundamental  truths  of  the 
gospel ;  you  a  sinner,  and  Christ  the  sole  and  sufficient  Saviour. 
My  text  yesterday  morning  is  a  passage  well  worth  bearing  m  mind, 
"  When  I  am  weak,  then  am  I  strong  "  (2  Cor.  12  :  10).  Let  con- 
scious weakness  make  you  watchful,  and  make  you  prayerfully  take 
hold  upon  the  Divine  strength.  You  may  find  the  saying  true  in 
many  respects,  but  especially  as  regards  Christian  steadfastness  and 
Christian  usefulness.  .  . 

Please  present  me  with  respectful  and  kindest  regards  to  all  your 
friends  whose  acquaintance  it  was  my  privilege  to  make.  I  remem- 
ber my  visit  to  Barboursville  with  exceeding  pleasure,  and  shall  be 
very  glad  if  I  am  ever  able  to  repeat  it. 


BARBOURSVILLE,  Sept.  29, 1853 :  I  received  your  kind  and  in- 
structive letter  a  few  weeks  since  and  was  truly  obliged  to  you  for  it. 
I  was  glad  to  have  a  clearer  idea  given  me  of  our  church  organiza- 
tion, for  though  not  entirely  ignorant,  still  I  had  but  a  vague  idea 
given  me  of  it.  .  . 

The  entire  disposal  which  I  have  of  my  own  time  I  consider  a  great 
cause  for  gratitude,  but  at  the  same  time  it  is  a  most  important  talent 
intrusted  to  me,  and  I  do  feel  most  sincerely  desirous  to  use  it  in  a 
manner  which  will  conduce  most  to  the  honor  and  glory  of  the  good 
Giver.  I  think  I  cannot  be  mistaken  in  devoting  a  large  portion  of  my 
time  in  the  study  of  his  will  as  made  known  to  man  m  the  Bible, 
For  a  year  past  I  have  felt  the  want  of  a  fuller  commentary  than  the 
one  I  have,  and  thought  of  getting  Scott's,  but  I  would  like  to  know 
whose  you  prefer.  I  would  be  obliged  to  you  for  any  hints  that  you 
would  think  useful  to  me  in  my  efforts  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  the 
Scriptures.  I  wish  to  attain  a  clear  understanding  on  my  own  account 
and  then  as  an  aid  in  my  endeavors  to  benefit  others. 

The  sermon  note-book  shows  this  entry  for  Sept.  25  : 

Address  to  the  church  on  commencing  my  labors  as  exclusively  a 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WHITESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  Oct.  3, 1853 :  Thanks  to  sawing  wood 
every  morning,  my  health  is  improving. 

In  the  "  Religious  Herald  "  for  Oct.  6,  1853,  John  A. 
Broadus  appears  in  an  article  entitled  "  Obey  your  Par- 
ents "  and  signed  A.  This  brief  article  is  worth  pre- 
serving, since  it  shows  how  rapidly  the  two  years  at 
Charlottesville  and  the  University  have  matured  his 
thought  and  style.  Here  we  see  the  same  elements 
that  characterized  him  in  after  years  : 


In  talking,  the  other  day,  to  the  children  of  our  Sunday-school,  it 
occurred  to  me  to  put  together  several  reasons  why  they  ought  to 
obey  their  parents.  They  are  not  new  reasons,  but  they  are  very 
good  ones ;  and  it  may  be  that  thinking  of  them,  all  together,  may 
incite  some  young  reader  to  do  what  is  thus  urged. 

1.  Itisnght m itself.    The  apostle  says  (Eph.  6  :  i) :  "  Children, 
obey  your  parents  in  the  Lord ;  for  this  is  right."    Surely  that  ought 
to  be  reason  enough,  if  there  was  no  other  at  all.    But 

2.  It  is  your  interest.    This  is  the  first  "  commandment  with  prom- 
ise."   Obey  your  parents,  honor  your  father  and  mother,  that  it 
may  be  well  with  thee  and  thou  mayest  live  long  on  the  earth. 
Often  this  is  literally  fulfilled  ;  and  alas !  very  often  children  shorten 
their  days  by  not  obeying — either  they  meet  with  some  fatal  accident 
through  ignorance  or  recklessness,  or  else  they  sow  the  seed  of  some 
disease,  or  form  some  pernicious  habit,  which  afterward  brings  them 
to  an  unhappy  and  untimely  death. 

3.  You  have  the  best  possible  example  for  it.    You  remember  that 
this  is  Jesus  himself,  who  "was  subject  unto"  his  parents.    And 
observe  this— Jesus  was  wiser  than  they  were ;  nay,  though  only 
twelve  years  old  at  the  time  referred  to,  he  had  just  proved  himself 
wiser  than  the  great  teachers,  the  learned  men  at  Jerusalem.    Some 
boys  and  girls  think  themselves  wiser  than  their  parents,  especially 
if  they  happen  to  be  learning  something  at  school  that  their  father 
and  mother  never  had  an  opportunity  to  study.    But  here  Jesus,  who 
really  did  know  more  than  his  parents,  was  still  subject  unto  them. 

4.  If  you  do  not,  you  will  be  sorry  for  it.    You  will  be  sorry  in 
many  ways— one  way  is  this :  If  you  ever  live  to  stand  by  your 


father's  or  your  mother's  grave,  or  stand,  as  I  have  stood,  where  both 
sleep  side  by  side,  and  remember  any  time  when  you  gave  them  pain 
by  disobedience,  oh,  then  you  will  mourn  most  bitterly !  It  will  be 
too  late  then,  however  you  might  desire  it,  to  ask  their  pardon.  Do 
not  run  the  risk  of  ever  knowing  an  hour  of  such  keen  agony—such 
bitter  sorrow. 

Consider  now,  whether  these  are  not  good  reasons  ;  and  determine 
that  you  will  be  sure  to  "  obey  your  parents." 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

FREDERICKSBURG,  Monday  morning,  Nov.  7,  1853 :  I  reached 
home  at  eleven  o'clock  Saturday  morning.  On  the  cars  I  had  a  fine 
opportunity  to  stare  at  General  Scott,  of  which  I  availed  myself  with 
great  satisfaction.  He  was  talking,  part  of  the  time,  with  some  lively 
young  ladies,  so  as  to  put  off  his  accustomed  frown,  and  he  was 
then  in  my  eyes  a  man  of  most  magnificent  appearance.  How  mar- 
velous is  our  admiration  of  military  greatness !  I  have  no  respect 
for  that  man  as  a  politician,  but  remembering  Lundy's  Lane  and 
the  battlefields  of  Mexico,  and  gazing  upon  his  truly  commanding 
form,  I  honor  him,  and  account  it  a  privilege  to  see  him.  You 
remember,  though,  that  I  have  seen  very  few  of  the  noted  men  of 
our  times.  There  were  various  acquaintances  on  board,  John  Wash- 
ington, Andrew  S.  Broaddus,  of  Caroline,  young  Doggett,  the 
Methodist  preacher,  etc.  .  . 

Yesterday  morning  the  church  was  quite  full,  and  some  went  away 
for  lack  of  seats.  I  preached  from  the  Publican's  Prayer  with  toler- 
able success  The  congregation  has  been  somewhat  prepared  for  this 
meeting,  there  being  a  general  looking  forward  to  it,  and  so  at  the 
very  first  sermon  there  was  not  only  excellent  attention  but  much 
feeling— many  wept.  Last  night  I  preached  again,  from  Col.  i  :  28. 
The  house  was  crowded  and  overflowing.  The  sermon  was  rather 
languid,  and  certainly  one  of  the  most  commonplace  that  even  I  have 
ever  preached ;  in  fact,  I  somehow  felt  no  disposition  to  rise  above  a 
mere  unpretending  repetition  of  what  they  have  been  hearing  from 
their  childhood.  (As  we  were  returning,  Uncle  William  and  I,  we 
heard  two  young  men  discussing  the  sermon ;  one  of  them  was 
greatly  disappointed,  he  had  expected  to  "  hear  something  eloquent,'* 
the  other  was  insisting  that  it  was  very  fitly  done).  It  is  needful  to 
be  cautious  about  the  special  application  of  such  a  belief,  but  I  am 
inclined  to  believe  that  the  strong  inclination  I  felt  to  speak  in  such 
a  style  was  to  a  certain  extent  of  the  Lord.  I  have  prayed  that  great 
good  might  be  done  at  this  meeting,  and  done  as  far  as  possible  in 


such  a  way,  that  I  might  be  unable  to  take  the  credit  of  it,  m  any 
degree  to  myself.  .  .  I  soon  perceived  that  many  in  the  congrega- 
tion were  deeply  moved,  and  as  I  spoke  of  Jesus  the  Saviour,  the  all- 
sufficient,  the  loving,  the  only  Saviour,  and  warned  them  not  to  re- 
ject him,  not  to  put  off,  warned  them  to  flee  the  wrath  to  come,  many 
wept ;  strong  men,  they  say,  and  near  to  the  door  where  the  atmos- 
phere is  often  so  chill,  were  weeping  like  children.  And  yet  what  I 
was  saying  did  not  move  my  own  heart,  and  would  hardly  have 
kept  my  people  at  home  in  their  seats.  Seven  persons  came  forward 
for  prayer.  I  suppose  twenty  or  thirty  might  have  been  induced,  by 
much  persuasion,  to  come,  but  my  uncle  thought  proper  (and  I  be- 
lieve very  wisely)  to  refrain  from  any  great  effort  just  then. 

FREDERICKSBURG,  Friday,  Nov.  n,  1853:  .  .  The  enclosed 
notice  will  surprise  you.  1  received  the  invitation  the  day  I  arrived, 
but  did  not  think  of  appearing  until  some  future  time.  Yesterday, 
they l  came  to  me,  representing  that  they  were  anxious  to  commence 
their  series  of  lectures  speedily,  and  desiring  me  to  address  them 
before  leaving.  They  said  all  would  appreciate  the  difficulty  of  doing 
myself  justice  under  the  cncumstances,  etc.,  and  Uncle  William  and 
Bagby  advised  that  I  should  undertake  it.  Uncle  William  himself 
is  to  be  one  of  their  lecturers,  and  I  suppose  McPhail,  John  R. 
Thompson,  R  H.  Garnett,  W.  Pope  Dabney  have  consented  to 
come  during  the  season.  So  it  is  a  respectable  concern.  Indeed,  it 
troubles  me  that  I  must  appear,  for  the  first  time,  to  deliver  a  lecture 
with  a  fee  for  admittance,  and  have  only  parts  of  three  days  to  pre- 
pare. I  shall  go  away  by  the  train  Monday  night,  so  as  still  to  get 
home  Tuesday. 

I  thought  yesterday  I  would  treat  this  theme,  "  Simplicity  of 
Speech."  I  can  hit  at  pedantry,  at  the  doctors  and  lawyers  and 
preachers  and  teachers,  and  the  young  ladies  too — can  talk  about  the 
English  language,  Anglo  Saxon,  etc.,  and  languages  in  general. 
Don't  know  what  I  shall  make  of  it. 


CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA,,DCC.  5, 1853:  .  .  With  your  permis- 
sion, I  will  recur  in  a  future  letter  to  the  special  subject  of  reading 
the  Bible.  The  subject  is,  I  confess,  a  very  favorite  one  with  me, 
perhaps  some  would  say  my  hobby. 

With  regard  to  your  colonization  scheme,  I  have  only  time  to  say 
that  I  heartily  approve  the  general  idea  of  colonization,  and  that  i 

1  The  Young  Men's  Society. 


should  be  disposed  to  favor  the  plan  you  speak  of  with  reference  to 
your  own  slaves.  If  you  will  give  me,  as  you  mention,  further 
details  concerning  them,  I  shall  take  pleasure  in  stating  my  opinion 
with  all  the  freedom  that  is  inspired  by  your  kind  confidence. 

I  trust  you  are  still  making  some  progress  in  personal  piety.  May 
the  Lord  make  you  faithful  and  useful,  and  thus  happy. 

The  valuable  book  you  sent  me,  and  which  was  duly  received, 
could  hardly  have  been  equaled  in  acceptableness.  I  had  been  regret- 
ting, upon  reading  notices  of  it,  that  I  could  not  afford  to  procure  it. 

Mr.  Broadus  was  very  active  in  mission  endeavor. 
At  the  June  meetings  in  1853  he  had  reported  for  the 
church  five  hundred  and  forty  dollars  for  various  mission 
causes.  This  was  more  than  the  pastor's  salary.  The 
book  shows  also  that  he  himself  gave  more  than  one- 
tenth  of  his  income.  He  opened  his  pulpit  and  his  heart 
to  the  denominational  agents.  He  speaks  as  follows  of 
the  secretary  of  the  Foreign  Board : 

Doctor  Taylor's  method  of  collecting  was  of  the  fertilizing  sort. 
He  left  the  people  more  fnendly  to  him  and  his  cause  after  giving,  so 
that  next  time  they  would  give  more  cheerfully,  if  not  more  largely. 
Two  or  three  times  I  wrote  and  asked  him  to  come  when  it  was  time 
to  collect  for  missions,  because  I  knew  the  effect  would  be  good.1 

The  series  of  lectures  upon  Paul  turned  out  so  well 
that  Mr*  Broadus  wished  to  go  further  in  that  line.  From 
the  first  of  October,  1853,  to  the  end  of  June,  1854,  the 
note-book  presents  a  remarkable  course  of  week-night 
lectures.  He  was  free  from  University  work  now,  and 
threw  his  whole  nature  into  the  work  at  Charlottesville. 
This  suggestive  list  of  topics  is  worth  the  pastor's  peru- 
sal who  has  trouble  with  his  prayer  meetings.  This 
series  crowded  the  house  week  by  week. 

Family  Prayer,  Reading  (two),  Profanity,  Self-government,  The 
Woman  of  Canaan,  Enoch,  Noah  and  the  Deluge,  Lot  and  the  De- 
struction of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  Abraham,  Balaam,  The  Entrance 
into  Canaan  and  the  Destruction  of  Jericho,  Caleb  (with  a  sketch  of 
1 "  life  and  Times  of  James  B.  Taylor,"  p.  347. 


the  intermediate  history),  The  Earlier  Judges,  Samson,  Micah's 
Establishment  and  the  Destruction  of  the  Benjamites,  Ruth,  Samuel, 
Eli,  The  Ark,  Saul,  David  (nine  lectures:  Earlier  History;  Till  his 
Flight  to  Ramah ;  to  the  Wilderness  of  Maon  ;  to  the  Death  of  Saul ;  to 
the  Removal  of  the  Ark  to  Zion ;  to  the  Establishment  of  Mephibosheth 
at  Court ;  to  the  Commencement  of  Absalom's  Rebellion  ;  Absalom's 
Rebellion  and  the  Restoration ;  to  the  Close  of  his  Life),  Andrew  Fuller's 
Life  and  Writings,  Robert  Hall's  Life  and  Writings,  Solomon  (five 
lectures :  to  Marriage  with  Egyptian  Princess  and  Canticles ;  The 
Temple ;  Fortifying  and  Commerce  and  Queen  of  Sheba ;  Book  of 
Proverbs ;  Solomon's  Shame,  and  Last  Years  and  Ecclesiastes),  Habit, 
Popular  Amusements,  Church  History  (thirteen  lectures :  Introduc- 
tory; to  Reign  of  Hadrian  117;  Justin  Martyr  and  his  Times; 
Irenaeus  and  Hippolytus  and  the  Catacombs ;  Tertullian  and  Church 
Life  and  Worship;  Origen  and  Leading  Heresies;  Cyprian  and  Church 
Constitution ;  Constantine  the  Great ;  Julian  the  Apostate ;  Asceti- 
cism and  Monkery ;  Chrysostom  ;  Augustine  and  Jerome ;  Mahomet). 

Vigorous  work  and  robust  reading  had  preceded  this 
course  of  prayer-meeting  studies. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS  : 

PETERSBURG,  Friday,  February  17,  1854,  Columbia  Hotel:  After 
supper  got  into  a  room,  and  attempted  to  think  over  the  speech ; 
kept  me  walking  the  floor  till  10.30  o'clock.  Then,  tired,  excited,  and 
with  my  cold  increasing,  I  tried  to  sleep,  but  it  was  near  midnight 
before  the  bustle  ceased,  and  then  I  slept  fitfully.  The  room  had 
been  a  very  short  time  in  use,  and  unless  I  greatly  mistake,  the 
sheets  were  slightly  damp.  I  awoke  this  morning  half-past  five, 
quite  hoarse  and  with  some  sore  throat.  For  breakfast,  some 
wretched  biscuits,  and  strong  coffee  without  cream.  I  nibbled  and 

sipped  a  "  li'  bit."  Reached  here  at  nine  o'clock.  Mr.  G 's  carriage 

in  waiting.  After  dressing  found  their  breakfast  just  ready,  and  ate. 
Mr.  J.  Y.  G.  is  unexpectedly  detained  in  Richmond ;  coming  over 

this  afternoon.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  G seem  to  be  among  the  excellent  of 

the  earth ;  they  have  been  very  kind  and  every  way  considerate, 

Mrs.  G made  me  a  mixture  of  egg  and  sugar,  with  a  little  brandy, 

which  is  helping  my  hoarseness  a  little.  I  have  been  to  the  library ; 
the  room  is  exceedingly  neat  and  tasteful,  and  must  be  pleasant  to 
speak  in.  They  have  no  books  on  languages.1  I  don't  know  that 

1  Lectured  before  Petersburg  Library  Association  on  the  study  of  language. 


they  ought  to  have.  There  have  been  some  half-a-dozen  lecturers, — 
Van  Zandt,  Bishop  Atkinson,  T.  V.  Moore,  John  R.  Thompson,— 
don't  remember  the  balance.  I  am  scared,  terribly.  Am  not  myself, 
from  loss  of  sleep  and  cold;  fear  my  subject  won't  take,  but  I 
believe  what  I  shall  say,  and  shall  speak  con  amore^  if  with  no  other 
merit.  They  have  always  had  good  audiences,  and  it  will  be  a 
pleasant  night. 

J.  A.  B.  in  MISS  M.  M.'S  ALBUM  : 

April  20,  1854 :  The  four  years  which  I  spent,  Miss  Mary,  so  neat 
to  your  own  home,  will  soon  have  been  equaled  by  the  years  elapsed 
since  my  student  life  was  ended.  Yet  I  look  back  upon  that  life  with 
feelings  that  have  scarcely  lost  any  of  their  freshness.  I  remember 
many  pleasant  meetings,  many  a  lively  talk,  many  a  time  when,  on 
the  eve  of  some  difficult  examination,  1  would  "  go  to  see  the  ladies  " 
as  a  finishing  touch  to  my  preparation.  I  cannot  think  of  those  days 
but  there  come  thronging  memories  of  kindly  words  and  friendly 
deeds  on  the  part  of  yourself  and  all  the  others  of  your  family,  the 
living  and  the  departed.  I  cherish  toward  you  all  a  feeling  of  grate- 
ful regard  which  I  am  conscious  of  having  poorly  manifested,  and 
to  which  words  could  give  no  fit  expression.  May  you  long  live, 
Miss  Mary,  to  laugh  away  the  glooms  of  many  another  friend ;  yea, 
to  bless  more  highly  still ;  for  earnest  and  serious  as  well  as  cheerful, 
combining  knowledge  of  religious  truth  with  a  hearty  and  humble 
love  of  the  truth,  may  it  be  your  privilege  by  your  character  and  life 
to  present  to  all  who  know  you  that  pleasing  picture,  the  bright  side 
of  religion. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

EXCHANGE  HOTEL,  RICHMOND,  VA.,  June  2, 1854 :  Our  meet- 
ings l  have  been  quite  interesting. 

Uncle  William  has  been  quite  unwell,  and  made  a  bad  failure 
last  night  on  foreign  missions.  He  won  laurels,  however,  this 
morning,  by  a  very  able  speech  on  the  proposed  female  institute. 

I  was  asked  to  speak  this  morning  in  the  Bible  Society,  and  at 
short  notice  concluded  to  try  it ;  did  only  tolerably  well.  ,  .  Took 
tea  yesterday  in  company  with  Mrs.  Alexander,  who  was  my  near 
neighbor  in  Clarke ;  have  seen  also  one  of  my  old  scholars,  James 
Allen,  now  a  delegate  to  the  Association.  Mrs.  Alexander  was  won- 
derfully friendly. 

1  June  meetings. 


Some  members  of  the  Second  Church  (Dr.  Ho  well's)  expressed  a 
wish  that  I  should  preach  there  Sunday.  Howell  therefore  insisted, 
and  though  I  spoke  of  Hoge's  invitation,  Howell  overruled  it  in  the 
committee,  and  I  am  to  preach  at  Second  Church  Sunday  morning. 
Had  a  special  application  also  to  preach  at  Centenary  Church. 
Happily  for  me,  the  committee  have  all  the  responsibility  of  assign- 
ing and  arranging. 

1  During  his  [J.  A.  B's.]  pastorate  at  Charlottesville  was  organ- 
ized, largely  under  his  influence,  the  Albemarle  Female  Institute,  the 
very  first  school,  so  far  as  I  know,  to  put  the  English  language  on 
a  footing  of  parity  with  the  ancient  classics  and  the  cultured  tongues 
of  modern  Europe.  More  of  credit  for  this  bold  innovation  is,  per- 
haps, due  to  the  principal,  Prof.  John  Hart,  and  his  assistant, 
Crawford  H.  Toy  ;  but  it  was  made  not  without  consultation  with 
the  president  of  the  trustees. 

The  "bold  innovation  "  was  not  consummated  till 
1857.  This  "branch  in  collegiate  education  [study  of 
English]  owes  him  a  large  debt." 

Mrs.  L.  L.  Hamilton  writes  as  follows : 

Whilst  a  pupil  at  the  Albemarle  Female  Institute,  I  boarded  with 
a  Presbyterian  family  ;  but  through  the  courtesy  of  Doctor  Broadus 
was  able  to  attend  the  night  services  held  at  my  own  church. 

The  Baptist  parsonage  was  not  quite  a  block  away  from  my 
boarding  house  and  Doctor  Broadus  would  come  for  me  "  ram,  hail,  or 
shine."  One  Sunday  night,  a  violent  storm  came  on  an  hour  before 
services.  It  simply  poured  down,  the  streets  looked  like  running 

Every  one  in  the  house  abandoned  the  idea  of  going  out  to  preach- 
ing that  night.  Soon  the  door-bell  rang— Doctor  B stood  on  the 

porch  under  a  big  umbrella,  and  in  a  cheery  tone  called  out,  "  Well, 

L ,  are  your  ready?  It  is  pretty  bad ;  but  I  think  we  can  make 

it."  The  church  was  only  a  short  block  away,  we  reached  it  with- 
out any  material  damage,  and  found  a  waiting  congregation  of 
three  persons— John  Hart,  Alec.  P.  Abell,  and  Louisa  Soweli ;  I  am 
now  the  only  one  left  of  the  five  that  were  present  that  night. 

I  thought  of  course  our  good  pastor  would  give  us  a  "  prayer- 
meeting  talk,"  sing  a  hymn  and  go  out ;  but  no,  when  he  entered 

1  Prof.  H.  H.  Harris  In  "  Religious  Herald,"  March  21, 1895 


the  pulpit,  a  momentary  expression  of  amusement  flitted  over  his 
countenance  as  he  gazed  on  the  empty  pews.  Mr.  Hart  and  I  sat 
just  in  front  of  the  pulpit,  and  the  other  two  brethren  in  the  "  amen 

The  services  began  as  usual— you  can  well  imagine  that  the 
quartette  were  not  able  to  render  very  fine  music,  but  we  did  the 
best  we  could.  Then  came  a  grand  sermon.  Doctor  Broadus 
preached  with  as  much  pathos  and  power  as  if  thousands  were  lis- 
tening to  his  impassioned  utterances,  After  it  was  over  he  came 
down  and  said  smilingly,  "  I  have  a  very  attentive  congregation." 
Some  one  said,  "  We  would  have  been  satisfied  with  a  little  talk, 
you  should  have  saved  that  fine  sermon  for  a  big  crowd."  He  re- 
plied :  "  The  few  who  braved  the  storm  to  hear  me,  deserved  the 
best  I  had.  I  really  enjoyed  preaching  to  you,  for  I  knew  you 
wanted  to  hear  me." 

Another  friend  writes : 

There  was  a  magical  influence  in  his  sympathy  with  the  young 
people  of  the  community.  They  remembered  and  repeated  his  say- 
ings, and  they  sought  his  advice  with  a  love  and  confidence  little 
short  of  adoration.  Perhaps  in  Charlottesville  his  greatest  influence 
was  with  them.  The  boys  and  girls  still  at  school  he  stimulated  to 
nobler  effort,  frequently  by  an  incidental  remark  from  the  pulpit,  upon 
the  importance  of  their  work,  or  with  a  tender  word  touching  upon 
their  difficulties  and  the  way  to  rise  above  them.  He  created  an 
eagerness  for  learning  and  love  of  truth  which  led  them  to  buy  and 
diligently  read  any  book  he  named. 

Many  a  delightful  volume  would  he  recommend  with  an  aside  re- 
mark in  his  sermon,  or  more  often  in  the  Wednesday  night  lecture, 
which  the  young  men  and  women  might  otherwise  never  have 
known,  and  enjoyed,  and  woven  into  the  very  texture  of  their  being. 
When  any  were  tossed  like  the  troubled  sea,  and  groping  after 
religious  light  and  peace,  he  seemed  gifted  in  his  preaching  with  a 
clairvoyance  which  knew  all  that  was  in  their  minds  ;  and  with  a 
wondrous  aptness,  clearness,  and  fullness,  he  guided  their  yearning 
hearts  to  the  Fountain  of  life,  and  there  was  given  unto  them  **  the 
garment  of  praise  for  the  spirit  of  heaviness." 

The  following  essay,  from  which  we  make  a  few  ex- 
tracts, was  written  before  John  A.  Broadus  was  twenty- 
eight  years  old,  and  forms  an  interesting  study  as  the 


basis  of  his  "  Preparation  and  Delivery  of  Sermons," 
written  sixteen  years  later.  The  essay  was  published 
in  the  "  Religious  Herald/'  Dec.  14,  1854,  In  a  note  to 
the  editor,  J.  A.  B.  said  : 

The  following  essay  was  read,  by  appointment,  before  some 
brethren,  who  proposed  that  it  should  be  published  m  the  "  Herald." 



The  subject  is  one  of  such  compass  and  complexity  that  we  can- 
not expect  to  investigate  it  in  general,  and  propose  to  deal -simply 
with  its  practical  aspects.  We  make  only  one  or  two  preliminary 

A  sermon  becomes  such  only  in  the  act  of  delivery.  Whatever 
mode  of  preparing  be  adopted,  it  is  not  strictly  a  sermon,  but  merely 
the  preparation,  until  it  is  delivered.  The  proper  design  of  a  sermon 
is  to  produce  its  effect  as  delivered.  The  subsequent  printing  such 
a  discourse  to  read,  however  legitimate  and  useful,  is  a  matter  inci- 
dental and  additional.  We  must  inquire,  then,  what  method  is  cal- 
culated to  produce  the  greatest  and  most  lasting  effect  upon  those 
who  hear  the  sermon  delivered  ? 

Again.  In  consulting  the  taste  of  our  auditors,  we  are  apt  to  re- 
gard too  exclusively  the  preferences  of  the  cultivated  few.  It  is  true 
they  exercise  no  little  influence  upon  the  many ;  yet  while  the  people 
at  large  may  be  induced  thereby  to  acquiesce  in  some  particular 
method,  it  may  still  continue  devoid  of  the  power  greatly  to  interest 
or  impress  them. 

Yet,  another  remark  must  be,  that  we  can  only  expect  to  decide 
on  some  mode  as  generally  best ;  for  there  may  often  be  something 
peculiar  in  the  subject,  the  occasion,  the  character  of  the  audience, 
or  the  speaker  himself,  necessitating  the  adoption  of  a  method  which 
commonly  might  not  be  preferable.  Besides,  there  is  no  method 
which  has  not  been  adopted  by  some  men  with  very  great  success. 
It  follows  that  we  must  not  look  too  much  at  particular  examples, 
but  inquire  what  is  best  for  men  m  general. 

The  modes  of  preparation  and  delivery,  commonly  employed,  are: 
To  write  and  read ;  to  write  and  repeat  from  memory  ;  and  to  speak 
extemporaneously.  (We  use  this  last  term  because  it  is  comprehen- 
sive, although  aware  of  its  great  ambiguity.) 

We  shall  endeavor  to  point  out,  in  few  words,  some  of  the  advan- 
tages and  disadvantages  of  these  several  methods.  .  . 


We  come  now  to  the  third  method,  to  speak  extemporaneously.  This 
does  not  mean  to  extemporize  the  thinking,  nor  even  that  the  choice 
of  language  shall  of  necessity  be  all  left  to  the  moment  of  delivery. 
Many  who  speak  in  this  way  not  only  elaborate  the  thought  before- 
hand, but  select  the  terms  where  there  is  difficulty  in  making  the 
selection ;  and,  in  some  cases,  arrange  a  sentence,  as  in  the  state 
ment  of  their  subject  in  a  definition,  or  wherever  there  is  need  of 
special  accuracy.  We  include  under  this  head  all  those  methods 
which  do  not  involve  writing  out  just  what  it  is  proposed  to  read  or 
say,  whether  the  preparation  be  made  with  or  without  writing  down 
thoughts  and  whether  the  delivery  be  with  or  without  notes. 

Among  the  numerous  advantages  of  this  method,  we  may  name 
the  following :  It  accustoms  a  man  to  think  rapidly  and  trains  the 
mind  to  work  for  itself,  without  such  entire  dependence  upon  out- 
ward helps.    It  enables  him  to  spend  his  strength  chiefly  upon  the 
more  difficult  parts  of  the  subject.    When  he  is  pressed  for  time,  as 
with  the  numerous  engagements  of  a  modern  pastor  will  often  be 
the  case,  he  can  get  more  thought  into  his  sermon  than  if  all  the 
little  time  he  has  must  be  spent  in  hurriedly  writing  down  what 
comes  uppermost  into  mind.    In  such  cases  the  choice  must  be  be- 
tween extemporizing  the  language  when  the  thought  has  been  elabo- 
rated, and  taking  the  thought  extempore  in  order  to  prepare  the  lan- 
guage.   Indeed,  the  general  question  between  this  and  the  former 
methods  would  seem  to  be,  which  deserves  greater  attention,  power 
of  thought  or  precision  and  prettiness  of  expression?    Many  times 
an  audience  listens  with  every  indication  of  pleasure  to  a  discourse 
whose  smooth  and  flowing  sentences  contain  no  truly  valuable 
thought,  while  it  would  be  more  profitable,  even  if  less  pleasing  to 
some,  had  it  contained  but  a  single  thought  of  value,  though  less 
elegantly  and  accurately  expressed.    Shall  we  seek  to  tickle  men's 
ears  or  to  touch  their  hearts?    And,  besides  the  advantage  of  being 
able  to  use  an  idea  which  may  occur  at  the  time,  and  to  turn  to  ac- 
count particular  circumstances,  it  is  often  desirable  for  a  preacher  to 
speak  at  a  moment's  warning.    A  talented  minister  is  sometimes 
unable  to  make  a  little  speech  in  a  temperance  meeting,  or  the  like, 
because  he  is  used  to  writing  out  beforehand  whatever  he  says. 
Certainly  this  disqualification  does  not  in  all  cases  exist,  but  such  is 
the  natural  tendency,  and  such,  to  a  very  considerable  extent,  the 
frequent  result.    In  delivery,  the  advantages  of  speaking  extempo- 
raneously are  not  only  numerous  and  great,  but  so  obvious  as  to 
need  no  detail. 
The  disadvantages  seem  to  be  these :  There  is  a  tendency  to  in- 


crease  indolence,  as  one's  facility  of  fluent  speaking  increases ;  but 
the  tendency  may  surely  be  resisted.  There  is  difficulty  in  fixing 
the  mind  when  preparing  ;  but  this  is  largely  remedied  by  making 
notes.  This  sermon,  if  used  again,  requires  renewed  preparation ; 
but,  then,  it  can  be  much  more  easily  adapted  to  the  new  circum- 
stances. One  cannot  quote  so  largely  from  Scriptures,  or  from  the 
writings  of  others,  prose  and  poetry ;  but,  passages  which  the 
preacher  has  remembered  are  more  likely  to  be  remembered  by  his 
hearers.  The  success  of  the  sermon  is  largely  dependent  upon  the 
preacher's  feelings  at  the  time  of  delivery ;  but  he  will  oftener  gain 
than  lose  by  this.  There  is  danger  of  wearisome  repetition  ;  for  the 
speaker  may  lose  the  slight  trace  of  his  previous  imperfect  think- 
ings, and  then  circling  around  to  find  it,  may  strike  in  behind  where 
he  left  off.  This  is  too  often  the  case  ;  but  only  where  there  has 
been  inadequate  preparation. 

It  is  worthy  of  especial  remark,  that  the  disadvantages  attendant 
upon  speaking  extemporaneously  can  all  be  obviated  by  sufficient  effort, 
while  in  the  other  methods  there  are  many  inherent  disadvantages 
which  may  be  lessened,  but  are  in  great  measure  twavoidable.  .  .  But, 
if  the  different  topics  and  subdivisions,  details  and  illustrations,  are 
arranged  according  to  their  natural  sequence  and  connection,  there 
need  be  little  anxiety  about  recalling,  for  each  point  will  suggest 
what  is  to  follow.  Thus  too,  the  necessity  of  putting  things  to- 
gether so  that  they  can  be  remembered,  will  compel  a  man  to  find 
out  the  true  relations  and  natural  order  of  his  thoughts,  when  he 
might  otherwise  shrink  from  the  task.  Instead  of  presenting  a 
meie  conglomeration  of  ideas,  it  is  better  if  we  be  forced  to  have 
them  in  solution  in  the  mind,  that  so  they  may  crystallize  according 
to  their  own  law.  There  may  be  exceptions  in  peculiar  subjects ; 
but,  in  general,  a  discourse  which  cannot  easily  be  remembered  has 
been  ill  arranged,  and  details  which  do  not  readily  present  them- 
selves were  better  omitted.  For  it  is  not  everything  that  can  be  con- 
nected with  the  subject,  but  only  what  naturally  belongs  to  it,  that 
will  contribute  to  the  actual  effect. 

This,  then,  is  the  plan  we  recommend :  to  think  over  the  subject 
with  all  possible  thoroughness,  arranging  its  topics  in  the  most 
natural  order ;  to  fix  it  in  the  mind,  running  over  the  arrangement 
till  the  whole  is  familiar ;  then  going  without  paper  into  the  pulpit 
to  stand  up  and  speak. 

J.  B.  JETER  to  J.  A.  B. : 
RICHMOND,  Jan.  29,  1855  :  After  due  consideration,  I  have  de- 


clined  accepting  the  chaplaincy  of  the  University.  I  know  nothing 
that  would  be  more  pleasing  to  me  than  the  prospect  of  spending  two 
sessions  in  a  place  recommended  by  so  many  advantages.  I  need 
not  state  the  considerations  which  have  prevailed  to  prevent  me  from 
enjoying  this  pleasure.  They  have  fully  satisfied  my  mind,  but  not 
all  the  minds  of  all  my  friends.  It  is  important  that  the  post  should 
be  well  filled.  .  . 

I  still  think  thai  you  are  the  man,  if  any  arrangements  for  supply- 
ing your  church  can  be  made,  best  suited  for  the  place. 

I  am  gratified  that  my  work  on  Campbellism  meets  your  appro- 
bation. It  has  been  generally  commended.  Its  reception  at  Bethany 
1  have  not  yet  learned.  The  Reformeis  here  have  received  it  very 
quietly.  But  when  the  keynote  is  sounded  at  Bethany,  they  will,  I 
presume,  all  strike  vociferously  into  the  same  tone.  I  am  really 
anxious  to  learn  what  ground  the  Reformer  will  take  in  regard  to  it. 

J.  A.  B.  to  S.  MAUPIN  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  March  23,  1855 :  I  received  your  letter  of  $d 
inst,  announcing  my  election  as  chaplain.  After  long  and  anxious 
deliberation,  I  have  determined  to  accept  the  office.  Amid  the  fears 
with  which  one  must  look  forward  to  the  duties  of  so  responsible  a 
position,  it  is  pleasant  to  think  of  the  opportunity  it  will  afford  me 
for  a  freer,  and,  if  that  were  possible,  a  more  friendly  intercourse 
with  the  members  of  the  faculty  and  their  families. 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WHITESCARVER  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  March  26,  1855  :  It  has  indeed  been  a  long 
time  since  we  had  any  direct  communication  ;  and  it  is  now  a  week 
since  I  received  your  letter.  For  three  weeks  past  I  have  had  great 
anxiety  and  distress  of  mind.  The  faculty  required  me  (by  an  elec- 
tion) to  decide  whether  I  should  be  chaplain.  Bro.  J.  B.  Taylor 
(Jeter  has  been  doing  so  for  a  year)  urged,  when  here  in  February, 
that  I  should  be  chaplain,  and  retain  my  pastorate,  procuring  an 
associate  to  preach  Sundays.  I  took  it  into  consideration  ;  became 
satisfied  that  this  plan  would  not  answer,  for  the  chaplaincy  or  for 
me,  even  if  for  the  church  ;  and  then  had  to  decide  whether  simply 
to  go  or  stay.  Brother  Taylor  and  Uncle  William  urged  me  to 
accept.  Brother  and  Abell  were  neutral.  I  did  not  write  to  you, 
because  expecting  to  be  obliged  to  decide  before  I  could  receive  an 
answer ;  various  brethren  of  the  church  said  they  thought  upon  the 
whole  I  would  better  do  it ;  and  so,  at  the  communion  yesterday,  I 
announced  that  at  the  close  of  September  I  should  resign,  in  order  to 


be  chaplain.  It  was  obliged  to  be  known  in  college  at  once,  and 
indeed  it  had  gone  out  in  town  that  the  thing  was  proposed,  so  I 
thought  it  best  to  state  the  fact,  and  my  reasons.  The  church  has 
not  yet  decided  whether  they  will  seek  a  "  supply  "  or  a  new  pastor 
— it  is  hard  to  say  which  it  is  best  for  them  to  do. 

It  has  cost  me  (and  does  still)  much  bitterness  and  grief ;  but  it 
seems  to  be  needful.  It  will  be  an  injury  to  the  church,  but  some 
church  had  to  lose  its  pastor.  I  shall  gam  nothing  to  myself,  except 
having  more  time  for  study  and  for  careful  preparation,  no  weeK 
services,  and  three  months'  vacation  ;  and  I  greatly  need  time  for 
general  religious  and  other  reading.  I  have  tried  to  do  right— the 
Rubicon  is  passed  ;  the  Lord  bless  my  dear  people  and  my  remain- 
ing labors  among  them,  and  strengthen  me  for  the  duties  of  a  most 
responsible  and  trying  position.  Our  children  are  rapidly  recovering, 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS  : 

WILMINGTON,  N.  C.,  Tuesday  morning,  6.30  o'clock,  May  8, 
1855 :  We  have  been  here  an  hour  (in  twenty  hours  had  come  three 
hundred  miles),  have  been  to  hotel  and  got  breakfast,  and  now  are 
waiting  on  a  little  steamer  that  will  cross  presently  the  Cape  Fear. 

The  Richmond  men  all  left  yesterday  morning.  Dickinson  and  I, 
and  L.  W.  Allen,  the  Goshen  "  bishop,"  are  together.  We  hope  to 
reach  Montgomery  in  the  forenoon  of  Thursday. 

ATLANTA,  Wednesday  evening,  May  9,  1855 :  Allen  and  Dickin- 
son are  somewhat  amused  at  my  frequent  "  bulletins."  This  takes 
my  last  envelope. 

I  forgot  to  put  in  Notes  of  Sermons.  Have  been  trying  to-day  to 
call  up  a  sermon,  in  case  I  should  be  bidden  to  preach.  It  isn't  prob- 
able, and  I  hope  it  will  not  be.1  I'll  tell  you  all  about  what  I  see  that 
is  interesting,  when  I  return — yes,  I  actually  will ;  for  I  was  affected 
to-day  by  reading  of  a  lawyer's  wife,  who  complained  that  her  hus- 
band was  so  busy,  and  when  at  home  so  tired,  that  he  never  took 
time  to  talk  to  her  and  pursue  the  studies  together  for  which  they 
both  had  a  taste,  and  her  life  was  lonely.  I  believe  I  have  done 
wrong,  even  while  meaning  to  do  right. 


CHARLOTTESVILLE,  June  n,  1855 :  I  am  sure  that  you  feel  anx- 
ious to  hear  particularly  how  we  enjoyed  the  June8  meetings,  and  I 

1  He  did  preach  In  Methodist  church,  Montgomery,  from  Heb.  a :  a.    Southern 
Baptist  Convention. 
aThe  new  church  In  Charlottes vl He  was  ready  In  time. 


shall  have  abundance  to  say  on  that  subject,  as  I  have  my  head  full 
of  all  its  occurrences.  .  .  We  had  staying  with  us  Cousin  Andrew 
Broaddus,  Rev.  H.  W.  Dodge,  Rev.  Mr.  Watkins,  of  Richmond, 
Miss  Leftwich,  and  Miss  Hatcher,  from  Bedford  County.  Doctor 
Gwathmey,  of  Richmond,  stayed  with  us  while  he  was  here,  and  ma 
stayed  two  nights.  You  will  wonder  how  we  managed  to  accommo- 
date so  many  in  our  small  house.  1  had  a  bedstead  and  trundle-bed 
for  the  ladies.  A  bedstead  and  a  bed  on  the  floor  for  the  gentlemen, 
a  lounge  m  a  small  room  for  another  gentleman,  and  a  pallet  m  Mr. 
Broadus'  study  for  us.  The  children  I  put  in  their  mammy's  room. 
Doctor  Gwathmey  and  mamma  were  not  here  the  same  nights,  so 

that  we  had  plenty  of  room,  as  Mr.  B could  then  occupy  his  place 

and  mamma  stayed  with  me.    I  dreaded  having  so  many  persons  to 
provide  for,  being  entirely  without  experience  in  such  matters,  but  I 
had  no  difficulty  whatever.  Mamma, l  with  her  accustomed  kindness, 
helped  me  a  great  deal,  and  one  day  and  night  when  I  was  quite  in- 
disposed, almost  sick,  she  came  and  did  all  my  work  for  me.    1  do 
not  believe  there  ever  was  a  better  person  on  the  earth  than  she  is.    I 
feel  that  I  love  her  most  sincerely,  and  surely  she  deserves  my  love. 
I  had  a  good  many  presents  for  the  meeting.    There  came  in  from 
the  country  one  morning  two  dozen  chickens,  twelve  dozen  eggs, 
several  pounds  of  butter,  and  a  fine  ham  and  bacon,  all  from  one 
family,  and  that,  one  with  which  I  have  but  little  acquaintance. 
Another  friend  sent  me  a  gallon  of  milk  every  day  and  several 
pounds  of  butter,  another  a  turkey,  and  another  some  preserves. 
Truly  my  heart  swells  with  gratitude  in  recounting  these  acts  of 
kindness,  which  although  intended  for  the  supply  of  others  besides 
myself,  still  showed  a  degree  of  consideration  which  is  not  always 
manifested.    I  suppose  you  have  seen  some  account  of  the  meetings. 
I  was  not  present  at  them  all,  but  found  them  interesting  whenever  I 
was  present.    You  would  have  been  gratified  to  see  the  favor  with 
which  a  speech  of  Mr.  Broadus  was  received.    I  felt  more  proud  of 
him  than  ever  before,  and  am  sure  it  would  have  done  your  heart 
good  to  see  your  brother  the  object  of  so  much  admiration.    I  am  so 
much  afraid  of  seeming  foolishly  proud  of  Mr.  Broadus  that  I  don't 
know  that  I  have  done  right  to  say  all  this.    But  you  feel  too 
lively  an  interest  in  all  that  pertains  to  him  for  me  to  fear  your  dis- 
approbation.   It  must  be  a  pleasure  to  you  to  know  that  he  possesses 
influence,  and  that  it  is  all  for  good  and  not  for  evil.  .  . 
I  don't  yet  know  what  our  plans  for  the  summer  will  be*    I  want 

1  Mrs.  Somerville  Broadus. 


to  go  to  Culpeper,  especially  to  see  you  in  your  new  house,  but  I 
can't  tell  yet.  Mr.  Broadus  is  to  deliver  an  address  before  the  young 
ladies  of  the  Richmond  Female  Institute,  on  the  yth  of  this  month- 
then  at  the  Buckingham  Female  Institute  some  time  in  July,  and  the 
first  Sunday  in  July  he  will  preach  the  dedication  sermon  of  the  new 
church  at  Cedar  Run  in  Culpeper.  I  don't  know  how  many  other 
engagements  he  may  have  for  the  summer,  but  I  think  he  will  be 
quite  busy  just  now  preparing  for  what  he  has  already  on  hand. 

Lida  and  Annie  are  both  well  and  hearty.  To  see  Lida,  one  would 
hardly  imagine  she  had  ever  been  sick,  and  Annie  has  improved 
greatly  since  she  got  all  her  teeth.  I  don't  think  she  is  as  pretty  as 
when  a,  very  young  baby,  but  she  is  thought  to  be  very  much 
like  Mr.  Broadus,  and  that  will  make  her  good-looking  enough. 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WHITESCARVER : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  June  18,  1855  :  I  will  try  to  get  the  plan  of 
our  belfry— it  is  horribly  ugly,  I  think,  but  de  gustibus.  Besides,  no 
belfry  ever  was  pretty. 

The  church  have  determined,  and  I  have  agreed,  that  I  shall  con- 
tinue to  be  pastor,  but  be  released,  by  resolution,  from  all  obligation 
to  perform  pulpit  or  pastoral  duty  for  two  years  from  Oct.  i,  next — 
and  that  they  will  employ  an  associate  pastor.  I  stated  (in  writing) 
that  I  "  confidently  calculate  "  on  resuming  official  duties  at  the  end 
of  two  years,  but  could  not  pledge  myself — since  that  would  be  to 
forestall  Providence. 

Jas.  B.  Taylor  suggested  the  plan,  before  he  left.  Doctors  Cabell, 
McGuffey,  and  Harrison  approved  it.  I  am  not  certain  that  it  is 
best,  but  it  seems  so,  and  it  is  done.  Unanimous  vote  in  the  (large) 
church  meeting— but  two  or  three  persons  secretly  dissatisfied.  I 
stated  distinctly  that  I  did  not  ask  the  church  to  do  it,  nor  recom- 
mend it ;  I  was  willing  to  make  such  an  arrangement,  if  the  church 
thought  it  desirable ;  and  they  must  decide. 

They  tried  Geo.  B.  Taylor,  for  associate,  but  he  was  already  en- 
gaged to  go  to  Baltimore.  Committee  appointed  have  not  yet  sug- 
gested another— most  are  in  favor  of  Dickinson,  as  I  am ;  but  we 
shall  not  get  unanimity  upon  anything  or  anybody.  A  time  of  pas- 
toral selection  is  a  time  when  the  bonds  of  the  church  bundle  are  un- 
loosed, and  all  the  crooked  sticks  begin  to  roll  about  and  show  their 
crookedness.  If  we  can  just  get  them  well  tied  up  again,  they  will 
lie  still. 

All  this,  of  course,  between  you  and  me.  I  am  in  no  little  trouble 
for  the  church.  I  have  tried  to  do  right,  with  more  purity  of  motives, 


I  think,  thanj  often  attain.  May  God  direct,  or  overrule,  the  whole 
matter  to  his  glory ! 

I  regret  to  have  had  so  little  time  to  talk  with  you  during  the  meet- 
ings—feel like  I  hadn't  seen  you  at  all.  I  remember  nothing  very 
distinctly  except  that  I  several  times  made  a  convenience  of  you, 
but  my  hands  were  too  full  then,  for  any  use. 

I  wish  we  could  be  together  some  days  again — when  shall  it  be? 

Rumor  says  you  will  be  married.1  I  do  not  inquire  whether  it  is 
so,  but  simply  claim  a  sort  of  right,  if  ever  it  should  happen,  to  be 
the  parson — and  you  must  let  me  know  a  good  while  beforehand. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  Monday  night,  July  9,  1855 :  Preached  yes- 
terday with  rather  poor  success,— Mr.  Meade  had  a  cold,— large  con- 
gregation in  the  morning,  respectable  at  night.  Have  been  run  very 
hard  to-day  with  a  multitude  of  little  matters,  and  am  completely 
broken  down.  It's  a  distressing  thing  to  be  counted  a  smart  young 
man,  and  have  to  be  going  about  speechifying  when  one  is  tired 
beyond  endurance.  And  then  to  come  home  Friday  night,  and  have 
to  preach  twice  on  Sunday.  Well,  a  stout  heart,  and  old  sermons, 
can  conquer  many  difficulties. 

When  I  get  home,  and  hear  from  you,  and  see  how  matters  are 
going,  I  can  decide  whether  to  come  over  next  week  after  you.  If 
you  wish  to  stay  till  the  week  following,  write  it  at  once,  that  I  may 
know  upon  returning. 

2 1  knew  him  first  and  best  at  Charlottesville  in  the  life  of  his  first 
wife,  who  was  Maria  Harrison,  daughter  of  the  great  Doctor  Harri- 
son. He  was  then  pastor  of  the  Charlottesville  Baptist  Church,  and 
near  the  close  of  1855  became  chaplain  of  the  University  of  Virginia. 
He  was  then  about  twenty-eight  or  twenty-nine  years  of  age. 
The  Presbyterian  pastor,  J.  Henry  Smith,  D.  D.,  long  pastor  at 
Greensboro,  N.  C.  (still  alive5  and  well),  was  seven  or  eight  years 
older.  With  these  two  men  the  writer,  smartly  their  junior,  had 
most  delightful  friendly  and  brotherly  intercourse,  and  from  them 
derived  much  beneficial  information  and  stimulation.  The  kindness 
and  courteous  friendliness  of  those  days  extended  to  these  days  of 
old  age  with  us  all,  though  I  have  met  Doctor  Broadus  but  seldom 
in  many  years. 

1  Mr.  Whitescarver  was  married  in  the  autumn  to  Miss  Sallie  Perkins. 

8  Rev.  Paul  Wtntehead  in  "  Richmond  Christian  Advocate/*  March  at,  1895. 

1  Now  deceased. 


During  those  happy  times  at  Charlottesville  a  Literary-Theologi- 
cal Club  was  formed,  which,  besides  those  named,  embraced  such 
men  as  James  C.  Southall,  Dr.  William  Dinwiddie,  Bishop  Latane, 
the  Davises  ( Eugene  and  Dabney ),  Judge  Egbert  Watson,  Mr.  Frank 
Carr,  Mr.  Hardm  Massie.  All  too  soon  it  was  dissolved  by  losses 
and  changes  of  residence. 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Tuesday,  i  o'clock :  Heard  Thackeray  last  night 
— interesting  affair,  many  fire-crackers  of  wit,  a  most  unjust  account 
of  the  personages  introduced,  because  he  must  needs  be  satirical,  and 
the  most  miserably  bad  reading  I  ever  heard  or  dreamed  of.  I  like 
his  books,  and  I  went,  as  every  body  else  does,  only  to  see  Thack* 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WHITESCARVER : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Feb.  4,  1856 :  Your  letter  reached  me 
in  ten  days  after  its  date,  which  is  doing  very  well  for  these  snowy 
times.  We  were  sorry  you  couldn't  come  at  Christmas,  but  of  course 
it  was  impracticable,  Who  ever  saw  such  a  spell  of  weather  as  from 
that  time  to  this?  They  are  trying  to  get  up  a  S.  S.  Convention  of 
Albemarle  Association  churches,  to  be  held  in  Charlottesville  in 
April ;  may  we  not  count  on  the  visit  then? 

I  don't  think  of  anything  in  our  recent  doings  or  sufferings  here 
that  is  particularly  worth  reporting.  The  Christmas  holiday  appears 
to  have  destroyed  all  special  seriousness  in  college,  as  I  feared  it 
would.  I  can  find  no  heart  to  hope  now  for  any  general  revival  dur- 
ing this  session.  Yet,  oh,  if  it  might  be  so  !  I  know  of  some  eight 
students  who  have  professed  conversion  during  the  session ;  three  in 
connection  with  the  Baptist  meetings ;  three  with  the  Presbyterians ; 
and  two  without  any  special*  influences.  I  have  taken  great  pains  to 
ascertain  the  exact  number  of  religious  students,  which  has  never 
been  done  before.  Thus  far,  I  know  of  about  ninety-five  (it  will 
probably  reach  one  hundred)  distributed,  as  nearly  as  I  recollect, 
(the  list  not  being  before  me)  as  follows :  Baptists,  thirty-six ;  Pres- 
byterians, twenty^seven;  Methodists,  eighteen ;  Episcopal,  ten ;  other 
denominations,  four. 

I  expected,  when  I  determined  to  come  here,  to  do  much  study  in 
general.  Thus  far,  I  have  done  hardly  anything. 

Samson's  lectures  in  Charlottesville  were  very  interesting,  but 
poorly  attended.  The  weather  was  bad,  and  Thackeray  was  here 
at  the  same  time.  The  church  is,  so  far  as  I  can  judge,  doing  very 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS: 

STRASBURG,  April  29, 1856 :  I  reached  here  at  12.30  all  right. 
Should  like  to  write  a  good  deal,  but  the  General  Division  meets 
again  at  7  30,  and  I  haven't  time.    They  hadn't  many  on  hand  this 
morning,  and  as  folks  here  dine  early,  they  concluded  to  wait  for  me. 
I  got  through  the  afternoon  session  well  enough.    My  report  will 
not  produce  any  bad  feeling  or  excite  any  opposition— indeed,  I 
think  the  majority  of  those  in  attendance  would  quite  agree  with 
me.    I  shall  have  to  make  a  speech  to-morrow  or  the  next  day ;  tried 
to  think  about  it  coming  up  this  morning,  and  shall  try  again  to-mor- 
row morning.    Can't  do  much,  but  may  find  some  things  to  say. 
Mingling  with  temperance  men  naturally  excites  more  interest  in  the 
subject  than  common,  and  this  place  is  greatly  in  need  of  such  effort. 
Coming  up  this  morning,  I  passed  a  familiar  spot.    In  a  gorge  of 
the  mountains,  between  the  Blue  Ridge  and  the  Shenandoah,  there  is 
a  little  rocky  stream  winding  along  for  two  or  three  miles,  till  the 
ravine  widens  into  a  narrow  plain,  and  the  stream  enters  the  river. 
A  bridle  path,  almost  impassable  for  wheels,  runs  along  beside  and 
often  across  the  stream,  to  the  ford  of  the  river.    It  was  my  road 
from  Culpeper  to  Clarke.    Many  a  time,  in  company  and  alone,  I 
rode  up  or  down  that  ravine,  counting  how  often  we  crossed  the 
stream  (I  never  could  determine  whether  it  was  seventeen  or  eighteen 
times),  fording  the  river,  two  hundred  yards  wide,  with  a  timidity  I 
could  never  fully  overcome ;  very  sad,  as  drawing  a  lengthening 
chain  when  I  was  going  away  from  home,  mother,  sisters,  and  with 
a  painful  longing  when  going  the  other  way,  to  be  at  the  long  jour- 
ney's end.    Many  wandering  thoughts  would  pass  across  my  mind 
as  I  journeyed  there  alone,  many  wild  dreams  in  that  wild  spot,  of 
education,  of  competence,  of  reputation,  which  I  never  dared  to  hope 
could  be  realized.    To-day  I  found,  by  inquiry,  that  we  should  pass 
the  spot,  and  looked  eagerly  as  we  passed  one  mountain  gorge  after 
another,  till  I  saw  the  turn  of  the  well-remembered  path  and  stream, 
and  presently  the  opening  vale,  and  in  the  distance  a  reach  of  the 
river,  gleaming  in  the  sun.     My  heart  swelled  with  an  emotion 
rarely  felt ;  the  thoughts  of  years  long  passed  came  trooping  back — 
the  ambitious  but  despairing  dreams  of  youth  were  remembered  as  if 
I  had  just  waked  from  the  dreaming ;  and  Maria !  I  thought,  and 
tried  to  be  grateful,  that  Providence  has  done  almost  more  for  me 
than  I  dreamed.    Educational  advantages,  such  as  I  then  did  not 
think  of,  pecuniary  means  which  then  would  have  seemed  to  me 
fortune,  reputation,  more  than  I  deserve  or  can  support— a  loved  wife, 


whose  excellencies  grow  greater  and  whose  faults  grow  less,  not  only 
in  my  eyes  but  in  fact,  with  each  advancing  year,  and  dear  little 
children  to  twine  their  arms  about  me  and  tell  how  much  they  love 
me — what  is  there  that  I  have  not  in  sufficient  measure  to  make  me 
happy  and  grateful? 

Pray  for  me,  dear  wife,  that  my  soul  may  prosper,  and  that  I  may 
be  useful. 


For  he  was  ours.    How,  happily  surrounded, 
Each  favoring  hour  revealed  his  lofty  mind  ; 

How  sometimes  grace  and  cheerfulness  abounded, 
In  mutual  talk  with  earnestness  combined ; 

And  sometimes  daring  thought,  with  power  unbounded 
Life's  deepest  sense  and  highest  plan  divined,— 

AH  in  rich  fruits  of  act  and  counsel  shown,— 

This  have  we  oft  enjoyed,  experienced,  known. 

—Goetbe.  tr.  by  James  Freeman  Clarke. 


UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  May  19,  1856 :  I  have  not  found  the 
position  of  Chaplain  so  favorable  for  general  study  as  I  had  hoped. 
To  preach  twice  every  Sunday,  where  one  must  be  thoroughly 
practical  and  yet  must  have  some  freshness  in  the  modes  of  pre- 
senting truth,  demands  much  time  for  preparation.  Visiting,  not 
only  in  the  resident  families,  but  among  the  students,  might  be  pur- 
sued without  limit,  and  is  here,  not  less  than  in  ordinary  congrega- 
tions, an  important  means  of  usefulness.  And  then,  besides  a  good 
deal  of  work  upon  committees,  boards,  etc.,  I  have  found  it  impos- 
sible to  avoid  giving  a  considerable  amount  of  attention  to  the  inter- 
ests of  the  church  in  Charlottesville,  which  under  the  very  active 
and  zealous  labors  of  Brother  Dickinson,  is  still  in  a  remarkably 
flourishing  condition. 

My  labors  at  the  University  have  not  been  attended,  thus  far, 
with  any  very  manifest  and  decided  results.  I  often  feel  inclined  to 
great  despondency,  especially  of  late.  I  try  to  hope  that  what  I 
have  cast  upon  the  waters  will  come  again  after  many  days,  but  it 
is  very  hard  to  be  hopeful  and  zealous  where  no  fruit  appears.  The 
two  great  difficulties  or  rather  trials  about  a  position  like  this,  are : 
That  nobody  expects  immediate  results,  and  that  there  is  no  organ- 
ized body  of  believers.  Many  Christians  there  are,  among  faculty 
and  students,  who  feel  a  lively  interest  in  the  Chaplain's  efforts,  but 
there  can  be  little  unity  of  action  and  of  feeling,  not  only  because  of 


denominational  differences,  but  because  their  association  with  each 
other  is  temporary. 

Yet  I  really  enjoy  my  position,  with  all  its  trials,  for  there  are 
peculiar  pleasures  too.  I  humbly  hope  that,  if  spared,  the  Lord  may 
bless  my  labors  during  next  session  more  abundantly. 

Mr.  Broadus  had  been  appointed  to  deliver  the  address 
before  the  Society  of  Alumni  of  the  University  of  Vir- 
ginia on  June  25 .  He  chose  as  his  subject,  ' €  Education  in 
Athens."  The  publication  of  the  address  was  called  for 
by  the  Society,  and  it  was  issued  at  their  expense.  This 
address  appears  in  his  volume  of  "Sermons  and  Ad- 
dresses." Its  closing  sentence  is  a  noble  appeal : 

But  it  is  in  the  power  of  us  all,  so  to  cherish  the  spirit  of  letters, 
so  to  prove  the  value  of  the  training  here  received,  that  this  noble 
institution,  which  made  us  proud  and  happy  in  younger  years  by 
the  bestowal  of  her  unrivaled  honors,  may  at  least  to  some  extent 
receive  honor  in  return  from  the  achievements  of  our  ripened  man- 
hood and  our  advancing  age. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS : 

BATH  CO  ,  Aug.  2, 1856  .  .  .  Ascending  the  Warm  Spring  Moun- 
tain, I  saw  in  a  stage  window  the  dusty  face  of  Summerfield  Smith, 
I  suppose  on  his  way  home.  The  stage  was  rattling  down,  and  there 
was  no  time  for  anything  but  a  smile,  a  wave  of  the  hand,  and  a 

shout,  and  away  they  went.    At  the  Warm  Springs,  found  E and 

Mrs.  L just  setting  out  for  the  "  Red  Sweet."  He  was  on  the  por- 
tico as  I  walked  in  (to  see  Colonel  Ward)  and  our  greeting  was  over- 
whelmingly affectionate.  It  was  a  sight  to  see.  My  old  coat  was 
buttoned  and  pinned  up  to  keep  the  dust  off  my  vest,  and  it  and  the 
ugly  pants  were  covered  with  dust,  face  ditto.  Suddenly  I  met  the 
bride.  A  cry  of  joy— friends  long  parted  met  again— hearty  and 
long-continued  shake  of  the  hand,  impassioned  and  repeated  expres- 
sions of  delight,  numerous  inquiries,  as  to  whence,  and  when,  and 
whither,  introduction  straightway  to  three  fine  ladies  with  whom  she 
had  been  talking,  dusty  hat  lifted,  dusty  face  wreathed  in  smiles, 
renewed  protestations  of  delight  on  both  sides— sure  it  was  a  specta- 
cle. Afterwards,  on  the  road  to  the  Hot  Springs,  we  passed  them, 
with  two  other  persons  in  the  coach,  who  looked  like  a  newly-mar- 
ried pair  too.  .  . 


At  Healing,  stopped  a  moment,  went  down  to  the  Spring,  and  met 
Mr.  Smith.  After  I  got  into  the  buggy,  happened  to  spy  Mary  on  a 
visit  to  a  cabin  hard  by.  She  seemed  in  fine  spirits,  expressed  her- 
self pleased  with  the  place,  and  certainly  looks  better  than  she  has 
done  for  some  years.  She  had  all  the  glow  and  freshness  of  look 
which  belonged  to  her  girlhood— partly  due,  doubtless  to  the  anima- 
tion of  meeting  a  friend. 

RICHMOND,  2  o'clock,  Friday,  Oct.  25,  1856:  I  went  to  see 
various  people— among  others  the  Magills,  at  Dr.  Tucker's.  On 
Sunday  must  preach  at  First  Church  in  morning,  and  if  anywhere 
will  preach  at  Dr.  Jeter's  at  night.  I  have  long  been  anxious  to  go 
to  the  African  church,  but  can't  do  it  without  the  risk  of  having  to 
preach ;  and  three  sermons  on  Sunday  would  disqualify  me  for  Mon- 
day night.  Monday  I  want  to  go  to  the  Richmond  College  for  the 
first  time. 

Read  this  morning  in  W.  Gilmore  Simms'  poetical  works  his 
tragedy  of  Herman  Maurice.  It  seems  to  me  to  evince  not  only 
considerable  dramatic  power,  but  real  poetic  talent.  Hadn't  time  to 
read  anything  else  in  the  volume. 

All  insist  that  if  it  is  a  good  night  I  must  have  a  good  audience 

Lute  is  very  nicely  fixed  indeed,  and  they  seem  quite  happy.  Ex- 
press great  joy  at  my  having  to  stay. 

Saw  the  Thomases  last  night  and  received  a  good  scolding  for 
running  away  from  home. 

FREDERICKSBURG,  November  5,  1856:  I  feel  proud  of  having 
such  a  wife,  who  has  not  only  mind  and  knowledge  and  character, 
such  as  1  am  sure  will  make  her  in  the  end  a  successful  teacher,  but 
^who  will  urge  her  husband  to  cling  to  the  ministry,  though  it  must 
'keep  her  in  poverty,  and  even  sometimes  require,  as  now,  that  she 
should  toil  beyond  her  strength  to  eke  out  the  inadequate  support. 
Precious  wife,  my  heart  bleeds  when  I  think  of  her  fatigues  and  dis- 
tress, of  all  her  sacrifice  and  self-denial,  met  without  any  affectation 
of  heroism,  met  with  all  the  shrinking  of  a  sensitive  and  delicate 
woman,  not  made  to  stand  alone  in  the  world,  and  yet  with  all  the 
firmness  and  fortitude  of  a  noble  heart.  People  sometimes  speak  of 
my  making  sacrifices  in  order  to  preach,  but  I  am  apt  to  think  in  my 
heart,  it  is  not  I,  it  is  my  wife  that  bears  the  cross.  .  . 

I  made  an  exhortation  at  the  prayer  meeting  yesterday  afternoon, 

1  Lecture  to  raise  money  to  improve  the  parsonage  at  the  University. 


upon  the  need  of  the  Spirit  to  convince  the  people  of  sin.  Preached 
at  night  upon  i  Peter  2  :  7,  8.  Did  not  feel  as  much  tenderness  as 
the  subject  ought  to  inspire.  Oh,  that  I  could  myself  be  deeply 
moved  by  the  preciousness  of  religion  and  the  perilous  condition  of 
those  who  neglect  it ! 

FREDERICKSBURG,  Thursday,  Nov.  6,  1856:  I  am  greatly 
pleased  at  receiving  your  letter  when  we  returned  from  church  last 
night,  and  so  just  about  twenty-four  hours  from  the  time  you  sat 
down  to  write.  You  have  been  getting  on  better  than  I  expected, 
and  I  was  comforted.  .  . 

I  preached  last  night  the  sermon  on  Pleasure  and  Pride,  Acts 
17  : 18.  Very  fair  congregation,  and  remarkably  good  attention.  I 
had  more  '*  liberty "  than  heretofore.  One  young  lady  came  for- 
ward for  prayer — it  was  the  first  time  an  invitation  had  been  given. 
Oh,  that  I  could  preach  to-night  with  tender  interest  in  the  salva- 
tion of  those  who  hear !  .  . 

Quite  a  number  of  persons  have  expressed  regret  that  I  did  not 
bring  Mrs.  Broadus  with  me,  who  seems  to  be  a  person  of  conse- 
quence in  their  estimation.  I  have  devised  the  scheme  that  we  shall 
come  to  the  Potomac  Association,  which  meets  here  early  in  next 
August.  If  the  Lord  will,  it  may  be  a  pleasant  trip. 

FREDERICKSBURG,  Nov.  10, 1856 :  I  am  to  leave  to-night  by  the 
cars  and  boat  to  Alexandria,  and  thence  to  Culpeper— home  on  Wed- 
nesday. Several  persons  have  professed  conversion,  and  a  few 
others  manifest  interest.  I  have  written  declining  Doctor  Jeter's  in- 
vitation. The  Lord  bless  you  all,  and  help  me  to  preach  to-night  as 
one  that  must  give  account 

ALEXANDRIA,  Tuesday  morning,  Dec.  2, 1856:  It  is  ten  o'clock, 
and  I  am  very  comfortable  in  brother's  parlor.  .  .  I  find,  to  my  in- 
expressible annoyance,  that  everybody  thinks  my  visit  was  re- 
quested with  at  least  some  view  to  a  possible  connection  with  the 
church.  Perfectly  conscious,  however,  of  having  acted  with  self- 
respect,  and  having  had  no  dream  of  such  a  thing  when  I  accepted 
the  invitation,  I  am  trying  to  take  it  quietly. 

PHILADELPHIA,  Wednesday,  Dec.  3, 1856 :  Your  letter  was  ready 
when  I  got  to  Mr.  Tucker's.  Your  grandma  received  me  (literally) 
with  open  arms,  and  I  submitted  to  the  embrace  as  meekly  as  pos- 
sible. They  are  all  quite  well,  Mrs.  T being  rather  better  than 

common.  .  ,  Mr,  T very  kindly  took  me  this  morning  to  Doctor 


Shaw's,  who  has  a  fine  collection  of  works  of  art.  I  enjoyed  it  very 

much,  though  Mr*  T could  not  stay  long.  Doctor  S says 

he  was  at  the  University  soon  after  its  establishment. 

Afterward,  at  the  Academy  of  Arts,  I  had  three  hours  of  rare  en- 
joyment After  dinner,  George  went  with  me  down  to  Lee  & 
Walker's,  and  I  got  two  or  three  pieces  of  music,  which  I  hoped  you 
might  find  easy  enough  for  your  time,  and  to  your  taste.  George 
didn't  know  certainly,  and  we  could  only  go  by  the  composer  and 
the  looks ;  so  don't  be  disappointed  if  none  of  them  suit  you.  There 
is  a  piece  by  Thaiberg,  another  by  Gottschalk.  .  . 

I  am  going  to-night  to  hear  Thaiberg,  who  is  giving  concerts. 
Have  some  headache  though,  and  shall  not  enjoy  it  so  much. 

NEW  YORK,  Friday,  Dec.  5, 1856:  It  is  nine  o'clock,  A.  M.,  and 
I  write  in  my  room,  previous  to  going  out  again  into  the  streets  of 
the  great  city.  I  reached  here  in  safety,  and  have  been  most  kindly 
received.  .  .  Went  last  night  to  the  St.  Nicholas,  where  I  met  John 
Clark,  then  spent  a  long  time  at  the  Dusseldorf  Gallery,  which  I 
must  visit  again,  several  paintings  of  the  collection  being  very  beau- 
tiful. Then  we  strolled  up  and  down  Broadway,  looking  at  mag- 
nificent buildings  and  famous  localities  and  hurrying  crowds,  till  I 
felt  that  I  was  indeed  in  New  York.  After  all,  there  is  some  gain 
as  well  as  much  loss,  in  living  to  mature  years  before  one  sees  any- 
thing of  the  great  world.  The  impression  is  powerful,  almost  over- 
whelming, but  one  gains  much  by  the  sharpness  of  the  contrast,  and 
by  comparing  the  results  of  his  reading  and  dreaming  with  things 
as  they  are.  If  I  had  a  month  to  spend  here,  and  you  with  me,  the 
visit  might  be  made  very  profitable  as  well  as  pleasing. 

NEW  YORK,  Dec.  8, 1856 :  Preached  in  the  morning  on  "  Looking 
unto  Jesus,"  and  in  the  afternoon  on  the  "  Publican's  Prayer." 
Good  congregation  and  very  attentive.  I  suppose,  from  appearances 
and  incidental  expressions,  that  the  people  were  quite  well  pleased 
with  the  brother  from  Virginia.  At  night,  a  little  prayer-meeting, 
at  which  I  attempted  a  talk,  and  bungled  it  sufficiently.  Took  tea 
with  Doctor  Devan,  who  corresponded  with  me ;  he  is  a  returned 
missionary,  a  sensible  man,  and  pleasant  family.  Had  considerable 
talk  with  a  Brother  Smith,  who  was  there,  about  slavery.  Of 
course  I  told  them  the  plain  truth,  as  they  asked  me  about  the  facts 
and  the  principles  of  "the  institution,"  the  sentiments  of  Baptist 
ministers  in  Virginia,  including  myself,  etc.  They  were  not  fanat- 
ical folks,  and  we  talked  on  quite  smoothly.1  .  . 

1  He  had  been  invited  to  supply  a  few  Sundays  for  the  First  Church,  New  York. 


I  am  to  lecture  (that  is,  preach  a  week-night  sermon)  on  Tuesday 
night,  and  Wednesday  morning  I  will  start  home. 

The  chair  of  ancient  languages  in  the  University  had 
been  divided  in  1855,  Dr.  Harrison  retaining  the  Latin. 
The  chair  of  Greek  would  have  been  given  to  Mr. 
Broadus  if  he  had  allowed  it.  Mrs.  Broadus  took  natural 
pride  in  the  growing  power  of  her  husband,  who  used  to 
say  that  the  only  time  he  ever  saw  her  really  angry  was 
when  she  was  told  of  some  slighting  remark  by  a  prom- 
inent teacher.  "  Just  to  think  of  his  saying  that,  when 
he  only  has  his  position  because  my  husband  wouldn't 
have  it."  After  the  war  he  was  offered  the  professor- 
ship of  moral  philosophy.  Professor  Smith  says  that  the 
position  of  chancellor  would  have  been  created  and  given 
him,  if  he  would  have  taken  it.  Nothing  was  too  good 
for  him  at  the  University. 

In  the  beginning  of  1857  Mr.  Broadus  wrote  a  friend 
that  there  was  much  religious  interest  in  the  University. 
He  had  undertaken  to  write  frequently  for  the  "  Religious 
Herald,"  under  the  signature  "X.  X."  His  brother  wrote 
to  him  that  the  necessity  of  studying  theology  without 
going  to  a  seminary  had  given  him  a  hard  time  and  urged 
him  to  write  books  now  that  he  had  become  something 
of  a  theologian.  How  John  A.  Broadus  would  have  re- 
joiced at  the  chance  to  go  to  a  seminary  !  At  the  same 
time  Rev.  W.  D.  Thomas  wrote  of  his  difficulty  in  doing 
systematic  study  in  his  work  in  Caroline,  and  told  of  the 
books  he  was  reading. 

J,  B.  JETER  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  April  14, 1857 :  I  am  glad  to  hear  that  you  are  going 
to  the  Convention.  We  shall  leave  here  for  Washington  on  Monday 
morning  after  the  first  Lord's  Day  in  May.  By  so  doing  we  shall 
reach  Louisville,  I  learn,  on  Wednesday  evening.  The  carrying  out 
of  this  arrangement  depends,  however,  on  the  time  of  the  meeting  of 
the  theological  convention.  We  are  in  doubt  about  the  time  of  its 


assembling— some  think  the  time  is  not  specified— others  that  Tues- 
day previous  to  the  meeting  of  the  Convention  is  the  time.  I  will 
endeavor  to  find  out. 

I  was  pleased  with  your  late  article.  I  hope  you  will  mature  some 
plan— be  able  to  propose  some  definite  course  of  action.  I  am  so 
lamentably  destitute  of  education,  both  secular  and  theological,  that 
I  can  do  little  more  than  give  my  countenance  to  the  enterprise. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARIA  C.  BROADUS  : 

LOUISVILLE,  Monday  morning,  May  n,  1857:  The  theological 
convention  reached  a  remarkably  harmonious  conclusion,  determin- 
ing to  build  up  an  institution  at  Greenville,  S.  C.  I  am  one  of  five 
to  report,  twelve  months  hence,  a  plan  of  organization  of  the  institu- 
tion. I  am  glad  to  be  on  the  committee,  though  it  will  be  a  most 
difficult  task,  everything  for  the  success  and  usefulness  of  the  insti- 
tution depending  on  its  system  of  instruction.1 

Last  night  I  spoke,  with  Doctor  Burrows  and  A.  M.  Poindexter, 
at  the  great  foreign  mission  meeting  at  the  leading  Baptist  church. 
Got  through  tolerably  well,  better  than  I  had  expected.  Uncle 
Andrew  and  some  other  persons  having  urged  it,  I  am  to  preach  to- 
night at  one  of  the  churches. 

I  shall  not  write  again.  We  expect  to  leave  on  Wednesday 
morning,  and  are  thinking  of  going  to  Lexington,  Ky.,  instead  of 
returning  through  Indiana  and  Ohio,  so  as  to  get  a  glimpse  of  the 
finest  country  in  the  United  States.  We  want  to  stop  half  a  day  at 
Harper's  Ferry,  if  possible,  and  reach  home  on  Saturday.  The  good 
Lord  protect  us  all,  and  grant  us  a  happy  meeting  at  home. 

DR.  PHILIP  SCHAFF  to  J.  A.  B. : 

MERCERSBURG,  PA.,  May  30, 1857 :  Your  favor  of  May  26,  was 
duly  received  last  night,  together  with  a  copy  of  the  catalogue  of 
your  University  for  the  current  year,  for  which  please  accept  my 
thanks  .  .  I  always  had  a  desire  to  see  that  institution  in  active 
operation,  and  intend  to  visit  it  as  soon  as  I  can  make  it  convenient, 
perhaps  in  the  next  year,  if  God  spares  my  life.  I  have  some  slight 
acquaintance  with  one  of  the  professors  (Schele  de  Vere),  not  per- 
sonal, but  through  common  friends  at  Lancaster.  I  have  also  an 

1  "  See  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  p.  is?/.,  for  account  of  this  important  Educational  Con- 
vention which  really  established  the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary  We 
shall  make  no  attempt  to  give  a  formal  history  of  the  Seminary.  Doctor  Broadus 
has  done  that  sufficiently  in  his  "  Memoir  of  Boyce.' '  Doctor  Broadus's  own  relation 
to  the  Seminary  will,  of  course,  be  brought  out. 


urgent  invitation  to  attend  the  examination  of  the  Episcopal  Semi- 
nary, at  Alexandria,  in  June  next,  but  I  doubt  my  ability  to  go  there 
this  year. 

As  to  your  request.  I  shall  cheerfully  send  you  a  catalogue  of  our 
seminary  as  soon  as  it  shall  make  its  appearance.  .  . 

I  try  to  combine  in  my  department  the  German  lecture  system 
with  the  American  catechetical  method,  and  always  found  it  to  work 
very  well  with  my  students.  For  instance,  I  lecture  four  times  a 
week  on  church  history,  and  devote  one  hour  every  week  to  exam- 
ination, recommending  the  students  at  the  same  time  to  consult  be- 
sides their  own  notes  such  works  as  are  within  their  reach.  I  find, 
upon  the  whole,  that  the  taking  of  notes  from  free  lectures  is  the 
best  mode  of  mental  appropriation  and  digestion,  and  keeps  the  at- 
tention more  alive  than  the  mechanical  use  of  text-books.  The 
lecture  system  is  of  course  far  more  laborious  to  the  teacher,  but  it 
develops  his  whole  strength  and  energy  and  imparts  to  his  instruc- 
tion more  freshness  and  vivacity. 

I  thank  you  for  your  kind  sentiments  concerning  my  publications. 
I  am  now  hard  at  work  on  a  "  Manual  of  Church  History/'  in  three 
volumes,  for  the  use  of  theological  seminaries,  and  hope  to  be  able 
to  send  Vol.  I.  (embracing  the  first  six  centuries)  to  press  within 
one  year. 

JAMES  EDMUNDS  and  W.  B.  CALDWELL  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  June  i,  1857 :  The  undersigned,  one  a  member 
of  the  Walnut  Street  Baptist  Church,  and  the  other  a  member  of  the 
Jefferson  Street  Baptist  Church,  both  of  this  city,  address  you  this 
note  in  a  private  and  confidential  way  in  hope  to  prepare  the  way  for 
the  more  public  correspondence  which  we  hope  will  result.  The  im- 
portance of  this  city  and  the  vast  influence  it  is  destined  to  exert  on 
this  great  valley  are  open  to  all  who  visit  this  neighborhood.  You 
are  aware  that  one  strong  Baptist  church  has  been  raised  up  heie 
within  the  last  two  years.  Our  desire  and  the  desire  of  many  lead- 
ing brethren  here  is  to  raise  up  another  equal  to  it.  We  believe  it  is 
easier  to  raise  a  strong  church  than  a  weak  one.  Our  heavenly 
Father  is  pleased  when  we  ask  great  things  of  him.  The  pastor  of 
the  Jefferson  Street  Church  has  resigned  and  will  leave  the  first  of 
August  next.  They  have  a  comfortable  house  on  leased  ground  for 
the  next  four  years.  They  have  selected  the  best  vacant  lot  m  the 
city  and  have  nearly  completed  a  subscription  of  five  thousand  five 
hundred  dollars  to  pay  for  it.  This  lot  has  a  vestry  on  it.  The 
Walnut  Street  Church  have  completed  their  house  and  are  now  en- 


gaged  in  assisting  to  buy  the  lot  with  a  view  of  building  a  good 
house  on  it  for  the  Jefferson  Street  Church.  The  Walnut  Street 
brethren  feel  that  it  is  their  work  to  see  now  a  first-rate  church  and 
a  first-rate  house  for  the  Jefferson  Street  Church. 

Several  meetings  of  the  leading  brethren  of  the  Walnut  Street 
Church  with  brethren  of  the  Jefferson  Street  Church  have  been  held 
to  consult  on  the  whole  movement.  The  plan  is  to  call  such  a  pastor 
as  both  churches  can  cordially  sustain  in  carrying  out  their  plans. 
You  are  the  unanimous  choice  of  all.  We  wish  to  begin  a  corre- 
spondence with  you  and  keep  you  informed  of  what  we  are  doing 
and  what  we  hope.  Do  you  ever  look  toward  this  great  valley,  this 
seat  of  future  empire?  What  do  you  think  of  Louisville?  Is  your 
heart  in  such  a  movement  as  we  contemplate?  Will  you  talk  with 
us  on  the  subject?  Will  you  write  us?  .  . 

No  city  in  the  Union  is  more  healthy  than  this.  Its  population  is 
steadily  increasing.  A  Baptist  population  surrounds  it.  The  Bap- 
tists are  growing  strong  here.  We  think  they  have  it  in  their 
power  to  do  much  for  the  cause  of  the  Master  in  this  valley.  We 
are  confident  here  is  a  great  field  for  a  young  man  to  do  a  great 
work  for  the  Master.  We  believe  you  are  the  man  to  do  it. 

JAMES  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  June  i,  1857:  I  send  by  this  mail  a  cata- 
logue of  the  plan  of  the  theological  department  I  arranged  at  the 
time  of  my  accession  here  upon  the  supposition  that  we  would  have 
at  least  two,  but  never  more  than  three,  professors.  A  great  many 
things  need  to  be  added  for  the  ordinary  instruction  as  well  as  for  a 
course  of  higher  and  of  lower  study.  But  I  think  you  can  gather 
enough  of  my  ideas  here  to  judge  as  to  our  substantial  agreement. 

June  3  a  petition,  signed  by  forty  of  the  prominent 
students,  was  handed  Mr.  Broadus  requesting  the  publi- 
cation of  the  sermon  preached  the  previous  Sunday 
morning.  The  text  was  Eph.  3  :  8.  The  professors  urged 
its  publication  also.  So  it  was  published  in  pamphlet 
form,  and  can  be  seen  in  Broadus's  ''Sermons  and  Ad- 
dresses," under  the  title  of  "The  Apostle  Paul  as  a 
Preacher."  There  were  many  Baptist  students  at  the 
University  during  these  years  mainly  because  of  Broadus's 
influence  and  reputation  ;  among  these  can  be  noticed, 


H.  H.  Harris,  J.  C.  Hiden,  Thomas  Hume  (who  wrote  the 
constitution  of  the  earliest  college  Y.  M.  C.  A.),  J.  L.  John- 
son, J.  M.  Harris,  Jeter  George,  J.  W.  Jones,  C.  H.  Win- 
ston, etc.  Broadus  made  a  lasting  impress  upon  the  men 
while  chaplain.  One  day  at  the  University,  after  he  was 
no  longer  chaplain,  a  very  accomplished  skeptic  from  Cal- 
ifornia said  :  "  Where  is  Broadus  ?  He  is  the  only  man 
who  ever  affected  me  about  religion."  "  Tradition1  still 
tells  of  those  fruitful  years,  in  which  the  young  preacher, 
enriched  by  the  learning  of  the  school,  and  the  spiritual 
experiences  of  his  pastorate,  crowded  the  public  hall  of 
the  University  with  congregations  of  listening  youth,  and 
melted  to  love  and  penitence  those  ingenuous  souls." 

While2  preaching  in  Texas  he  [J.  A.  B.]  was  informed  that  a  lady 
desired  an  interview  with  him.  He  made  an  appointment,  and  she 
came  leading  a  little  boy  about  eleven  years  of  age  by  her  side.  She 
soon  informed  the  doctor  that  her  husband,  now  deceased,  was  a 
student  in  the  University  of  Virginia  when  the  preacher  was  chap- 
lain there— that  he  was  awakened  and  led  to  Christ  by  his  sermons. 
He  was  in  the  habit,  before  she  became  acquainted  with  him,  of 
repeating  many  of  the  sentences  of  those  sermons  in  his  father's 
family,  and  when  married,  he  would  rehearse  to  her  the  thoughts 
that  made  such  a  deep  impression  on  his  mind.  Since  his  death  the 
widow  and  mother  had  been  teaching  the  preacher's  words  to  the 
little  boy.  Doctor  Broadus  said :  "  The  heart  of  the  preacher  might 
well  melt  in  his  bosom  at  the  story.  To  think  that  your  poor  words, 
which  you  yourself  had  wholly  forgotten,  which  you  could  never 
have  imagined  had  vitality  enough  for  that,  had  been  repeated 
among  strangers,  had  been  repeated  by  the  young  man  to  his 
parents,  lepeated  by  the  young  widow  to  the  child— your  poor  words 
thus  mighty  because  they  were  God's  truth  you  were  trying  to 
speak,  and  because  you  had  humbly  sought  God's  blessing." 

Mr.  Dickinson's  work  with  the  Charlottesville  Church 
was  greatly  successful,  and  he  is  beloved  there  to  this 
day.  He  occupied  a  delicate  position,  but  he  made  things 

i  Prof.  Wn>.  M.  Thornton,  In  "  Alumni  Bulletin/1  May,  1895. 
8  Nelson  B.  Jones,  In  "  Baptist  Courier,"  April  n,  1895. 


go.  He  gave  himself  largely  to  pastoral  work  and  there 
was  a  great  revival  during  his  stay  with  the  church,  con- 
ducted by  Doctor  Cornelius  Tyree.  There  were  over  a 
hundred  conversions.  Mr.  Dickinson  was  elected  Super- 
intendent of  Colportage  and  Sunday-schools  for  the  State. 
When  he  left  in  September,  the  church  passed  resolu- 
tions of  warm  appreciation. 

The  last  of  June  Rev.  Basil  Manly  wrote  to  Mr.  Broadus 
to  know  if  the  committee  about  the  seminary  could  meet 
in  Richmond  the  last  of  August.  This  committee,  ap- 
pointed in  Louisville,  consisted  of  J.  P.  Boyce,  John  A. 
Broadus,  B.  Manly,  Jr.,  E.  T.  Winkler,  and  William  Wil- 
liams. In  July  Mr.  Broadus  went  to  the  Hot  Springs  and 
the  White  Sulphur  with  his  wife,  whose  health  was  fail- 
ing, but  the  first  of  August  he  met  Boyce  and  Manly  in 
Richmond  to  formulate  plans  for  the  new  theological 
seminary  set  on  foot  by  the  educational  convention  in 
Louisville.  Mr.  Boyce  brought  an  outline  of  the  "legal 
and  practical  arrangements,"  Mr.  Manly  had  drawn  the 
"abstract  of  doctrines  and  principles  "  for  the  professors 
to  sign,  and  Mr.  Broadus  presented  the  plan  of  instruc- 
tion, modeled  after  the  University  of  Virginia's  elective 
system.  The  other  two  members  of  the  committee  were 
absent.  Boyce  and  Manly  were  both  familiar  with  the 
curriculum  system  at  Brown,  Newton,  and  Princeton. 
But  Broadus  was  so  enthusiastic  in  his  advocacy  of  the 
elective  system  that  he  completely  won  them  over.  He 
urged  strongly  that  the  success  of  a  new  seminary  de- 
pended more  upon  wisdom  in  the  plan  of  instruction  than 
anything  else.  So,  as  Mr.  Jefferson  had  drawn  a  new 
American  university,  Mr.  Broadus  drew  a  new  American 
seminary,  which  had  in  it  adaptability  and  expansion, 
the  possibility  of  becoming  a  theological  university.1 

1  See  Broadus 's  "  Memoir  of  James  P.  Boyce/'  p.  150  / 


The  rest  of  August  was  spent  with  Mrs.  Broadus  at  the 
Salt  Sulphur  and  Red  Sweet  Springs  and  in  Culpeper. 


WHITE  SULPHUR  SPRINGS,  July  28,  1857:  I  came  to  the  moun- 
tains for  Mrs.  B.'s  health,  which  is  ladically  bad,  and  enfeebled  by 
her  teaching  during  the  past  session.  We  stayed  a  week  at  the 
Hot,  and  have  been  two  weeks  here.  She  is  just  beginning  to  ex- 
perience some  slight  improvement  here.  On  to-morrow  we  leave  for 
the  Salt  Sulphur,  which  we  hope  to  find  still  more  serviceable.  I 
shall  have  to  leave  her  the  last  of  the  week,  to  meet  a  committee  in 
Richmond  for  a  few  days.  You  doubtless  noticed  the  movement 
to  establish  a  theological  seminary  at  Greenville,  S.  C.  A  com- 
mittee of  five  was  appointed  to  prepare  and  report  a  plan  of  organi- 
zation. Two  brethren  from  South  Carolina  and  one  from  Georgia 
are  to  meet  Bro.  Manly  and  myself  in  Richmond,  next  week,  to  con- 
sider together  what  certainly  is  a  very  important  and  very  difficult 
question.  To  provide  an  institution  which  shall  at  once  furnish 
thorough  and  extensive  training  to  those  who  want  it,  and  a  little 
help  to  those  who  have  desire  and  preparation  for  but  little,  must 
of  course  be  difficult.  I  hope  we  shall  be  able  to  meet  the  con- 
ditions of  the  question  by  a  plan  modeled  upon  that  of  the  Ger- 
man institutions  and  our  University,  having  independent  depart- 
ments, and  allowing  the  student  to  choose  among  them  according 
to  his  taste  and  preparation.  In  this  way  too,  we  may  in  some 
measure  counteract  the  tendency  to  formalism,  to  making  men  all 
on  one  pattern,  which  has  so  commonly  characterized  the  theologi- 
cal seminaries  of  the  country. 

I  should  be  quite  unwilling,  if  it  were  possible,  to  see  it  required  of 
our  ministers  to  have  any  particular  amount  of  education,  general  or 
special.  If  the  Baptists  and  Methodists  had  done  this,  as  our  Pres- 
byterian and  Episcopal  brethren  have  done,  what  would  have  be- 
come of  the  great  masses  of  the  people  in  our  country?  I  have 
considerable  hope  that  our  proposed  institution  may  be  rendered 
attractive  to  young  brethren,  and  thus  have  students,  the  lack  of 
which  important  element  has  seriously  interfered  with  the  success 
of  many  seminaries. 

I  do  not  apologize  for  writing  about  all  this  to  a  lady.  I  know 
you  are  interested  in  whatever  concerns  the  increased  efficiency  of 
our  ministry. 

Our  Female  Institute  at  Charlottesville  has  now  very  encourag- 


ing  prospects.  It  did  much  more  than  I  had  expected,  amid  all  the 
difficulties  of  a  first  session.  The  instruction  is  more  thorough,  as 
well  as  more  extensive  in  each  particular  subject,  than  in  any  other 
female  school  with  which  I  am  acquainted.  .  . 

1  preached  here  last  Sunday  morning,  and  found  pleasure  in  the 
thought  that  there  is  really  more  piety  among  those  who  frequent 
watering-places  than  a  superficial  observation  leads  us  to  suppose. 
Mere  giddiness  and  folly  make  themselves  so  obtrusively  promi- 
nent, that  one  forgets  how  much  quiet  piety  there  may  be,  pursuing 
the  even  tenor  of  its  way,  and  it  is  delightful  to  see  that  many,  even 
amid  unfavorable  associations  and  surroundings,  take  the  most 
lively  interest  in  the  exercises  of  devotion,  and  the  most  practical 
truths  of  the  gospel.  .  . 

On  the  first  of  October,  I  am  to  resume  pastoral  duties  in  Char- 
lottesville.  The  brethren  have  been  very  kind  in  purchasing  a 
parsonage,  which  they  propose  fitting  up  for  us,  and  which  will 
form  a  very  pleasant  residence.  Mrs.  B.  is  delighted  with  the 
prospect  of  having  so  desirable  a  home.  It  is  a  great  work  that 
awaits  me,  and  I  feel  like  asking  the  special  prayers  of  all  Chris- 
tians whom  I  may  venture  to  consider  peculiarly  my  friends  that 
I  may  be  strengthened  for  it,  and  my  labors  not  be  in  vain.  The 
church  is  numerous,  and  there  are  many  young  members  needing  to 
be  trained  in  the  habits  of  piety,  as  well  as  many  in  the  congrega- 
tion still  unconverted. 

On  October  21,  Mrs.  Broadus  died,  after  only  a  week's 
illness.  The  Sunday  before  Mr.  Broadus  had  preached 
on  the  "exceeding  great  and  precious  promises  "  (2  Peter 
1:4).  He  had  recently  also  preached  on  the  habit  of 
thankfulness.1  The  Sunday  after  his  wife's  death  he 
lay  prostrate  with  grief.  One  of  his  brethren  came,  quot- 
ing tenderly  the  message :  "  In  everything  give  thanks." 
On  November  i,  Mr.  Broadus  preached  again.  His  text 
was  Matt.  12  :  20:  "  A  bruised  reed  shall  he  not  break, 
and  smoking  flax  shall  he  not  quench,  till  he  send  forth 
judgment  unto  victory."  When  Mr.  Broadus  told  his 
wife  that  she  was  dying,  she  said  simply :  "  Well,  tell 
me  about  Jesus."  She  was  not  quite  twenty -six  years 

1  See  "  Sermons  and  Addresses." 


old  and  left  three  little  girls,  Eliza  Somerville,  Annie 
Harrison,  and  Maria  Louisa,  the  youngest,  about  a  year 

G.  B.  TAYLOR  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  Oct.  26,  1857  :  I  have  wanted  just  to  assure  you 
that  my  heart  has  sorrowed  with  yours,  and  for  you,  in  this  the 
season  of  your  sore  affliction ;  that  I  have  felt  afflicted  in  the  sad 
bereavement  of  my  beloved  brother,  that  I  have  been  constantly 
praying  that  " the  God  of  all  comfort"  may  by  his  own  Spirit  com- 
fort you,  and  cause  your  baptism  of  sorrow  to  be  of  sanctifying 

From  November  30  to  December  10, 1857,  Mr.  Broadus 
conducted  a  protracted  meeting  with  the  Grace  Street 
Church,  Richmond,  Dr.  Jeter's  church.  Dr.  W.  E. 
Hatcher  was  then  a  student  at  Richmond  College  and 
heard  him.  He  says  : 

He  thrilled  the  people  with  immense  magnetism.  For  weeks 
afterwards  I  found  myself  saying  things  like  Broadus.  He  threw 
a  matchless  spell  over  people  that  carried  them  away.  Forty  years 
ago  people  would  worship  Broadus,  as  the  most  wonderful  thing  you 
ever  heard.  In  his  later  years  you  went  away  melted  with  tender 
reverence.  There  was  not  more  intensity  of  manner  in  the  early 
years,  but  he  emitted  power  more  continuously.  He  was  not  so 
pathetic  then  as  later.  He  never  trifled  with  his  feelings.  He  pre- 
served his  emotions  fresh  and  sweet  and  there  were  refined  piety  and 
the  emotion  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  Men  imitated  him  in  later  life.  He 
was  an  artist.  Art  and  nature  were  married.  He  said  he  never 
dared  to  preach  unless  he  could  spend  at  least  two  sober  hours  in 
immediate  preparation.  Dr.  Jeter  could  preach  with  little  prepare 
tion.  He  would  beat  around  a  good  while,  but  Broadus  always 
pitched  right  in,  gathered  force,  and  grew  to  the  end. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Feb.  15,  1858:  Suppose  you  come  down  to  see 
me  the  22d.  You  know  by  common  consent  that  day  has  been 
moved  bodily  to  Richmond,  for  this  time,  and  it  won't  be  anywhere 
else.  So  come,  and  spend  it  with  me. 

To  tell  the  truth,  I  don't  care  very  much  about  it  being  Washing- 


ton's  Birthday,  or  the  statue,  or  the  speechifying,  and  other  demon- 
strations of  a  noisy  character  on  brass  and  sheepskin ;  but  if  you 
will  come  down  we  can  have  a  chat  about  our  work  committed  to 
us— that  creed,  schedule  of  theological  studies,  etc.  I  can't  go  to 
work  at  it,  till  I  feel  I  have  got  it  to  do ;  because  there  is  nearly 
always  something  else  pressing,  knocking  at  the  door,  pleading, 
"  let  me  in  now,"  "  attend  to  me  "  ;  and  so  the  quiet  visitor,  who 
can  be  put  off  is  postponed  indefinitely.  In  short  I  need  the  "fire 
coal  on  my  back,"  and  if  you  will  come  down,  and  spend  a  week 
with  me,  we  can  spend  the  time  pleasantly,  and  do  our  work  besides. 
I  heard  you  were  sick  recently,  I  hope  you  are  well  again.  Let 
me  hear  from  you. 

Mr.  Broadus  attended  the  Educational  Convention  in 
Greenville,  S.  C.,  May  i,  1858.  This  Convention  for- 
mally established  the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Sem- 
inary.1 Four  professors  were  elected,  J.  P.  Boyce,  J. 
A.  Broadus,  B.  Manly,  Jr.,  and  E.  T.  Winkler.  The  mo- 
mentous question  was  thus  thrust  upon  Mr.  Broadus. 

WM.  P.  PARISH  to  J.  A.  B. : 

VERDANT  LAWN,  VA.,  May  8, 1858;  I  feel  deeply  grieved  to 
learn  you  entertain  the  thought  of  accepting  a  professorship  in  the 
Greenville  Theological  School  about  to  be  established  m  that  place. 
It  gave  me  much  trouble  in  my  wakeful  hours  last  night,  and  I  can- 
not bring  my  mind  to  the  conclusion  you  will  leave.  In  the  first 
place  if  you  give  up  the  ministry  for  a  professorship  you  ought  to 
have  accepted  the  one  offered  at  the  University,  much  more  satis- 
factory I  suppose  as  far  as  friends  and  location  etc.,  are  concerned. 
You  may  say  this  is  a  theological  school  to  prepare  young  ministers 
for  preaching.  Concede  all  its  friends  claim  for  it,  cannot  men  be 
found  to  answer  well  as  teachers  in  the  different  departments  pro- 
posed to  be  taught  competent  to  the  task,  who  can't  hold  out  in 
preaching,  for  instance? 

To  take  valuable  ministers  from  prominent  positions  to  teach 
twenty  or  thirty  young  men  to  become  preachers,  many  of  whom 
are  made  worse  by  it,  and  none  benefited  (as  those  who  have  minds 
are  tied  down  to  what  they  learn),  is  too  great  a  sacrifice.  Who  are 
the  most  valuable  ministers  of  our  denomination?  Certainly  not 
those  who  have  received  a  theological  education.  Educate  men  and 

1  Sec  Broadus,  "  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  pp  151-153. 


God  will  make  ministers.  You  will  leave  the  most  important  posi- 
tion known  to  the  denomination,  and  the  only  minister  of  my  know- 
ing that  can  reach  the  young  men  coming  to  the  University,  thus 
sending  out  an  influence  beyond  anything  you  can  hope  for  at 
Greenville  College,  to  say  nothing  of  the  church  in  Charlottesville, 
which  is  much  more  important.  Then  here  is  a  female  institute, 
which  m  my  humble  opinion  will  do  more  good  than  all  the  theolog- 
ical schools  in  the  United  States. 

The  Lord  may  design  to  remove  you  for  a  wise  purpose,  to  teach 
the  church  they  should  have  no  idols  and  that  other  ministers  may 
be  heard  with  interest.  I  hope  the  church  and  people  may,  like  the 
people  of  Nineveh,  repent  m  sackcloth  and  ashes,  and  that  the  good 
Lord  may  avert  the  calamity  likely  to  befall  it. 

A  paper  was  drawn  up  by  a  voluntary  committee  of 
the  church,  protesting  against  his  leaving.  One  of  the 
arguments  used  was  the  following  : 

Then  as  to  extent  of  influence,  we  doubt  whether  there  shall  be 
really  any  wider  field  at  Greenville  than  here ;  even  if  it  be  so,  the 
case  stands  thus :  Another  man  may  be  found  to  supply  the  place  at 
Greenville,  and  the  denomination  and  the  cause  of  truth  then  lose 
but  the  difference  between  the  influence  for  good  exercised  by  such  a 
man,  and  that  which  we  believe  would  there  be  exercised  by  our 
pastor.  But  take  away  our  pastor.  There  is  left  a  vacancy  which 
we  honestly  think  no  other  man  in  the  denomination  can  at  all  fill. 
His  relations  in  past  time  and  now  to  the  University,  give  him  an 
access  to  the  great  mass  of  mind  there,  sanctified  and  unsanctified, 
which  no  other  man  in  our  denomination  can  have — which  no  other 
pastor  in  Charlottesville  has,  or  can  have,  so  long  as  the  men  remain 
the  same.  Surely  it  were  great  loss  to  us  and  Baptists  everywhere 
to  lose  this  advantage.  We  regard  this  loss  inevitable  if  our  pastor 
leaves  us. 

We  think  that  he  is  scarcely  at  all  aware  of  the  amount  of  good 
he  is  now  doing,  how  much  influence  he  is  now  exerting  over  the 
young  men  of  our  own  church,  in  leading  them  in  the  way  of  Chris- 
tian duty,  and  preparing  them  for  future  usefulness.1 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 
RICHMOND,  May  14,  1858:  As  we  are  "fellow-partners,"  if  not 

1  In  the  light  of  subsequent  history,  it  is  interesting  to  notice  that  the  names  of 
J.  Wm.  Jones,  John  Hart,  and  C.  H.  Toy  were  signed  to  this  protest. 


"  in  distress,"  at  least  in  doubt  and  anxiety  as  to  our  duty,  I  do  not 
know  that  I  can  more  easily  concentrate  and  make  clear  to  myself 
the  various  considerations  which  bear  upon  the  decision,  than  by 
writing  to  you.  I  find  a  pen  helps  me  to  think. 

The  first  thing  which  strikes  me  is  that  a  peculiar  conjuncture  of 
circumstances,  not  of  our  seeking  or  desire,  has  thrown  the  burden 
of  this  enterprise  on  us.  It  can  hardly  be  wrong  to  call  them  provi- 
dential circumstances.  The  idea  has  long  been  entertained,  long 
labored  for ;  the  hope  of  fulfilling  it  has  given  rise  to  every  denom- 
inational college  and  has  engrafted  on  most  of  them  some  special 
teaching  looking  toward  theological  instruction :  never  before  has 
there  seemed  any  opportunity  at  all— not  to  say  so  promising  an 
opening— for  accomplishing  the  result ;  though  our  acceptance  does 
not  indeed  assure  success,  our  declining,  it  seems  necessary  to  con- 
fess, insures  failure.  Shall  it  fail  ?  and  shall  the  disappointment  in 
this  instance  serve  as  a  lasting  discouragement,  a  decisive  and  un- 
answerable objection  to  all  similar  attempts?  This  is  a  question  for 
you  and  me. 

In  fact  it  is  narrower  still.  So  far  as  I  can  see,  the  real  decision 
rests  with  you.  If  you  decline,  I  think  Pomdexter1  will.  If  he  and 
you  decline,  I  certainly  shall.  Then  Winkler  will  feel  unwilling  to 
leave  his  church,  even  if  he  could  otherwise  be  induced  to  go,  and 
even  Boyce,  left  alone,  will  feel  himself  compelled  to  look  rather 
cheerlessly  for  new  associates,  men  of  more  self-sacrifice  (or  I  take 
that  back — what  I  should  have  said  is,  men  of  more  deep  convictions 
of  the  comparative  importance  of  such  a  seminary),  or  else  he  too 
must  give  up  the  ship,  a  grand  finale  indeed,  after  all  that  has  been 
said  and  done.  .  . 

I  hear  a  great  deal  here  that  seems  to  me  mere  talk,  or  at  any  rate 
mere  feeling,  not  entitled  to  rank  as  judgment  or  advice ;  the  audacity 
of  people  is  strongly  censured  who  venture  thus  to  rob  Virginia,  who 
entice  away  her  strongest  men,  who  expect  to  build  up  South  Caro- 
lina at  the  expense  of  the  other  States,  etc.  Then  there  is  more  of 
objection  than  I  had  supposed  possible  among  well-instiucted  men, 
to  the  whole  idea  of  ministerial  cultivation.  An  uneducated  minister, 
it  is  said,  has  more  sympathy  with  his  people ;  instruction  only  lifts 
him  up  above  them,  puffs  him  up,  etc.  To  this  I  say,  jocosely,  that 
if  the  students  at  the  seminary  never  get  more  learning  than  their 
professors,  they  will  never  be  hurt  by  the  quantity  of  their  learning, 
and  more  seriously,  that  the  objection  goes  to  the  extent  of  doing 

1  The  number  of  professors  was  increased  to  five. 


away  with  all  education,  and  that  we  must  go  back  to  first  principles. 
An  educated  man  can  speak  plainly,  modestly,  in  sympathy  with  his 
unlearned  hearers,  and  be  "  all  things  to  all  men."  The  uninstructed 
man  cannot  reach  his  cultivated  hearers ;  he  is  debarred  from  one 
class,  and  that  the  more  influential ;  the  other  has  free  access  to 
both,  etc.,  etc. 

The  effect  of  all  this  is  rather  to  make  me  feel  that  so  strong  a 
current  of  prejudice  makes  it  necessary  that  those  who  know  better 
should  set  themselves  to  correct  it.  .  . 

Monday  morning,  May  17 :  My  case  is  complicated  by  several 
circumstances  which  do  not  apply  to  you.  I  have  a  considerable 
pecuniary  investment  here  which  will  be  rendered  comparatively 
valueless  by  my  removal.  Besides  this,  removal  to  my  family  is 
necessarily  an  expensive  operation.  Again,  your  influence  and  open- 
ings for  influence  are  greater  than  mine,  I  know,  but  they  are  all  in 
one  direct  on,  i.  e.,  pastoral  care  over  the  church  and  University  stu- 
dents. Mine,  though  less,  works  at  several  points — the  institute, 
the  country  churches  I  have  charge  of,  the  Sunday-school  and  Pub- 
lication Board,  with  its  new  feature  of  extensive  colportage  opera- 
tions, and  the  Foreign  Mission  Board.  In  all  of  these,  I  can  say  with 
all  modesty,  my  loss  would  be  felt.  Besides,  there  is  a  kind  of  gen- 
eral influence  with  all  the  city  churches  arising  from  my  association 
with  so  many  of  the  young  people  or  their  families.  .  . 

Then  some  say  there  will  be  no  students  at  Greenville,  not  more 
than  twelve  or  fifteen  at  the  outside;  that  to  take  the  theological 
students  away  from  Richmond  College  will  be  to  render  to  that  ex- 
tent useless  our  expenditure  there,  and  so  too,  of  other  States  and 
colleges ;  that  the  endowment  won't  be  collected  to  pay  our  salaries, 
and  that  we  will  have  to  leave  Greenville,  starved  out,  in  a  year  or 
two,  both  by  the  lack  of  money  and  the  lack  of  anything  to  do ; 
that  a  bird  in  the  hand  is  worth  two  in  the  bush,  etc. 

Well,  I  have  tried  candidly  and  carefully  to  look  at  the  subject  all 
around ;  and  I  trust  I  have  sincerely  and  humbly  implored  divine 
guidance.  The  present  inclination  of  my  judgment  is,  that  I  must 
go  if  the  others  go. 

It  is  certain  if  none  go  to  Greenville  except  those  who  are  of  little 
use  where  they  are,  they  will  be  of  little  use  there.  None  had  better 
go,  rather  than  such.  Other  men  might  perhaps  have  been  selected 
as  well  adapted  to  the  post,  or  better,  who  could  go  with  less  disrup- 
tion of  strong  ties,  less  sacrifice  of  obvious  usefulness ;  but  we  were 
selected,  after  anxious  and  faithful  consideration,  by  judicious  breth- 
ren acquainted  with  us  and  our  fields,  our  usefulness  and  adapta- 


tions.  .  .  At  any  rate,  the  question  seems  brought  to  our  door,  and 
laid  at  our  feet,  "  So  far  as  you  are  concerned,  shall  this  seminary  live, 
or  disgracefully  die?"  .  . 

I  have  been  trying  to  drink  in  the  full  richness  of  that  text, 
"my  mother's  text,"  "Acknowledge  the  Lord  in  all  thy  ways, 
and  he  will  direct  thy  paths."  God  bless  you  and  guide  you,  my 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE: 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  May  i$,  1858:  Reaching  home  on 
Friday,  the  yth  inst,  I  spent  some  days  in  hearing  the  leading 
brethren  of  the  church  and  consulting  a  few  judicious  friends.  Still 
utterly  undecided,  I  left  home  on  Tuesday,  and  went  to  see  other 
friends,  in  Alexandria,  Fredencksburg,  and  Richmond,  returning 
yesterday.  Feeling  the  responsibility  of  the  decision,  I  tried  hard  to 
consider  the  question  calmly,  to  exercise  my  best  judgment.  After 
more  anxiety  and  difficulty  than  I  ever  before  experienced,  I  have  at 
length  decided  that  I  cannot  leave  here.  If  anything  I  can  conceive 
could  make  me  feel  it  right  to  leave  this  post,  it  would  be  the  Sem- 
inary ;  but  I  could  not  dare  to  go  away. 

I  hope  Wmkler,  Manly,  and  Poindexter  will  all  be  able  to  accept 
Probably,  if  you  thought  it  desirable,  P.  C.  Edwards  would  help 
temporarily  for  the  first  session,  say  in  New  Testament  Greek.  It  is 
needless  to  say  that  I  will  heartily  do  all  I  can  toward  getting  endow- 
ment in  Virginia,  and  inducing  young  brethren,  from  the  University 
and  elsewhere,  to  attend  the  Seminary. 

My  people  here  are  in  great  perturbation,  and  it  is  extremely  de- 
sirable on  several  accounts,  that  my  decision  should  be  speedily 
known,  but  it  was  proposed  that  no  one  of  us  should  commit  himself 
to  the  public  without  first  communicating  to  the  others.  Please  write 
to  me,  therefore,  at  once.  I  have  mentioned  my  decision  to  only  two 
gentlemen  and  they  will  keep  my  confidence. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  May  18,  1858:  As  to  the  Seminary  at  Green- 
ville, I  think  your  dechnature,  under  the  circumstances,  is  the  death- 
blow to  it.  While  I  cannot  in  the  smallest  degree  blame  you  for  your 
decision,  I  may  say  that  I  regret  it.  I  had  made  up  my  own  mind, 
if  you  accepted,  that  I  would  make  an  effort  to  induce  Brother  Poin- 
dexter's  acceptance,  and  if  successful,  I  would  accept.  As  it  is,  I 
think  it  doubtful,  exceedingly  so,  whether  he  will  undertake  it.  He 
and  you  declining,  I  think  my  duty  is  clear,  so  far  as  I  can  now  see, 


f.  *.,  not  to  go  to  Greenville.  What  I  shall  do,  I  know  not.  God,  I 
trust,  will  guide  me. 

I  do  not  know  whether  you  can  reconsider  your  determination. 
That  is  not  for  me  to  decide.  There  has  been  no  opportunity,  since 
I  knew  anything  about  the  Baptists,  when  there  was  so  fair  an 
opportunity  for  a  theological  seminary  as  this.  There  will  not  proba- 
bly be  another  for  twenty-five  years  to  come  if  this  fails.  As  I  now 
view  the  matter,  it  is  already  de  facto  a  failure— so  soon  as  your  de- 
cision and  its  results  are  known.  No  more  now.  God  bless  you. 

E.  T.  WINKLER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CHARLESTON,  May  26, 1858 :  I  received  your  favor  and  wrote 
an  immediate  answer  to  it,  which  is  still  lying  on  my  desk.  It  was 
so  indeterminate  that  I  was  unwilling  to  send  it.  At  the  time  when 
it  was  written  I  was  inclined  to  believe  that  duty  required  me  to  leave 
my  present  field.  Now  I  have  been  slowly  coming  to  the  opposite 
conclusion.  The  distress  of  my  church  has  been  so  extreme,  I 
might  almost  say  so  extravagant,  as  to  excite  my  unfeigned  aston- 
ishment. .  .  I  think  that  in  justice  to  them  I  ought  not  to  go. 

I  am  sorry  to  hear,  however,  that  you  are  not  to  take  charge  of 
the  Greek  professorship  at  Greenville.  From  all  that  I  have  learned 
and  know  of  you,  I  am  sure  that  you  would  be  an  efficient  officer  ; 
while  your  influence  in  Virginia  would  also  be  of  great  advantage  to 
the  institution.  We  need  the  patronage  of  your  State  more  than  any 
other,  both  in  regard  to  men  and  money. 

And  yet  I  cannot  blame  any  pastor  who  is  cultivating  his  special 
field  of  labor  successfully,  when  he  declines,  for  any  cause  what- 
ever, to  leave  it.  The  luxury  of  such  a  vocation  is  legitimate. 

MRS.  E.  L.  C.  HARRISON  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

UNIVERSITY,  July  30,  1858 :  I  will  endeavor,  as  well  as  I  can,  to 
give  you  some  account  of  the  commencement,  although  it  must 
of  necessity  be  very  imperfect,  as  I  did  not  participate  in  anything 
that  was  going  on,  saving  the  entertainment  of  company. 

I  had  Mr.  Lewis  Coleman,  his  wife,  Sally  Flemming,  Miss  Mar- 
shall, sister  of  Mrs.  C ,  and  a  cousin  of  hers  from  Richmond,  Miss 

Emily  Harvie.  All  these  ladies  but  Miss  Flemming  are  grand-daugh- 
ters of  Chief  Justice  Marshall,  and  seem  to  have  inherited  much  of 
his  simplicity  of  manners  and  character.  I  was  greatly  pleased  with 
them  all. 

Doctor  Hoge  gave  us  a  very  interesting  and  able  address  before 
the  Society  for  Missionary  Inquiry,  on  Sunday  night  in  the  hall. 


The  audience  was  a  good  one,  and  I  presume  were  generally  very 
well  pleased.  Our  prayer  meeting  on  the  2gth  was  rather  badly 
attended,  doubtless  owing  in  a  great  measure  to  the  students  having 
been  kept  up  so  very  late  the  three  preceding  nights.  .  . 

We  had  quite  a  large  company  of  gentlemen  yesterday  to  dine 
with  us,  among  them  several  old  students  whom  I  have  not  seen 
for  a  number  of  years,  Hugh  Nelson,  of  Clarke,  and  Alexander  Nel- 
son ;  Mr.  William  Thomas  was  also  a  guest.  Professor  Morrison 
was  here,  showing  very  plainly  some  of  the  effects  of  time—  his 
whitening  locks  and  redundant  hair  about  his  face  prevented  me 
from  recognizing  him  at  first.  He  is  the  same  kind,  cordial,  unaf- 
fected person  he  formerly  was  when  a  member  of  our  choir. 

Oct.  3  Mr.  Broadus  pieached  at  Charlottesville  from 
Phil.  3  :  12-14.  He  has  this  comment  in  his  sermon 
note  book  :  "  The  Lord  be  praised  that  I  have  been  per- 
mitted to  preach  once  more."  It  had  been  six  weeks 
since  he  had  preached,  because  of  a  violent  and  depress- 
ing attack  of  ulcerated  sore  throat,  which  threatened  to 
destroy  all  his  hopes  and  plans  for  life. 

ANDREW  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B  : 

WHITE  PLAINS,  August  26,  1858 :  I  am  very  much  gratified  that 
your  visit  to  my  "  home"  has  left  "pleasant  recollections,"  and  I 
cordially  join  you  in  the  "hope"  that  you  may  "live  (often)  to  re- 
peat it  "  Whatever  may  have  been  the  impression  you  received 
from  your  visit  to  my  house  and  to  the  neighborhood,  the  impression 
left  on  us  has  been  of  a  most  agreeable  character.  My  family  en- 
joyed your  company  very  much,  and  "  the  cousins  "  generally  were 
delighted.  Indeed,  John  A.  Broadus  is  just  now  the  standard  of  ex- 
cellence by  which  intellect,  scholarship,  and  preaching  talents  are 
measured  in  this  region.  I  understand  that  shortly  after  your  ser- 
mon at  Sparta,  two  of  my  members  (not  "cousins"  either,  by  the 
way)  expressed  the  opinion  that  Spurgeon  could  not  possibly  excel 
you.  Now,  lest  you  should  be  exalted  above  measure,  be  pleased  to 
remember  what  Brother  Jeter  said  to  Brother  Parish,  and  what  you 
were  kind  enough  to  apply  to  me,  that  "no  matter  how  mean  a 
preacher  a  man  may  be,  there  are  some  people  who  will  think  him 
the  best  preacher  in  the  world."  I  have  written  thus  far  somewhat 
in  a  strain  of  badinage,  and  yet  it  has  been  done  with  literally  "an 
aching  heart."  Pray  for  me  that  my  life  may  be  spared,  and  that  in 


any  event  I  may  be  prepared  for  the  will  of  God.  Oh,  I  wish  I  could 
feel  more  confident  of  acceptance  with  God,  more  reconciled  to  the 
thought  of  death,  and  better  prepared  to  echo  the  sentiments  of  Paul, 
"  to  depart  and  be  with  Christ  is  far  better." 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Nov.  19,  1858 :  I  hear  there  is  much  religious 
interest  at  the  University.  I  hope  there  may  be  another  great  re- 
vival there  this  winter.  How  is  your  health  now?  I  heard  it  was 
not  so  good.  Perhaps  God  may  be  preparing  the  way  to  cause  you 
to  enter  the  theological  seminary.  If  that  should  be  his  will  I  should 
not  grieve,  for  I  candidly  think  that  the  opportunities  for  permanent 
and  extensive  influence  there  are  superior  to  any  other  situation  in 
the  South.  I  scarcely  know  another,  however,  that  surpasses,  or 
even  equals,  your  present  post 

God  bless  you,  and  guide  us  all  according  to  his  will. 

J.  C.  GRANBERRY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WASHINGTON,  Dec.  18,  1858 :  Your  kind  letter  stirred  in  me 
pleased  and  grateful  feelings.  I  am  gratified  in  the  persuasion  that 
you  will  feel  a  lively  interest  in  my  chaplaincy,  both  from  your 
friendship  toward  me,  and  from  your  intimate  acquaintance  with  the 
responsibilities  belonging  to  one  who  exercises  his  ministry  among 
so  many  young  men,  now  forming  their  characters  and  educating 
their  minds  for  positions  of  influence  in  the  world.  1  count  not  least 
among  the  advantages  of  my  chaplaincy,  association  with  yourself, 
not  only  because  your  personal  traits  have  called  forth  my  esteem 
and  love,  but  also  because  I  know  that  your  decided  preference  for 
your  own  church  combines  with  a  large-minded  sympathy  with  your 
fellow-laborers  in  the  gospel  of  Christ  without  distinction  of  name. 
May  God  abundantly  bless  you  in  the  important  pastoral  charge 
you  now  fill. 

I  thank  you  for  your  congratulations  on  my  recent  marriage, 
hope  that  congratulations  on  this  event  may  never  be  out  of  date. 

On  January^  1859,  Mr.  Broadus  was  married  to  Miss 
Charlotte  Eleanor  Sinclair,  at  Locust  Grove  Homestead, 
near  Charlottesville.  Miss  Sinclair  had  been  carefully 
educated,  amid  refined  influences,  and  made  for  him  a 
happy  home,  ever  welcoming  his  many  friends  as  well 
as  sharing  in  his  interests  and  pursuits  of  whatever  kind, 


The  bridal  couple  went  to  New  York  on  a  wedding  jour- 
ney, amid  many  congratulations.  A  large  number  of 
students  sent  a  signed  paper  of  best  wishes. 

CHARLOTTESViLLE,  Jan.  25,  1859. 

DEAR  BRETHREN :  I  received  this  morning,  through  the  hands  of 
Bro.  G.  W.  Garrett,  your  note  of  22d  inst.,  together  with  an  exceed- 
ingly beautiful  and  convenient  secretary,  at  (the  desk  of)  which  I  am 
now  writing.  I  know  not  how  to  thank  you  as  I  should  wish  to  do, 
for  a  gift  so  elegant  in  itself  and  so  inexpressibly  gratifying  as  coming 
from  young  brethren  at  the  University.  Among  the  strongest  and 
most  endearing  ties  which  bind  me  to  this  community  is  the  oppor- 
tunity here  enjoyed  for  doing  something  for  the  religious  good  of  the 
students.  It  is  a  subject  of  continual  regret  that  I  can  accomplish  so 
little  in  the  way  of  personal  acquaintance  and  intercourse,  even  with 
those  who  are  actually  members  of  Baptist  churches.  But  I  look  out 
from  the  pulpit  over  pew  after  pew  filled  with  intelligent  listeners 
who  are  University  students,  and  feel  a  gratitude  and  joy  equaled 
only  by  the  trembling  sense  of  responsibility.  There  is  scarce  any- 
thing I  more  ardently  desire  than  to  promote  your  welfare  and  enjoy 
your  good  will.  Why  should  I  not  be  delighted,  when,  on  so  inter- 
esting an  occasion,  you  come  with  so  pleasing  a  token  of  affectionate 
regard?  I  thank  you.  I  sincerely  wish  that  you  may  all  be  suc- 
cessful in  study,  be  ever  surrounded  by  friends,  and  in  due  time  ad- 
mitted to  the  enjoyment  of  domestic  felicity ;  and  I  fervently  pray 
that  you  may  be,  more  and  more,  every  year  you  live,  devoted  and 

useful  Christians. 

Your  friend  and  brother, 


E.  S.  JOYNES  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WILLIAMSBURG,  VA.,  March  6,  1859 :  Your  accounts  and  per- 
sonal  reminiscences  awaken  so  many  associations,  and  especially 
your  question  about  Germany  suggested  so  many  interesting  recol 
lections,  that  I  should  have  to  write  a  long  letter  to  do  them  justice, 
and  would  rather  even  not  write  of  them  at  all  than  to  do  so  hastily. 
One  thing  only  I  will  say,  the  state  of  religion  in  Germany,  the 
whole  status  of  the  German  mind  with  reference  to  Christianity,  is, 
I  believe,  very  much  misunderstood  among  us.  In  our  popular  lan- 
guage, German  and  mfidel  are  almost  synonymous  terms,  but  the 
truth  is  not  so.  A  great,  a  wonderful  reaction  has  taken  place  in 
the  last  thirty  years,  beginning  from  Schleiermacher,  and  is  now  in 


triumphant  progress.  The  reign  of  infidelity  is  over,  its  days  even 
seem  to  be  numbered,  and  indeed  it  seems  already,  even  to  human 
eyes,  to  have  been  a  great  instrument  in  the  hands  of  Providence, 
for  besides  other  results,  the  efforts  of  infidelity  in  Germany  have 
called  forth  the  greatest  and  most  conclusive  works  in  defense  of 
Christianity,  the  best  apologetic  literature  in  Germany  itself  which 
any  age  or  language  has  produced.  Indeed,  this  has  been,  I  believe, 
in  its  widespread  influence,  the  occasion  (even  unconsciously,  may- 
be) of  most  of  those  excellent  works  upon  the  "evidences"  which 
have  of  late  years  appeared  in  our  own  language,  so  that  it  cannot  be 
denied  that  Christianity  stands  at  this  day  upon  higher  ground  of 
argument  and  evidence  than  it  ever  would  have  done  but  for  the  at- 
tempts to  overthrow  it  in  Germany. 

JAMES  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  March  29, 1859 :  The  provisional  committee, 
to  which  was  entrusted,  among  other  matters,  the  nomination  of  per- 
sons to  fill  vacancies  in  the  faculty,  has  resolved  to  present  the 
names  of  Brother  Winkler  and  yourself, — we  are  assured  that  we 
cannot  make  any  other  nominations  that  would  be  acceptable, — and 
we  beg  you  to  take  this  into  consideration.  Have  not  circumstances 
so  changed  since  your  refusal  last  year  as  dearly  to  point  this  out  as 
duty  now? 

I  would  write  at  length,  but  I  feel  that  this  is  a  question  for  your 
own  decision.  If  you  are  resolved  that  under  no  circumstances  you 
will  accept,  please  inform  us  before  we  make  our  report.  If  you  will 
accept,  please  say  so ;  it  will  secure  Winkler,  who  hangs  off  still. 
If  you  are  undecided,  please  take  the  matter  into  serious  considera- 

J.  A.  B.  to  JAMES  P.  BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  April  4,  1859 :  Your  letter  is  before  me, 
before  me  continually.  Providence  permitting,  you  shall  receive  my 
final  answer  before  2$th  inst.  Meantime,  do  not  let  it  be  known  that 
I  am  considering  the  matter. 

I  earnestly  hope,  on  various  accounts,  you  may  be  able  to  come  to 

JAMES  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  n,  1859 :  Forgive  me  if  I  seem  to 
importune,  but  I  wish  to  send  you  an  extract  from  a  letter  just  re- 
ceived from  Doctor  Manly.  Does  he  not  speak  truly?  I  will  not 


breathe  a  word  to  any  one  about  your  holding  the  matter  under  con- 
sideration. "The  prospects  of  the  theological  school  have  been 
shaded,  at  least,  by  failing  to  obtain  the  officers  we  sought  and  to 
commence  business  last  fall.  The  trustees  are  to  hold  their  first  meet- 
ing m  Richmond  at  the  time  of  the  approaching  anniversaries. 
Make  another  failure  and  you  will  see  what  will  come  of  it." 

If  you  cannot  fully  consent  to  a  lifetime  work,  try  it  for  a  while 
in  order  to  inaugurate  the  matter.  Your  simple  name  will  be  a  tower 
of  strength  to  us ;  and,  when  we  are  once  started,  if  you  find  it  not 
congenial,  you  can  return  to  the  pastorate.  But  will  it  not  be  con- 
genial to  preach  Christ  daily  to  the  most  attentive  hearers,  knowing 
that  you  are  starting  influences  to  reach  every  quarter  of  the  globe 
and  the  hearts  of  every  class  of  men?  What  do  we  need  now 
among  the  Baptists?  A  number  of  educated  men  to  aid  in  forming 
the  public  sentiment  of  the  churches.  In  our  cities  and  towns  and 
villages  we  have  conservatism,  but  we  have  not  enough  for  the 
country ;  and  behold  the  radicalism  and  the  demagogism  that  is 

Ought  you  not  to  make  the  sacrifice— are  you  not  called  by  God 
to  enter  upon  this  work?  If  you  fail  me  and  Wmkler  fail  me,  I  must 
give  up,  and  I  fear  Winkler  will  go.  My  chief  hope  of  getting  him 
now  is  that  he  looks  to  you  and  your  coming  may  move  him.  Sup- 
pose you  write  to  him. 

J.  B.  JETER  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  April  6,  1859  •*  We  expect  a  large  meeting  at  our 
Convention.  I  have  serious  fear  of  trouble.  Both  parties  at  Nash- 
ville are  moving  to  secure  the  endorsement  of  the  Convention.  The 
election  of  Howell  to  the  presidency  will  be  the  point  of  conflict.  I 
do  not  see  how  we  can  escape  the  issue.  The  Graves  party  have 
avowed  their  purpose  not  to  run  him  for  the  office,  and  they  will 
stake  their  own  success  on  the  defeat  of  Howell.  It  is  a  pity  that  we 
should  be  in  such  a  predicament.  I  hope  the  wise  ones  will  be  able 
to  devise  some  means  of  preserving  harmony.  We  have  appointed 
meetings  for  special  prayer  on  behalf  of  the  Convention.  Urge 
your  people  to  pray  for  it. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  April  21,  1859:  Brother  Boyce  in- 
formed me,  three  weeks  ago,  that  the  provisional  committee  wished 
to  renominate  Winkler  and  myself,  if  we  could  agree  to  accept.  I 
have  at  length,  with  difficulty  and  distress,  reached  a  conclusion, 



and  have  written  him  to-night  that  I  am  willing.  I  have  also  writ- 
ten to  Winkler  expressing  my  anxious  desire  that  he  may  be  able  to 
do  likewise. 

I  heard  it  whispered  in  Richmond  that  a  plan  was  on  foot  for 
keeping  you  there.  May  I  earnestly  beg  that  you  will  suffer  noth- 
ing to  induce  you  to  do  this?  You  have  been  regarded  as  identified 
with  the  Seminary ;  don't  forsake  it  now.  It  would  be  simply  im- 
possible to  fill  your  place  anything  like  so  satisfactorily.  It  will  be 
much  easier  to  find  some  other  man  who  can  do  what  they  are  cut- 
ting out  for  you  in  Richmond. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Seminary  will  have  much  opposition  to  con- 
tend with.  .  .  Surely  all  that  is  but  a  reason  why  we  should  stand 
up  to  it.  If  we  can  all  four  take  hold,  and  we  live  five  to  ten  years, 
I  shall  hope  for  good  success,  do  what  they  may, 

J.  A.  B.  to  JAMES  P.  BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  April  21, 1859 :  With  much  difficulty 

and  much  distress,  I  have  at  length  reached  a  decision.  I  tremble  at 
the  responsibility  of  the  thing  either  way,  and  hesitate  to  write 
words  which  must  be  irrevocable.  But  ...  if  elected,  I  am  willing 
to  go.  May  God  graciously  direct  and  bless,  and  if  I  have  erred  in 
judgment,  may  he  overrule,  to  the  glory  of  his  name. 

Jacta  est  aha.  Do  not  fear  that  I  shall  change  my  mind  and,  my 
dear  Boyce,  suffer  me  to  say,  that  few  personal  considerations 
about  the  matter  are  so  attractive  to  me  as  the  prospect  of  being  as- 
sociated in  a  great  work  with  you.  I  rejoice  in  a  warm,  mutual 
friendship  now,  and  I  trust  we  shall  ere  long  learn  to  love  each 
other  as  brothers.  Pardon  me  for  just  saying  what  I  feel.  .  . 

Will  theie  be  any  money  now  for  the  library?  I  lack  many  books 
which  will  be  almost  indispensable  in  the  beginning,  and  I  cannot 
buy  them  all  myself.  Will  the  Furman  University  let  us  have  the 
theological  part  of  its  library,  and  if  so,  can  you  bring  with  you  to 
Richmond  a  catalogue  of  its  contents  ? 

I  shall  be  sadly,  sadly  disappointed  if  you  cannot  come.  I  expect 
to  leave  for  Richmond  on  May  2.  If  you  cannot  write  in  time  to 
reach  me  here  before  that  day,  direct  to  care  of  Doctor  Jeter,  Rich- 

Let  us  pray  for  each  other,  and  across  the  distance  pray  together 
for  our  work. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  26, 1859:  Your  letter  has  gladdened 


my  heart.  Truly  am  I  grateful  to  God  that  he  has  brought  you  to 
this  decision.  Thank  you  for  what  you  say  personal  to  myself.  I 
reciprocate  it  fully.  I  have  ever  esteemed  it  one  of  the  most  pleas- 
ant things  connected  with  the  election  last  year  that  if  it  should  be 
the  one  finally  made  it  will  bring  together  four  of  us  who  can  feel 
like  brothers  indeed  toward  each  other.  What  a  power  have  we 
here !  The  Lord  grant  that  we  may  use  it  as  he  has  given  it,  for  his 
cause.  .  .  * 

As  to  the  matter  of  books,  it  was  expected  from  the  beginning 
that  prior  to  any  purchase  of  a  library,  at  least  five  hundred  dollars 
should  be  expended  in  books,  chiefly  with  a  view  to  text-books.  In 
your  depaitment  the  library  of  the  theological  department  of  the  Uni- 
versity, which  they  transfer,  is  not  very  rich,  unless  they  will  let  us 
have  the  books  belonging  to  Professor  Minims'  library,  which  I  sup- 
pose they  will ;  as  we  have  to  pay  for  them,  however,  it  will  not  be 
of  any  pecuniary  benefit.  We  can  buy  them  elsewhere  as  cheap  as 
they  bought  them.  But  in  my  own  library  I  have  almost  every  im- 
portant exegetical  work  of  modern  date,  with  many  others.  You 
will  always  be  welcome  to  as  full  a  use  of  my  books  as  myself. 
Could  you  not  make  out  a  list  of  such  books  as  you  wish  ?  We 
can  all  put  in  what  text-books  we  must  have  for  students  and,  get- 
ting the  appropriation  from  the  Board,  we  will  be  able  to  see  what 
can  be  spared.  Winkler  has  a  fine  library  also,  nearly  as  large  as 
mine,  and  I  do  not  think  that  more  than  one-fourth  of  the  books  are 
duplicates  of  mine.  If  he  comes,  with  his  and  mine  together,  I  think 
we  will  have  about  seven  thousand  volumes.  Manly  must  have  fif- 
teen hundred  to  two  thousand,  and  they  are  nearly  all  different  from 
Winkler' s  and  mine,  so  that  we  will  not  be  too  much  dependent  upon 
our  future  purchases  until  the  library  of  the  Seminary  is  bought. 

WILLIAM  WILLIAMS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

PENFIELD,  GA.,  May  30, 1859:  My  appointment1  by  the  Board 
at  Richmond  took  me  by  surprise.  I  had  not  expected  or  thought  of 
it.  I  have  taken  up  some  time  in  making  inquiries.  I  now  take  the 
first  opportunity  to  inform  you  of  my  acceptance.  My  mind  is  not 
so  clear,  however,  as  I  would  like  it  to  be,  and  as  it  always  hereto- 
fore has  been,  in  settling  any  important  question  of  duty.  I  hope  I 
may  not  have  erred.  If  a  man  may  ever  be  sure  of  the  honesty  and 
sincerity  of  his  feelings  and  desires,  I  think  I  may  say  it  has  been 
my  wish  to  act  just  as  God  would  have  me  act,  without  reference  to 

Doctor  Winkler  had  again  declined. 


self.  Perhaps  longer  time  might  make  the  matter  plainer.  I  do  not 
know  that  this  would  be  the  case,  however,  and  it  is  due  to  others 
that  I  decide,  as  well  as  due  to  myself. 

I  thank  you  for  your  kind  letter  and  assure  you  that  I  reciprocate 
all  its  kind  and  friendly  expressions. 

J.  P.  BOYCEtoJ.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  June  3,  1859 :  We  have  secured  Williams. 
He  writes  me  he  will  accept.  I  just  take  the  time  to  drop  you  this 
line.  I  have  almost  arranged  about  the  house  also.  I  will  write  you 
more  when  I  fmd  that  bargain  completed.  I  have  heard  nothing 
from  Dickinson.  We  must  get  him  [as  agent]  if  possible.  Please 
write  me  at  Richmond,  care  of  Dr.  A.  Z.  Coons,  if  you  know 
anything  in  his  way.  Do  you  know  any  one  we  can  get  for  three 
other  States?  Would  it  be  possible,  think  you,  to  get  your  uncle  to 
extend  his  agency  outside  of  Virginia  after  he  has  finished  there?  I 
expect  to  pass  through  Richmond  on  Thursday  afternoon  next  and 
may  stay  a  day,  or,  at  least,  a  night. 

Professor  Broadus's  first  speech  for  the  Seminary  was 
delivered  at  the  Hampton  June  meetings,  1859,  and  re- 
ported  for  the  "  Religious  Herald  "  by  the  speaker.  Ob- 
serve that  the  Seminary  had  not  yet  opened  its  doors, 
and  Doctor  Broadus  speaks  as  a  prophet.  We  make  a 
few  extracts : 

The  speaker  began  by  narrating  an  incident  lying  within  his  own 
knowledge,  not  to  say  experience,  and  tending  to  show  that  a  young 
preacher  may  have  enjoyed  the  best  advantages  for  academical  in- 
struction and  yet  be  so  ignorant  of  fundamental  matters  of  doctrine 
as  on  important  occasions  to  make  serious  blunders  upon  the  great 
doctrine  of  "  justification  by  faith."  He  will  speak  especially  of  the 
objection  often  made  to  theological  seminary  instruction  He  had 
himself,  at  one  time,  been  strongly  opposed  to  it,  and  had  come  to 
believe  that  his  objections  were  partly  unfounded,  resulting  from 
mere  prejudice  and  lack  of  information,  and  partly  capable  of  being 
obviated,  at  least  in  large  measure,  by  means  of  the  peculiar  ideas 
and  methods  embraced  in  the  organization  of  a  seminary  at  Green- 
ville. The  introduction  of  important  changes  in  theological  instruc- 
tion was  rendered  necessary  by  the  peculiar  wants,  as  well  as  opin- 
ions, of  our  Baptist  ministry.  This  was  ably  shown  by  Professor 
Boyce  in  an  address  published  two  or  three  years  since,  which  has 



met  with  general  approbation,  and,  as  the  speaker  chanced  to  know, 
had  been  highly  commended  by  Doctor  Wayland,  whose  opinions 
on  this  subject  have  much  weight  with  many  brethren.  The  plan 
of  organization,  and  particularly  the  plan  of  instruction  of  the  new 
Seminary,  is  an  attempt  to  meet  the  wants  indicated  in  that  address, 
and  so  generally  acknowledged  as  existing.  At  the  same  time,  it  is 
believed  by  many  that  such  a  plan  is  not  only  necessary  to  an  insti- 
tution which  is  to  be  attractive  and  useful  to  young  Baptist  preach- 
ers, but  is  greatly  preferable  to  theological  seminaries  in  general,  and 
would  be  found  so  by  all  denominations.  Even  among  our  Presby- 
terian brethren,  whose  seminaries  have  formed  a  model  generally 
adopted,  there  are  indications  of  dissatisfaction  with  existing  meth- 
ods, as  seen  in  the  preference  still  occasionally  expressed  by  promi- 
nent men  for  returning  to  the  old  plan  of  private  study  with  a  pastor, 
and  m  the  altered,  though  hardly  less  objectionable,  method  adopted 
in  their  seminary  at  Danville. 

It  ought  to  be  carefully  observed  that  many  of  the  objections  made 
among  us  to  a  theological  education  are  precisely  the  same  in  princi- 
ple as  those  which  were  formerly  made  by  some  persons  to  educat- 
ing the  ministry  at  all.  The  battle  has  been  long  ago  fought  and 
won ;  the  brethren  may  be  urged  to  consider  how  far  they  are  now 
reviving  arguments  which,  in  essence  and  in  principle,  have  been 
already  refuted.  Particularly  is  this  the  case  with  the  argument  some- 
times put  forward,  that  brethren  preach  well  who  never  attended  a 
seminary ;  so  do  many  who  never  went  to  college.  .  . 

The  inevitable  effect  of  this  [students  subscribing  to  a  creed]  must 
be,  that  the  student  goes  to  work,  not  to  find  out  what  the  Scriptures 
teach,  but  to  satisfy  himself  that  they  teach  certain  doctrines,  which, 
in  all  their  detail,  are  laid  down  beforehand.  This  is  the  reverse  of 
the  natural  process  of  inquiry,  and  must  of  necessity  fetter  the  mind 
and  restrict  independence  of  thought.  But  in  our  Seminary  the  stu- 
dent will  not  be  required,  at  the  beginning  or  the  end,  to  accept  any 
given  symbol  or  doctrine.  The  professors  must  accept  a  brief  ab- 
stract of  principles,  as  one  safeguard  against  their  teaching  heresy ; 
but  they  are  supposed  to  be  men  who  have  already  formed  their  lead- 
ing opinions,  who  will  undertake  the  professorship  only  if  they  can 
concur  in  these  principles,  and  will  therefore  not  be  materially  re- 
stricted in  their  inquiries,  while  the  students  will  be  perfectly  at  lib- 
erty and  constantly  encouraged  to  think  for  themselves.  Add  the 
sturdy  and  indomitable  independence  which  is  fostered  by  all  our 
Baptist  ideas  and  institutions,  and  there  does  not  seem  to  be  much 
danger  from  this  source. 


The  perfect  liberty  of  choice  as  to  which  subjects  shall  be  studied 
by  each  student,  and  as  to  the  order  in  which  they  shall  be  taken 
up,  will  tend  to  promote  the  spirit  of  freedom.  And  a  similar  effect 
will  be  produced  upon  the  professors  by  the  independence  of  the 
schools.  They  will  not  be  cramped  in  a  certain  space,  as  part  of  a 
fixed  course,  but  can  work  freely,  each  going  as  far,  with  any  par- 
ticular subject,  as  he  may  be  able  or  think  proper,  and  as  his  class 
are  found  able  to  follow. 

Such  a  system  is  more  likely  to  be  attractive.  Young  men  can  go, 
with  such  preparation  as  they  may  have,  to  study  what  they  may 
prefer,  can  stay  as  few  or  as  many  sessions  as  they  choose,  and  can 
get  credit,  from  time  to  time,  for  just  so  much  as  they  have  done. 
We  have  no  means  of  requiring  our  young  brethren— if  that  were,  in 
fact,  desirable — to  secure  any  particular  amount  of  theological  train- 
ing. It  is  well  if  they  can  be  attracted  to  come  of  their  own  ac- 
cord. .  . 

Those  who  are  not  acquainted  with  the  learned  languages,  and 
can  therefore  study  only  certain  subjects,  will  not  be  placed  in  a  po- 
sition of  felt  inferiority,  but  in  the  subjects  they  do  pursue,  will  be 
in  the  same  classes  and  every  way  in  the  same  position  with  the 
rest.  And  one  who  is  able  to  graduate  in  some  schools,  and  having 
done  better  than  he  had  hoped,  if  disposed  to  remain,  can  go  right 
on  to  the  other  schools,  almost  as  well  as  if  he  had  designed  it  from 
the  beginning.  .  . 

Much  is  expected  from  the  arrangement  that  in  the  interpretation 
of  the  Scriptures,  Old  and  New,  all  will  study  together,  in  a  sort  of 
Bible-class  fashion,  the  English  version,  there  being  special  classes 
besides  for  those  who  know  the  Hebrew  or  the  Greek.  This  again 
is  made  necessary  by  the  peculiar  wants  of  the  Baptist  ministry,  but 
it  is  believed  to  be  best  for  all.  Students  who  have  given  considera- 
ble attention  to  the  original  languages  will  yet  find  them  a  very 
muddy  medium  through  which  to  see  the  connection  and  general 
drift  of  an  extended  passage.  They  will  gain  a  far  better  acquaint- 
ance with  the  actual  teachings  of  Scripture  from  a  careful  study  of 
the  English,  the  professor  making  use  of  his  own  knowledge  of  the 
original,  as  the  commentators  do,  but  adapting  his  explanations  to 
those  who  know  the  English  alone.  Nothing  is  so  important  to  a 
man  who  will  preach,  as  to  know  what  is  taught  in  the  Bible,  as  it 
stands  upon  its  own  connection.  The  theory  of  interpretation  too, 
can  be  best  learned  through  the  actual  study  of  Scripture  in  a 
language  which  is  well  known. 

The  speaker  closed  with  some  personal  allusions,  designed  to  ex- 


press  his  own  high  sense  of  the  importance  of  this  enterprise,  and 
with  the  earnest  request  that  brethren  would  not  only  contribute 
means  and  send  students  to  the  Seminary,  but  would  often  pray  for 
the  Divine  blessing  upon  those  whose  privilege  it  shall  be  to  be  con- 
nected with  it,  that  they  may  be  enabled  greatly  to  improve  both  the 
education  and  the  piety  of  such  as  go  out  from  them  to  preach  the 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  WH1TESCARVER  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  June  17,  1859 :  I  am  in  good  spirits.  Shall 
have  much  trouble  in  removing,  but  hope  to  meet  all  with  a  stout 
heart.  Some  folks  have  abused  me,  but  1  believe  they  have  got 
over  it.  I  am  busy  with  preparatory  studies.  Must  spend  my  sum- 
mer here. 

A.  M.  POINDEXTER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  June  27,  1859  :  If  you  have  not  been  informed,  you 
will  be,  I  presume,  m  due  time,  that  at  a  recent  meeting  of  the  trustees 
of  Richmond  College  you  and  Manly  were  doctored.  I  feel  it  due  to 
you  to  state  that  I  was  not  at  the  meeting  and  had  received  no  inti- 
mation that  such  a  thing  was  contemplated.  I  had  not  referred  to 
your  wishes  in  the  matter,  and  no  one  knew,  I  presume,  of  your  ob- 
jections. The  thing  is  done.  I  regret  it,  as  you  do,  but  it  cannot 
now  be  helped  You  know  the  old  saying,  "  What  can't  be  cured 
must  be  endured."  I  could  not  feel  satisfied  without  this  explana- 

William  and  Mary  College  likewise  gave  Mr.  Broadus 
the  title  of  D.  D.,  "in  view  of  your  distinguished  attain- 
ments as  a  scholar  and  divine." 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  July  14,  1859  -  It  is  time  we  had  published 
something  of  our  plans.  I  have  been  waiting  for  Brother  Boyce  to 
attend  to  it,  but  if  we  do  not  look  out  we  shall  assemble  there  with 
as  many  teachers  as  scholars.  When  do  you  purpose  actually  start- 
ing, and  by  what  route?  Can  we  not  arrange  to  go  together? 

By  the  way,  we  seem  all  to  be  in  rather  a  bad  condition,  in  public 
estimation.  First,  the  trustees  of  Richmond  and  Columbian  Col- 
leges think  us  in  so  precarious  a  condition  that  we  must  needs  be 
"doctored,"  and  then  the  Greenville  editor  finds  it  in  his  heart  to 


soap  us  all  over  in  advance,  so  that  I  feel  somewhat  as  I  suppose 
the  rabbit  does  when  the  rattlesnake  has  made  him  all  ready  for  be- 
ing swallowed.  I  knew  nothing  of  the  plan  of  our  trustees,  or,  so 
far  at  least  as  I  was  concerned,  I  should  have  opposed  it.  I  should 
not  have  minded  their  doctoring  you  so  much,  but  I  did  not  like  to 
take  the  prescription  myself. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  July  16,  1859:  What  has  become  of 
you,  that  you  haven't  yet  appeared  in  print  about  the  Seminary  ? 
Has  the  weight  of  Columbian  College  honors  crushed  you?  .  . 
But  however  ail  that  may  be,  hurry  up,  my  dear  fellow,  whatever 
you  are  going  to  publish,  so  that  the  Seminary  course  may  take 
a  more  distinct  form  in  the  eyes  of  the  people,  or  else,  I  am  con- 
siderably afraid,  there  will  be  four  doctors  of  divinity  met  together 
on  the  first  of  October,  to  teach— each  other ;  which  operation  might 
be  serviceable  enough,  if  it  should  not  prove  too  much  like  the  op- 
posite sides  of  an  empty  stomach  digesting  each  other. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  July  23, 1859 :  Yours  of  the  2oth  just 
received.  My  wife  and  I  thank  you  most  heartily  for  your  kindness 
about  the  house.  I  am  compelled  to  remain  here  as  pastor  till  Sept. 
i,  and  I  had  been  thinking  to  have  a  week  or  two  with  my  friends 
in  another  part  of  the  State,  and  go  to  Greenville  after  Sept.  isth  ; 
but  I  now  feel  inclined  to  go  earlier  in  that  month.  It  will  be  pleas- 
ant, and  in  various  ways  useful,  if  we  could  be  there  all  together 
for  a  few  weeks  before  the  session  opens.  Obliged  to  keep  up  my 
home  here  to  last  of  August.  I  have  been  unable  to  send  furniture 
by  vessel  which  has  just  left  Richmond,  and  fear  there  will  not  be 
another  when  I  want  it.  But  all  that  can  be  arranged  some  way. 
...  As  to  pleasing  everybody,  I  suppose  it  must  be  our  lot,  the 
balance  of  our  lives,  to  have  various  persons  all  the  time  finding 
fault  with  us.  There  are  people  in  abundance  who  don't  mean  to 
be  pleased  with  anything  we  can  do.  Still,  I  grow  daily  more  en- 
thusiastic about  our  enterprise.  If  the  Lord  spare  and  bless  us  for 
a  few  years,  I  am  sure  it  will  appear,  even  to  many  who  now  doubt, 
that  we  are  doing  a  great  work.  It  is  costing  me  severe  sacrifices ; 
but  they  are  nothing  compared  with  the  self-denying  labor  you  have 
bestowed  on  it.  In  either  case,  no  doubt,  we  have  far  more  remain- 
ing to  bear  as  well  as  to  do ;  but  we  shall  not  labor  in  vain,  for  surely 
it  is  the  Lord's  work. 


CHARLOTTESVILLE,  August  28,  1859. 

To  the  Charlottesmlk  'Baptist  Church : 

BELOVED  BRETHREN  AND  SISTERS  :  I  beg  leave  now  formally 
to  carry  out  the  design  which  was  some  time  ago  intimated  to  you,  of 
resigning  the  pastoral  care  of  the  church.  In  so  doing  I  desire  to  put 
upon  record  the  statement  that  I  should  not  have  been  willing  to 
leave  here  to  become  pastor  of  any  other  church  whatsoever,  or  to 
be  professor  in  any  other  institution  than  the  Theological  Seminary 
to  which  I  am  going. 

At  the  close  of  this  pastoral  connection  of  eight  years,  I  call  upon 
you  to  join  me  in  giving  thanks  to  God  for  the  measure  of  success 
which  has  attended  our  joint  labors,  for  the  marked  prosperity  of  the 
church  we  love.  Dear  brethren  and  sisters,  it  is  not  hopeless  toil  to 
work  for  our  Master's  cause.  Let  us  try  to  be  far  more  diligent  and 
prayerful,  and  thus  we  may  hope  to  be  far  more  useful  in  the  time 
to  come. 

I  am  unable  to  express  my  feelings  of  gratitude  for  all  your  kind- 
ness and  of  affectionate  interest  in  your  welfare,  as  a  church,  as 
families,  and  as  individuals.  I  trust  you  will  always  look  with 
charitable  indulgence  upon  my  faults  of  character,  and  failures  in 
duty.  I  have  little  fear  of  being  personally  forgotten  here,  but  I 
especially  ask  that  you  will  not  forget  the  truth  I  have  preached 
among  you,  but  will  seek  to  profit  hereafter  by  the  labors  which  are 
now  ended ;  so  "  that  I  may  rejoice  in  the  day  of  Christ,  that  I  have 
not  run  in  vain,  neither  labored  in  vain." 

And  now,  brethren  and  sisters,  with  a  heart  that  overflows  with 
love  to  you  all,  "  I  commend  you  to  God,  and  to  the  word  of  his 
grace,  which  is  able  to  build  you  up,  and  to  give  you  an  inheritance 
among  all  them  which  are  sanctified."  May  your  future  pastors  be 
more  faithful  and  successful  than  I  have  been.  May  you  all  be 
richly  blessed,  in  the  Sunday-school,  in  the  prayer  meetings,  in  your 
private  efforts  to  do  good,  in  your  families,  and  your  own  hearts ! 
Such  is,  and  while  life  lasts  shall  be,  the  prayer  of, 
Your  brother  in  the  Lord, 


Dr.  Broadus  preached  his  farewell  sermon  to  the  Char- 
lottesville  Church  from  Philippians  2  :  12-16,  He  gave 
a  summary  of  his  work  since  September,  1851.  He  had 
preached  in  these  eight  years  seven  hundred  and  sixty- 
one  sermons,  a  hundred  and  twenty-two  being  at  the 


University,  two  hundred  and  eighteen  at  other  places, 
and  four  hundred  and  twenty-one  at  Charlottesville. 
There  had  been  two  hundred  and  forty-one  baptized, 
one  hundred  and  twelve  of  these  being  colored.  Much 
of  the  addition  to  the  church-membership  was  while  Mr. 
Dickinson  was  associate  pastor.  Some  lines  of  sadness' 
were  written  on  his  leaving,  "  Leave  us  not,  man  of 

The  ties  which  bound  him  to  the  University  at  Charlottesville 
were  not  easily  sundered.  It  had  been  the  home  of  his  early  man- 
hood, the  nursery  of  his  intellect,  the  arena  of  his  first  forensic  tri- 
umphs. He  loved  the  blue  hills  amid  which  her  classic  buildings 
are  set,  the  billowy  undulations  of  the  fertile  fields  that  swell  around 
their  feet,  the  fragrant  airs  that  sweep  her  shadowy  colonnades  and 
the  cool  vistas  of  her  verdant  lawns.  Here  the  thrilling  music  of 
woman's  love  had  first  melted  his  heart,  and  the  sweet  intimacies  of 
wedded  life  and  the  soft  smiles  of  children  had  been  his ;  and  sorrow 
had  laid  upon  his  brow  her  consecrating  touch,  and  beneath  the 
sighing  pines  of  the  old  cemetery  reposed  the  ashes  of  his  fair 
young  wife.  Here  was  the  spacious  church,  builded  by  his  devout 
efforts  and  almost  with  his  own  hands,  and  a  growing  congregation 
crowding  its  pews  and  aisles,  eager  to  receive  from  his  hands  the 
bread  and  water  of  life.  And  here  he  had  knit  over  the  ties  of  do- 
mestic life  and  reared  again  an  altar  and  a  home.  In  all  his  wander- 
ings, I  fancy  he  found  no  other  spot  of  earth  so  dear  as  this — not 
Carolina's  blue  skies,  nor  Kentucky's  green  expanse,  nor  foreign 
cities  with  their  haunting  memories  of  song  and  story,  nor  even 
Palestine  and  the  flowery  fields  hallowed  by  the  footprints  of  his 
beloved  Lord.  But  duty  and  destiny  summoned  and  he  obeyed, 
taking  his  journey  into  a  far  country,  vowing  his  life  to  poverty  and 
to  labor,  but  called  through  self-denial  and  toil  and  illness  to  do  a 
great  and  enduring  work.1 

1  Professor  Wm.  M.  Thornton,  in  the  "  Alumni  Bulletin  "  for  May,  1893. 


"  Beholding  the  bright  countenance  of  truth  in  the  quiet  and  still 
air  of  delightful  studies." 


MOST  of  the  summer  of  1859  hac^  been  given  to 
plans  for  the  work  that  now  engrossed  Doctor 
Broadus's  heart,  for  his  whole  nature  went  into  the  new 
enterprise.  He  was  busy  buying  books  for  the  library 
and  for  himself.  He  sought  original  sources  in  various 
languages.  He  was  pitching  his  work  on  a  high  plane. 
He  was  to  teach  two  new  departments,  New  Testament 
Interpretation  (English  and  Greek)  and  Homiletics,  but 
he  held  himself  to  a  severe  standard  at  the  very  start. 
He  aimed  to  secure  the  best  text-books  possible.  This 
was  his  programme  for  homiletics : 

"  Homiletics,  or  Preparation  and  Delivery  of  Sermons";  "Rip- 
ley's  Sacred  Rhetoric  "  ;  "  Vmef  s  Homiletics  "  ;  numerous  lectures  ; 
ample  exercises  in  formation  of  skeletons,  criticism  of  printed  ser- 
mons, general  composition,  and  discussion ;  opportunities  for  stu- 
dents to  preach,  but  no*preaching  merely  for  practice. 

•  He  had  drawn  the  plan  of  instruction  in  the  eight 
schools  with  one  general  diploma  and  separate  diplomas 
for  each  school.  He  expected  opposition  to  the  elective 
system,  as  it  was  a  new  thing  in  theological  education. 
But  there  were  some  enlightened  minds  who  clearly  ap- 
prehended what  was  involved,  and  gave  hearty  endorse- 
ment at  the  very  start. 

PRESIDENT  W.  M.  WINGATE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WAKE  FOREST  COLLEGE,  N.  C.,  June  20, 1859 :  I  think  we  feel 


a  good  deal  of  interest  in  this  State,  and  especially  at  this  place,  in 
the  Theological  Seminary.  We  shall  have  a  respectable  number  of 
young  brethren,  I  think,  going  in  the  course  of  time  from  this  place. 
The  Convention — I  infer  from  the  expression  of  opinion  given  in  our 
last  meeting— will  be  in  favor  of  supporting  brethren  without  means, 
there,  just  as  they  do  at  Wake  Forest ;  for  the  most  part,  I  suppose, 
continuing  those  who  have  been  for  a  longer  or  a  shorter  time  at  our 
college.  You,  and  the  brethren  acting  with  you,  may  be  assured 
that  I  shall  do  what  I  can  in  my  humble  way,  to  foster  and  encourage 
the  Southern  Seminary. 

I  like  much  the  feature  suggested  by  you  in  your  letter.  I  saw  it 
elaborated  to  some  extent  in  Doctor  Boyce's  address  some  three 
years  ago.  Our  theological  seminaries  have  been  based  too  much 
upon  Presbyterian  theories  of  preaching,  and  they  have  on  that  ac- 
count been  of  very  little  use  to  Baptists.  We  must  help  men  a  little, 
who  cannot  or  will  not  be  helped  much,  or  they  will  preach  without 
help,  and  should  they  not?  For  one,  let  me  express  the  hope  that 
prominence  will  be  given  to  this  feature. 

W.  D.  THOMAS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WARRENTON,  VA.,  Sept.  8,  1859 :  I  have  been  hoping  that  we 
might  meet  again  before  you  started  for  Greenville.  Circumstances, 
however,  have  been  such  as  to  prevent  it,  and  now  you  must  go 
without  my  seeing  you.  I  much  regret  this.  I  cannot  let  you  go, 
however,  without  saying  good-bye.  I  need  not  say  that  I  have  loved 
you,  and  that  you  will  be  dear  to  me  still  in  your  new  and  far-off 
home.  I  have  felt  for  you  in  your  struggles  to  decide  in  reference  to 
Greenville.  Though  one  of  many  who  are  sorrowing  because  you 
are  to  go,  yet  so  far  as  I  can  see  you  are  doing  what  God  would  have 
you  to  do.  I  trust  that  neither  my  grief,  nor,  what  is  more  likely, 
the  sorrow  of  so  many  others,  will  make  you  doubt  that  your  steps 
in  this  matter  are  ordered  of  God.  The  conviction  that  we  are  in  the 
path  which  God  would  have  us  walk,  and  doing  the  work  which  he 
would  have  us  do,  will  give  one  zest,  energy,  and  power  which  can- 
not be  had  without  it.  Believing,  as  I  do,  that  you  have  decided 
this  matter  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  I  trust  this  conviction  may  abide 
with  you. 

After  all,  your  sorrow  at  parting  with  friends  and  our  sorrow  at 
parting  with  you  need  not  deprive  us  of  comforting  thoughts.  "  The 
field  is  the  world."  .  .  Oh,  for  such  a  faith  as  will  not  permit  us  to 
look  upon  the  kingdom  of  our  Lord  as  a  mere  province  confined  to 
our  own  State  or  individual  church.  We  need  a  world-wide  king- 


dom.  My  dear  brother,  may  the  Lord  go  with  you  to  Greenville  and 
abide  with  you  there.  For  your  going  will  be  vain  unless  his  pres- 
ence is  with  you.  When  there  think  sometimes  of  your  friend  Wm. 
who  is  laboring  (in  weakness  and  imperfection)  for  the  conversion 
of  sinners  and  the  promotion  of  our  Lord's  kingdom  here. 

There  were  many  kind  friends  in  Greenville  to  help 
get  things  in  readiness  for  the  home  there.  In  particular 
were  Doctor  Boyce  and  his  family  all  kindness  in  secur- 
ing a  pleasant,  roomy  house,  and  having  it  in  complete 

Doctor  Broadus's  first  sermon  in  Greenville  was  to  the 
colored  Baptists,  September  18,  from  Acts  2  :  39.  The 
Seminary  opened  auspiciously  with  twenty-six  students. 

PRESIDENT  E.  G.  ROBINSON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ROCHESTER,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  23, 1859 :  Allow  me  to  congratulate  you 
on  the  successful  opening  of  your  Seminary,  and  to  wish  you  the 
largest  and  truest  prosperity  in  the  future.  My  colleagues,  I  am  con- 
fident, would  join  heartily  in  the  sentiment.  A  common  service  be- 
gets sympathy,  and  we  cannot  but  all  rejoice  in  the  multiplication  of 
educated  ministers.  You  have  a  vast  field  to  supply  and  I  hope  the 
number  of  your  pupils  will  increase  till  it  shall  be  commensurate  with 
the  demand. 

The  four  young  professors  took  hold  vigorously  and 
with  high  hopes.  A  teacher's  first  year  is  proverbially 
hard.  Doctor  Broadus  had  had  experience  in  teaching 
at  the  University  fcf  Virginia,  but  he  was  now  on  new 
subjects  and  he  had  lofty  ideals  for  his  work.  Much  de- 
pended on  these  opening  months.  His  health  snapped 
under  the  strain  and  he  had  to  give  up  teaching  entirely 
for  a  while.  But  his  colleagues  bravely  took  up  his 
work  for  him. 


GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,Feb.  18,  1860:  I  have  delayed  answering 
your  kind  letter  only  because  I  wished,  and  from  day  to  day  hoped, 
I  should  be  able  to  reply  at  some  length.  It  arrived  while  I  was  ab- 


sent  in  Charleston  for  a  few  days,  seeking  benefit  for  my  badly 
shattered  health. 

I  beg  to  thank  you,  very  warmly,  for  your  handsome  present  to 
our  little  boy.1 

My  Aunt  Lucy's  idea  that  my  health  was  quite  re-established 
arose  from  a  very  hopeful  letter  I  wrote  them  at  Christmas ;  but  the 
hopes  I  then  cherished  have  not  been  realized.  For  nearly  three 
months  I  have  been  unable  to  meet  my  classes,  though  never  vio- 
lently ill.  The  attack  was  of  indigestion,  not  understood  at  first,  and 
it  has  settled  down  into  confirmed  and  obstinate  dyspepsia.  My 
health  in  October  and  early  November  was  uncommonly  good.  I 
was  greatly  interested  in  my  work,  and  was  happy.  But  anxious  to 
meet  the  pressing  demands  of  a  first  year's  course  of  instruction,  and 
made  confident  by  feeling  so  well,  I  overworked  myself,  and  was 
somewhat  imprudent  in  eating ;  and  then  after  resting  a  few  days 
went  to  work  again  too  soon  and  too  hard,  and  in  a  week  more  was 
laid  up.  My  first  physician  did  not  understand  the  case,  and  when 
he  was  taken  sick,  and  another  came,  I  was  really  thoroughly  dys- 
peptic. Having  improved  a  little  before,  I  find  the  trip  to  Charleston 
very  beneficial,  and  hope  again  to  be  speedily  much  better.  But  I 
take  ups  and  downs,  and  am  still  wholly  unable  to  work ;  ten  min- 
utes of  continuous  close  thinking  will  make  me  sick.  I  have  been, 
personally,  favored  much,  in  being  able  to  read,  almost  always,  but 
only  what  was  light,  and  excited  no  particular  desire  to  comprehend 
or  remember.  Without  this,  I  know  not  how  I  should  have  endured 
the  languor  and  low  spirits  of  these  many  weeks.  My  colleagues, 
burdened  as  they  were,  have  been  to  a  considerable  extent  carrying 
on  my  subjects,  though  they  have  not  had  time  for  all.  It  has  been, 
and  is  every  day,  very  hard  to  see  my  cherished  hopes  still  deferred, 
and  the  time  wasting  away,  and  with  a  spirit  at  once  desponding 
and  eager,  to  be  vainly  seeking  that  "quiet  cheerfulness"  which 
well-meaning  friends  fairly  worry  one  by  enjoining.  .  . 

I  try  to  avoid  plans  for  the  future  now ;  but  if  I  do  not  grow  worse 
again,  I  hope  that  the  summer  in  Virginia,  with  absolutely  nothing  to 
do,  may  bring  me  to  the  point  of  being  able  to  work  again.  We  look 
forward  to  the  trip  with  daily  mention  and  interest.  .  . 

We  count  twenty-six  students,  some  of  them  capital  young  men. 
We  think  there  is  reason  to  hope  for  forty  or  more  for  next  year. 
There  will  be  difficulty,  in  other  States,  as  well  as  Virginia,  about 
raising  the  endowment,  but  I  am  confident  it  will  be  done.  I  feel 

1  S.  S.  Broadus,  born  January  K>,  1860, 


hopeful,  altogether,  as  to  the  prospects  of  the  institution.  If  it  be  not 
God's  will  to  allow  me  a  share  in  the  work  of  building  it  up,  why, 
his  will  be  done. 

Do  not  allow  any  one  to  think  of  this  as  a  sickly  place,  because  I 
have  been  sick  so  long.  I  am  satisfied  that  the  climate  is  not  the 
cause  of  my  attack.  Indeed,  there  is  exceedingly  little  difference  be- 
tween the  climate  here  and  in  Albemarle  or  Orange.  We  are  about 
the  same  distance  from  the  Blue  Ridge  that  you  are,  in  a  country 
quite  as  much  broken  and  with  a  very  similar  soil  and  productions, 
and  the  ice-houses  were  well  filled  in  January.  .  .  Mrs.  Broadus 
hopes  to  have  opportunity  of  making  your  acquaintance  next 

1  As  a  part  of  his  ample  home  establishment,  Doctor  Boyce  had 
several  ponies,  trained  for  the  saddle,  on  which  his  wife  and  her 
sister  were  accustomed  to  ride,  accompanied  by  a  groom.  One  of 
these  ponies  was  promptly  placed  at  the  disposal  of  his  colleague, 
who  soon  sought  permission  to  take  the  groom's  place  in  the  long 
rides  through  that  beautiful  neighborhood,  which  he  has  ever  since 
most  highly  valued 

Doctor  Boyce's  own  health  was  at  that  time  superb,  and  his  power 
of  endurance  seemed  almost  unlimited.  In  January  he  took  his  family 
for  a  few  days  to  Charleston,  in  order  to  visit  his  relatives  and  look 
after  the  many  business  interests  of  his  father's  estate.  He  invited 
his  invalid  colleague  to  accompany  him  on  what  would  be  a  first 
visit  to  the  beautiful  city  by  the  sea.  The  journey  had  to  begin  at 
four  A.  M.,  and  continue  till  toward  midnight,  but  he  wrapped  his 
friend  in  a  wonderful  overcoat,  a  miracle  of  softness  and  warmth, 
and  when  he  reached  Charleston  carried  him  in  his  own  arms  from 
the  carriage  into  his  room  at  the  hotel.  He  seemed  strong  like  a 
giant,  and  he  was  tender  as  a  woman. 


GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  March  28, 1860 :  I  am  very  glad  to  be  able 
to  say,  in  reply  to  your  kind  letter,  that  my  health  is  considerably 
improved.  I  have  resumed  a  part  of  my  duties,  and  am  hoping  to 
be  able  soon  to  take  up  the  remainder,  though  still  feeble,  and  very 
easily  thrown  back.  It  is  hard  to  be  prudent, 

I  had  been  thinking  about  Rawley,  and  your  recommendation  in- 
creases my  disposition  to  try  it.  I  hope  I  may  be  able  to  find  it  prac- 
ticable to  do  so. 

1  Broadus'  "  Memoir  of  Boyce/'  p.  173. 


Do  you  expect  to  attend  the  General  Association?  I  am  arranging 
to  leave  here  the  morning  after  our  Commencement  if  possible,  and 
in  that  case,  can  leave  my  family  at  Charlottesville  and  reach  Staun- 
ton  Thursday  afternoon.  It  is  my  purpose  to  attend  the  Shiloh  Asso- 
ciation at  Blue  Run  also,  and  I  shall  hope  to  be  able  then  to  accept  Mrs. 
Harbour's  kind  invitation  to  visit  her.  .  .  Brother  Toy,  who  is  going 
to  Japan,  and  Brother  Jones  (of  Louisa),  who  is  going  to  Canton,  are 
boarding  with  us  now,  and  we  greatly  enjoy  their  society.  Toy  is 
among  the  foremost  scholars  I  have  ever  known  of  his  years,  and  an 
uncommonly  conscientious  and  devoted  man.  Jones  you  may  have 
seen  ;  he  has  great  zeal,  an  unusual  turn  for  practical  working,  and 
I  am  sure  he  will  make  a  very  useful  man.  Others  of  our  students 
are  thinking  of  the  foreign  mission  work.  .  . 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  May  25,  1860 :  I  received  your  kind  letter  of 
1 5th  inst,  and  also  the  book.  I  had  read  the  "Still  Hour"  with 
unusual  pleasure,  and  I  trust,  some  benefit.  I  am  glad  that  I  can 
now  take  the  copy  I  had  to  my  brother's  wife  in  Alexandria,  who  I 
know  will  appreciate  and  enjoy  it ;  and  I  shall  tell  her  she  may  thank 
you  for  getting  it.  .  . 

Be  sure,  if  you  please,  to  carry  out  the  idea  of  writing  for  the  H. 
and  F.  Journal.  We  need  a  diffusion,  by  line  upon  line,  of  mission- 
ary ideas  and  information  ;  we  need  more  men  and  means  and 
prayer.  The  indications  are  favorable  for  a  considerable  increase  in 
the  number  of  missionaries  and  we  may  be  encouraged  to  pray  and 
labor— for  I  believe  men  are  to  be  called  into  this  work,  as  into  the 
ministry  in  general,  and  as  into  the  church,  through  the  use  of 
means.  A  word  to  a  young  minister,  or  one  preparing,  might  be  the 
means  by  God's  blessing,  of  bringing  him  into  the  work. 

But  it  is  breakfast  time,  and  I  must  prepare  for  my  last  examina- 
tion. Please  address  me  hereafter  at  Charlottesville. 

The  first  Commencement,  May  28,  1860,  was  an  inter- 
esting occasion.  Dr.  Basil  Manly,  Sr,,  made  the  ad- 
dress. The  outlook  for  the  Seminary  seemed  auspicious 
in  spite  of  storm-clouds  upon  the  horizon. 

J.  A  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  June  16, 1860:  Thank  you  for  the  in- 
formation from  Dr.  Hackett  Edmunds  gave  me  (at  Staunton)  Hack- 
etfs  "  Revision  of  Philemon,"  a  copious  and  admirable  Introduction, 


and  very  full  notes,  and  beautifully  printed.  [I  like  it,  though  of 
course  two  such  scholars  as  he  and  I  couldn't  agree  on  all  points. 
What  a  nice  time  he  and  Doctor  Conant  might  be  said  to  have — a 
good  salary,  an  unrivaled  library,  with  everything  added  to  it  that 
they  can  think  of,  and  their  works  published  in  the  handsomest  style, 
and  gratuitously  distributed  through  the  country.  Isn't  that  mag- 
nificent?. . 

The  meetings  at  Staunton  were  very  pleasant  indeed.  Both  Boyce's 
speech  and  his  sermon  were  frequently  mentioned  in  my  hearing,  and 
with  high  praise.  I  am  very  glad  he  came,  for  together  with  the  en- 
thusiasm manifested  by  the  students,  it  awakened  a  very  lively  and 
very  general  interest  in  the  Seminary.  The  ordination  last  Sunday 
(Toy,  Jones,  Johnson,  Taylor,  Jr.)  passed  off  well,  and  I  hope  did 
much  good. 

J   A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  July  23,  1860:  On  the  i$th  in  Alex- 
andria, my  little  Maria  died,  of  diphtheria.  The  physicians  thought 
the  others  all  had  it,  Annie  being  already  very  sick,  and  with  many 
fears  I  brought  all  here  on  Monday.  Doctor  and  Mrs.  Harrison  and 
Mrs.  Sinclair  aided  us  in  watching  by  Annie  all  the  week,  and  she 
is  now  much  better,  almost  well.  The  others  were  very  slightly 
affected,  if  at  all. 

As  we  came  to  Virginia  on  the  cars,  who,  if  told  that  two  of  the 
company  would  die  in  a  few  weeks,  would  have  selected  as  the  per- 
sons James  Witt,  and  that  laughing  little  girl  ?  Oh,  my  daughter ! 
but  the  will  of  the  Lord  be  done.  I  have  stood  by  the  deathbed  and 
the  grave  of  father  and  mother  and  sister,  of  wife  and  child ;  I  am 
confident  they  are  all  safe  in  heaven  ;  God  help  those  who  are  left 
to  follow  them  there.1 

The  physicians  here  advise  me  to  try  the  Rockbridge  Alum 
Springs,  and  I  expect  to  go  to-morrow.  I  have  gained  a  little,  upon 
the  whole,  but  have  repeatedly  been  set  back  by  some  season  of  ex- 
citement and  loss  of  sleep.  I  weigh  two  or  three  pounds  more  than 
on  June  ist  and  think  I  am  stronger. 

1  Dr.  Whitsitt,  in  his  speech  at  the  funeral  of  Dr.  Broadus,  made  the  following 
reference  to  little  Maria's  death  :  "  Late  one  night  I  met  him  at  the  railroad  station 
in  Greenville,  S  C  We  were  both  going  somewhere  in  the  country  to  preach  the 
next  day  While  we  waited  for  the  train  he  was  full  of  loving  talk  in  which  he  came 
to  speak  of  a  daughter  who  had  died  years  ago  in  early  childhood,  and  insisted  that 
the  child's  influence  on  his  life  was  greater  far  than  if  she  had  been  permitted  to  live 
out  the  measure  of  her  days.  I  can  recall  the  tenderness  and  enthusiasm  with  which 
he  several  times  exclaimed,  'A  glorious  memory.'  " 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  CHARLOTTE  E.  BROADUS : 

ROCKBRIDGE  ALUM  SPRINGS,  Wednesday,  July  25, 1860 : 1  met 
on  the  cars,  first,  Wm.  C.  Rives,  with  whom  I  had  a  talk  about  his 
"Life  of  Madison,"  and  about  historians  in  general,  particularly 
Prescott  and  Motley.  Next,  I  got  a  seat  just  before  my  earliest 
schoolmaster,  Albert  Tutt,  of  Culpeper,  to  whom  I  went  to  school 
two  years,  beginning  twenty-eight  years  ago  last  February.  He 
was  taking  his  wife  to  the  Healing  [Springs]  for  bronchitis.  Her 
father  was  our  nearest  neighbor,  and  she  and  sister  Martha  were 
girls  together.  I  told  them  about  how  Mr.  Tutt  used  to  stand  long 
at  his  desk,  sometimes  absorbed  in  writing,  and  how  we  little  folks 
would  munch  apples  behind  our  books,  and  tell  each  other  there  was 
no  danger,  for  he  was  writing  a  letter  to  his  sweetheart.  And  it  was 
pretty  to  see  the  girlish  blush  on  the  matron's  cheek  as  the  memory 
of  those  days  long  past  came  freshly  back,  when  she  was  a  blithe 
maiden,  and  used  to  read  those  letters  from  her  own  Albert.  .  .  Dear- 
est, I  hope  to  live  a  good  many  years  still,  if  it  please  Providence,  and 
I  mean  to  try  very  hard  to  improve  during  this  trip. 

R.  H.  STONE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

GAVE,  CENTRAL  AFRICA,  July  24,  1860  :  I  feel  a  deep  interest 
in  the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary.  May  it,  indeed,  be 
a  school  of  the  prophets.  I  hope  it  will  send  forth  men  who  are  not 
only  like  Apollos,  "eloquent  and  mighty  in  the  Scriptures,"  but 
also  men  like  Barnabas,  "  good,  full  of  the  Holy  Ghost  and  of  faith." 
We  much  need  the  influence  of  such  men  now  when  strife  and  dis- 
cord distract  the  energies  of  the  Baptists.  However,  it  is  pleasant  to 
compare  our  denomination  with  what  it  was  fifty  years  ago  ;  and  we 
may  well  say,  "  What  hath  God  wrought." 


RAWLEY  SPRINGS,  Aug.  24,  1860  :  I  expect  to  reach  Blue  Run 
in  the  course  of  Tuesday  afternoon,  by  private  conveyance  from 

Charlottes ville.  Mrs.  B will  probably  accompany  me.  We  wish 

to  spend  one  night  at  Doctor  Jones',  and  one  (in  acceptance  of  your 
kind  invitation,  repeated  by  Mr.  Barbour)  at  Barboursville. 

I  shall  get  only  six  days  at  Rawley.  Still,  I  hope  for  some  benefit. 
I  spent  ten  days  at  the  Rockbridge  Alum,  leaving  in  the  beginning 
of  August,  and  have  been  improving,  more  or  less,  ever  since.  I 
am  now  within  six  or  eight  pounds  of  my  ordinary  weight,  and  have 
a  tolerable  amount  of  strength.  I  have  preached  four  times  during 
this  month,  and  expect  to  preach  here  on  Sunday. 


W.  D.  THOMAS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

WARRENTON,  VA.,  Oct.  g,  1860  :  I  was  very  sorry  that  you 
couldn't  pay  us  a  visit  before  you  left  us.  Few  things  could  give 
more  real  joy  than  to  have  you  and  yours  spend  some  time  with  me 
at  my  own  home-  Though  necessarily  disappointed  this  time,  yet  I 
hope  some  day  to  enjoy  it.  I  suppose  by  this  time  you  are  all  fairly 
at  work.  I  sadly  feel  the  need  of  just  such  training  and  instruction 
as  can  be  had  at  Greenville.  .  . 

I  have  concluded  that  the  surest  way  to  convert  our  brethren  who 
oppose  theological  education  from  their  error,  is  to  make  them  try  the 
work  of  pastors  without  such  training.  If  this  were  done,  they  would 
soon  be  (as  old  Brother  Kerr  used  to  say)  forty  thousand  miles  off 
from  opposition  to  Greenville. 

If  you  will  permit  me  to  do  so,  I  would  like  just  now  to  beseech 
you  not  to  imagine  that  you  are  so  far  restored  to  health  that  nothing 
can  hurt  you  and  so  confine  yourself  too  much  to  study.  As  a  stew- 
ard you  must  be  found  faithful  in  the  matter  of  your  health  as  well 
as  in  other  respects.  Pardon  me  for  this  ;  but  you  know  my  regard 
for  you  and  deep  interest  in  you  prompts  it. 


GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Oct.  25,  1860  :  We  now  number  thirty-one 
students,  adding  one  more  from  Mississippi  to  a  statement  which 
will  probably  appear  in  the  "Herald  "  of  to-day.  We  feel  encour- 
aged by  the  increase,  and  by  the  general  character  of  the  students, 
and  the  spirit  they  manifest.  My  class  in  New  Testament  Greek 
numbers  sixteen.  They  are  nearly  all  graduates  of  colleges  and  uni- 
versities, but  the  standard  of  graduation,  and  often  of  instruction,  is 
deplorably  low  in  most  of  the  institutions  of  the  land,  and  I  find  it 
necessary  to  spend  a  good  part  of  the  session  in  teaching  Greek  in 
general,  classic  Greek,  which  they  ought  to  have  learned  at  college 
But  I  can  better  afford  to  do  this  since  they  go  over  a  large  portion 
of  the  New  Testament  in  the  English  class.  The  difference  in  other 
theological  seminaries  is,  not  that  they  have  students  better  pre- 
pared, but  that  they  make  little  or  no  effort  to  remedy  the  evil.  .  . 
I  have  two  of  last  year's  students  reading,  once  a  week,  some  selec- 
tions from  the  Greek  Fathers ;  and  Brother  Boyce  is  doing  something 
similar  this  year,  with  some  of  the  Latin  Fathers.  This  would  be 
impracticable  in  a  seminary  where  there  was  a  curriculum,  the  same 
for  all.  .  . 

I  am  glad  to  say  that  my  health  continues  about  as  good  as  in 


September.  If  I  can  be  careful  still,  I  trust  I  shall  be  able  to  go 
steadily  through  the  session.  But  it  is  not  easy  to  be  careful. 

Please  remember  me  most  respectfully  to  your  honored  grand- 
mother, to  your  uncle,  and  all  the  family.  Mr.  Barbour  may  be  in- 
terested in  the  opinion  (though  of  course  he  is  better  posted  on  the 
whole  subject  than  I  am)  which  I  formed  upon  the  statements  of 
gentlemen  here,  that  in  the  event  of  Lincoln's  election,  South  Caro- 
lina will  certainly  not  secede  alone,  but  will  gladly  join  any  one  other 
State,  and  that  her  secession  leaders  will  move  heaven  and  earth  to 
aid  their  sympathizers  in  Alabama  and  Virginia  with  the  hope  of 
such  a  result.  Very  many  people  here  are  as  much  opposed  to  a 
dissolution  of  the  Union  as  you  or  I,  but  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  a  majority  of  the  voters  in  the  State  would  be  in  favor  of  seced- 
ing with  any  other  State. 

Two  or  three  books  that  I  think  would  please  you  are,  "  Five  Ser- 
mons on  St.  Paul,"  by  A.  Monod  (from  the  French) ;  "  Memoir  of 
Kingman  Nott  "  ;  "  Angus'  Bible  Handbook."  All  small  volumes. 

RICHARD  HACKLEY1  to  J.  A.  B. : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Nov.  5,  1860.  My  Dear  Master: 
As  I  feel  like  writing  a  few  lines,  and  to  show  you  that  I  think  of 
you  very  often,  I  take  the  present  opportunity  of  doing  so.  I  am 
quite  well  now,  thank  the  Lord,  and  we  are  all  so  far  as  I  know,  and 
I  hope  when  these  lines  reach  you  that  you  and  yours  may  be  quite 
well.  I  heard  from  Mr.  Saint  Glair's  yesterday— all  well.  My  dear 
master,  I  hear  much  of  the  coming  election.  I  hope  that  Mr.  Lincoln 
or  no  such  man  may  ever  take  his  seat  in  the  presidential  chair.  I 
do  most  sincerely  hope  that  the  Union  may  be  preserved.  I  hear 
through  the  white  gentlemen  here  that  South  Carolina  will  leave  the 
Union  in  case  he  is  elected.  I  do  hope  she  won't  leave,  as  that  would 
cause  much  disturbance  and  perhaps  fighting.  Why  can't  the 
Union  stand  like  it  is  now?  Well  do  I  recollect  when  I  drove  a 
wagon  in  the  old  wars,  carrying  things  for  the  army ;  but  I  hope  we 
shall  have  no  more  wars,  but  let  peace  be  in  all  the  land. 

I  have  been  wanting  to  go  up  to  see  my  wife,  but  have  not  been 
able,  but  will  do  so  soon,  I  hope.  Next  year  I  should  like  to  live 
nearer  her.  With  my  best  respects  to  you  and  mistress,  I  am  as  ever, 
your  devoted  servant. 

J.  H.  COCKE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BREMO,  Nov.  18, 1860  -.  I  believe  there  have  been  too  many  Chris- 
1  Servant  of  John  A.  Broadus,  the  well-known  "  Uncle  Dick." 



tians,  both  North  and  South,  praying  for  the  preservation  of  our 
national  Union,  for  the  combined  efforts  of  the  fanatics  of  the  North 
and  the  fire-eaters  of  the  South  to  prevail  against  our  prayers. 

C.  H.  TOY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WAVERLY,  SUSSEX  COUNTY,  VA.,  Nov.  25,  1860:  I  suppose 
you  are  a  secessionist.  You  have  seen  the  action  of  the  Alabama 
brethren.  I  hope  Doctor  Boyce  will  disentangle  himself  in  New 
York  before  South  Carolina  leaves  the  Union.  You  all  seem  in- 
clined to  snub  us  in  Virginia,  hardly  willing  that  we  should  enter  the 
Southern  Confederacy.  In  that  case  we  shall  have  to  put  ourselves 
on  our  dignity,  and  rely  on  our  prestige  and  our  tobacco.  But  I  hope 
we  shall  stand  together. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 


ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  Dec.  7, 1860. 


DEAR  BRO. :  What  think  you  of  the  foregoing?  Does  that  suit 
you?  Are  you  willing  to  be  alienated  from  Virginia?  Are  you  willing, 
when  you  come  to  Virginia  to  be  considered  a  foreigner?  What  be- 
comes of  your  Seminary  when  its  location  becomes  foreign?  Virginia 
will  not  send  our  young  men  to  "  another  country  "  to  learn  to  preach. 
Levity  aside,  my  brother,  the  times  are  serious  now.  When  we  last 
talked  about  it,  I  had  no  idea  the  present  state  would  come  up.  Still, 
I  will  not  agree  that  South  Carolina  is  right  in  her  hot  haste,  and 
hush !  hush !  hush !  no-time-to-hsten-to-you  policy.  The  issues  are 
too  momentous  for  action  without  the  profoundest  deliberation,  and 
without  first  exhausting  every  possibility  of  doing  better.  I  suppose 
South  Carolina  will  not  be  persuaded,  but  Virginia  will  not  yet  go 
with  her.  The  time  may  come,  and  very  soon  too,  for  Virginia  to 
go,  but  she  has  not  yet  come  to  it.  I  have  greatly  changed  since 
last  Monday, 

J.  B.  JETER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Dec.  n,  1860 :  I  can  readily  conjecture  that  the 
friends  of  the  Seminary  are  anxious  lest  the  political  convulsions  of 
the  country  should  injuriously  affect  the  interests  of  theological  edu- 
cation. I  have  had  this  apprehension  myself ;  but  on  a  calm  con- 
sideration of  the  whole  subject,  my  fears  have  been  quieted.  If  the 
rights  of  the  South  can  be  maintained  in  the  Union,  the  country  will 


soon  settle  down  into  its  usual  quiet  and  prosperous  condition,  and 
the  course  of  the  Seminary  will  be  unobstructed.  If  a  division  of  our 
country  should  take  place,  then,  undoubtedly,  there  will  be  some 
sort  of  union  among  the  Southern  States,  and  we  shall  be  compelled 
to  look  to  our  own  section  for  theological  instruction.  I  am  afraid 
the  pecuniary  crisis,  consequent  on  our  political  troubles,  will  greatly 
embarrass  the  agents  of  the  Seminary  in  the  collection  of  funds,  and 
may  prevent  the  completion  of  the  subscription  within  the  limited 
period.  The  South  Carolina  Baptist  Convention  will  have  it  in  its 
power  to  lengthen  the  period  of  obtaining  subscriptions,  and,  in  view 
of  the  extraordinary  crisis,  will  not,  I  presume,  hesitate  to  do  so.  In 
any  event,  let  us  trust  in  God.  He  can  overrule  the  agitations  of 
the  country,  and  even  the  disruption  of  its  government,  for  the  pro- 
motion of  the  cause  in  which  you  are  laboring ;  and  I  hope  he  will. 
We  are  painfully  anxious  here  about  the  fate  of  our  beloved  coun- 
try. The  sentiment  of  Virginia  at  the  close  of  the  presidential  elec- 
tion was  decidedly  in  favor  of  maintaining,  if  possible,  the  rights  of 
the  South  in  the  Union ;  or  failing  to  secure  them,  to  leave  it  in  con- 
cert with  the  Southern  States.  But  the  hasty  acton  of  South  Caro- 
lina, and  probably  of  other  cotton  States,  will  prevent,  or  greatly 
hinder,  the  accomplishment  of  these  designs.  What  course  Virginia 
will  pursue  no  mortal  can  tell.  The  question  of  division  with  Vir- 
ginia and  Maryland  is  a  very  serious  one.  They  are  the  border 
States.  Soon  or  late,  division  must  result  in  wars  and  bloodshed.  .  . 
These  States  must  become  battlefields  of  the  contending  parties,  and 
their  sons  must  bear  the  brunt  of  the  fierce  conflict.  Secession  is,  in 
my  view,  comparatively  a  light  matter  to  the  cotton  States ;  they  are 
far  away  from  the  common  foe,  wide  States  lie  between  them  and 
danger,  except  on  the  ocean  side  where  they  must  be  attacked,  if  at- 
tacked at  all,  at  great  disadvantage.  My  own  opinion  is  that  the 
time  has  come  when  we  must  have  an  adjustment  of  our  difficulties 
with  the  North,  or  go  out  of  the  Union.  The  incessant  agitation  of 
the  slavery  question,  and  the  sectional  aggressive  policy  of  the  free 
States,  cannot  longer  be  endured.  I  confess,  however,  I  cling  with 
great  tenacity  to  the  Union.  With  all  our  perplexities,  we  have  been 
the  freest,  happiest,  and  most  prosperous  nation  that  the  sun  has 
ever  shmed  on.  If  there  could  be  a  stable  Northern  and  Southern 
Confederacy,  the  prosperity  of  the  country  would  be  but  little  im- 
peded. But  secession  is  only  the  beginning  of  the  end.  It  is  easier 
to  pull  down  than  to  build  up.  The  history  of  Mexico,  Central 
America,  and  the  South  American  States  should  warn  us  of  the  im- 
pending dangers.  Already  the  outlines  of  half  a  dozen  confederacies, 

180        LIFE  AND  LETTERS  OP  JOHN  A.  BfcOADUS 

and  a  limited  monarchy  besides,  have  been  projected.  When  the 
spirit  of  discord  is  once  fully  aroused,  who  can  lay  it?  Will  it  not 
be  sad,  if  between  Northern  fanaticism  and  Southern  rashness  the 
best  government  that  the  world  has  ever  seen,  the  work  of  our  rev- 
olutionary fathers,  the  admiration  of  the  friends  of  freedom  in  all 
nations,  and  the  last  refuge  of  republican  liberty,  should  perish?  My 
only  hope  is  in  God. 

J.  WM.  JONES  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISA  COURT  HOUSE,  VA.,  Dec.  17,  1860 :  The  Board  have 
decided  not  to  send  out  at  present  any  of  the  missionaries  under  ap- 
pointment. Toy  talks  of  going  out  anyway  and  taking  the  chances. 
I  suppose  you  will  be  in  a  foreign  land  in  a  few  days.  The  sece~s- 
sion  feeling  is  growing  in  Virginia  very  fast. 

MRS.  E.  L.  C.  HARRISON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BELMONT,  VA.,  Jan.  10,  1861 :  I  postponed  answering  your  kind 
and  welcome  letter  longer  than  I  wished,  in  consequence  of  an  effort 
Doctor  Harrison  made  to  procure  a  South  Carolina  note  to  send  the 
children  to  buy  some  little  Christmas  present.  He  was  quite  unsuc- 
cessful, but  will  avail  himself  of  the  first  opportunity  that  occurs  to 
send  them  something. 

Like  yourself  we  have  felt  a  great  anxiety  relative  to  the  affairs  of 
South  Carolina.  Indeed  no  one  can  do  otherwise  than  have  the  most 
fearful  apprehensions  for  the  country.  We  can  only  pray  that  the 
Divine  Disposer  of  events  may  see  fit  to  overrule  these  things  to  his 
glory  and  our  good.  The  future  seems  dark  and  gloomy  from  the 
present  aspect  of  affairs. 

Papa1  is  in  Charleston,  a  painful  looker-on  of  things  passing 
around  him.  He  finds  the  climate  very  pleasant,  but  thinks  of  going 
farther  south,  perhaps  to  New  Orleans. 

MRS  MARY  STUART  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B. : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  Jan.  10,  1861 :  Together  with  all  the 
rest  of  the  country,  the  distracted  state  of  political  affairs  occasions  us 
great  concern.  We  heard  last  night  with  feelings  of  deepest  regret 
that  an  engagement  had  already  taken  place  between  the  South 
Carolina  and  the  United  States  troops.  It  was  said  that  there  was 
an  interruption  of  the  telegraphic  wires,  so  that  there  was  nothing 
but  the  one  fact  stated.  What  could  the  United  States  government 
have  expected  but  resistance  m  attempting  at  this  time  to  reinforce 

1  Mr.  Tucker. 


Fort  Sumter?  Last  Friday  Mr.  Buchanan  ordered  a  day  of  solemn 
fasting  and  prayer  that  the  Union  should  be  preserved,  and  by  his 
order,  they  say,  men  were  sent  off  to  reinforce  Fort  Sumter  on  Sun- 
day, thus  precipitating  matters  and  forcing  on  the  war  It  seems 
strange  and  inconsistent  conduct.  We  had  a  very  interesting  day  on 


BALTIMORE,  Jan.  14,  1861 :  Though  I  know  the  suffering  in 
South  Carolina  must  be  very  great,  still  I  try  to  hope  that  the  ac- 
counts that  we  have  are  exaggerated,  and  that  it  is  not  so  terrible  as 
it  is  represented  to  be. 

Doctor  Fuller  gave  us  a  very  touching  sermon  yesterday  morning 
from  Heb.  12  :  5.  He  has  recently  been  most  sorely  tried.  As  he 
said  yesterday  in  his  sermon,  he  had  both  the  rough  wind  and  the 
east  wind  sent  upon  him,  for  he  had  been  cast  to  the  ground  by  the 
troubles  which  were  distracting  our  country,  and  he  has  recently  had 
a  terrible  shock  in  the  death  of  his  second  daughter.  She  died  very 
suddenly ;  was  passing  the  morning  with  her  mother,  and  had  just 
put  on  her  wrap  to  go  home  with  her  husband,  who  had  called  by 
appointment  to  take  her  home  to  dinner ;  just  as  she  rose  to  leave  the 
room  she  said,  "What  a  singular  pain  I  have  in  my  head,"  and  fell, 
and  showed  no  signs  of  consciousness  afterward.  The  death  was  a 
terrible  shock  to  all  who  knew  her. 


GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  22, 1861 :  You  will  excuse  me  for  being 
a  little  amused  at  the  conception  you  had  formed  of  our  condition 
here.  The  representations  of  the  newspapers  as  to  affairs  in  this 
State  seem  to  surpass  in  exaggeration  and  shameless  mendacity  any- 
thing I  ever  happened  to  observe  before.  I  may  be  believed,  perhaps, 
when  it  is  understood  that  I  was  most  earnestly  opposed  to  the  action 
of  the  State  in  seceding,  and  deeply  regret  it  now.  I  have  at  this 
hour  no  sympathy  with  secession,  though  of  course  it  would  be 
worse  than  idle  to  speak  against  it  now,  and  though,  equally  of 
course,  I  mean  to  do  my  duty  as  a  citizen  here. 

Well,  I  have  taken  considerable  pains  to  inform  myself,  and  I  am 
satisfied  there  is  no  greater  pecuniary  trouble  in  this  State  now  than 
all  over  the  country ;  and  as  to  the  necessaries  of  life,  abundance  and 
cheapness— prices  are  no  higher  here  than  they  were  at  the  same 
time  last  year. 

The  South  Carolina  people  are  hot-headed,  and  all  that,  but  with 


all  their  faults,  they  are  generous,  honorable,  brave.  They  believe 
they  are  doing  right,  morally  and  politically.  They  cannot  be  co- 
erced into  submission.  It  is  simply  impossible.  They  may  be 
ruined,  but  not  finally  subdued.  Whatever  be  the  truth  as  to  the 
right  of  secession,  these  people  must  not  be  forced ;  it  will  be  sheer 
folly,  utter  madness  to  attempt  it. 

For  me,  I  can  do  nothing.  I  try  to  perform  my  daily  duties,  and 
am  thankful  that  in  these  troublous  times,  I  am  so  busy ;  and  I  pray 
God  to  direct  and  overrule  to  the  advancement  of  his  cause,  and  the 
glory  of  his  name. 

The  Seminary  numbers  thirty-eight  students,  though  four  or  five 
of  them  have  left,  from  sickness  at  home,  etc.,  etc.  We  get  on 
smoothly,  and  1  greatly  enjoy  my  work.  Brother  Boyce  is  a  strong 
anti- secessionist  man,  Brother  Williams  strongly  secessionist,  Manly 
mildly  so.  But  neither  that,  nor  anything  else,  has  ever  caused  the 
slightest  jar  among  us. 

Mr.  Collins'  address  is  most  able  and  eloquent,  and  I  noticed  in  the 
"  National  Intelligencer"  a  statement  that  it  was  making  its  mark. 
As  to  objecting  to  its  being  received  here,  Doctor  Manly  takes  the 
New  York  u  World,"  which  is  becoming  rabidly  Republican.  There 
is  no  surveillance  over  the  mails.  I  might  receive  a  copy  of  the 
"Tribune"  and  it  would  occasion  no  remark,  though  of  course  it 
would  injure  a  man  to  be  a  regular  subscriber  to  it.  I  suppose  nine- 
teen out  of  twenty  of  the  people  of  the  State  are  strongly  secessionist. 
The  rest  are  quiet  of  course. 

My  health  is  pretty  good.  I  gained  some  flesh  in  the  autumn,  and 

have  not  had  to  miss  a  lecture  during  the  session.  Mrs.  B and 

the  children  are  in  their  usual  health. 

JOHN  HART  to  J.  A.  B.: 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  Feb.  2,  1861 :  It  has  been  a  very  long 
time  since  I  heard  anything  from  you,  or  I  think  you  from  me.  Per- 
haps being  a  citizen  of  a  foreign  State  you  feel  somewhat  less  interest 
in  the  people  and  affairs  of  Charlottesville  than  once.  I  hope  you 
will  not,  however,  be  a  foreigner  to  Virginia  long.  It  is  impossible 
to  say  with  certainty,  but  I  believe  and  hope  that  in  two  weeks  more 
Virginia  will  be  where  she  belongs,  by  the  side  of  the  Southern  States 
already  withdrawn.  Mr.  Holcombe  has  resigned  his  chair  at  the 
University  and  is  a  candidate  for  the  Convention.  I  hope  he  will  be 
elected,  though  some  of  his  friends  are  doubtful. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B.  : 
ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  Feb.  26, 1861 :  The  Northern  mind  would  calm 


much  quicker  if  nobody  would  talk  about  taking  Fort  Sumter,  and 
true  enough,  the  South  would  be  more  easily  managed  if  Fort  Sumter 
were  surrendered ;  but  the  South  certainly  must  be  regarded  the  ag- 
gressive party  in  regard  to  the  forts,  and  they  ought  to  come  down. 
We  all  say  the  South  shall  not  be  coerced— that  means  that  the  Fed- 
eral sword  shall  not  be  employed  to  force  submission  to  Federal  au- 
thority, but  if  by  a  happy  combination  of  maneuvers  we  could  exert 
a  moral  coercion  I  should  be  delighted,  and  just  that  is  what  I  want, 
and  what  I  hope  will  be  brought  about. 

Your  Commissioner  Preston  made  a  very  eloquent  speech  before 
our  Convention.  I  think  he  offered  a  gross  insult  to  the  old  com- 
monwealth in  the  promise  that  if  she  would  go  down  to  Montgomery 
she  could  get  anything  she  wanted,— the  presidency  or  vice-presidency 
or  anything  else,— she  might  have  entire  dominion. 

I  confess  I  have  not  suffered  the  fears  that  have  haunted  many 
about  Mr.  Lincoln's  administration.  I  have  felt  that  a  Henry  Clay 
Whig  could  not  well  be  far  wrong.  I  also  confess  that  he  is  probably 
quite  a  rough,  unpolished  customer,  not  much  acquainted  with  court 
styles,  and  will  constantly  expose  himself  to  ridicule,  some  of  it  just, 
much  unjust,  but  if  he  will  only  listen  to  Seward  he  will  put  him 
through.  Did  you  read  Seward's  December  speech?  There  was 
sense  in  that— statesmanship.  So  I  think. 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  April  6, 1861 :  Will  Thomas  came  last  Friday 
a  week  ago  and  preached  until  Thursday  night.  Will  is  much  of  a 
preacher.  His  sermons  are  equal  to  anybody's— powerful,  interest- 
ing, effective. 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  April  27, 1861 :  I  am  not  a  secessionist— the 
word  angers  rne  now—but  I  am  a  Virginian.  Virginia  in  the  Union, 
if  men  were  wise  enough,  unselfish  enough,  virtuous  enough  to  ap- 
preciate and  preserve  a  union,  is  my  favorite  idea— but  if  Virginia 
cannot  belong  to  the  Union  without  servile  degradation  from  Northern 
aggression  and  domination,  then  I  am  for  Virginia  and  nothing  else 
at  present.  You  see  no  doubt  our  Convention  has  turned  us  over 
provisionally  to  Jeff.  Davis'  provisional  government.  Well,  I 
am  content  with  it.  Virginia,  I  think,  will  overwhelmingly  ratify. 
.  .  .  Here  scarcely  any  will  be  hardy  enough  to  vote  against  it  Such 
a  vote  would  bring  down  on  any  man's  head  such  a  storm  of  indig- 
nation as  not  many  could  brook.  We  are  wild  with  the  idea  that 
Lincoln  has  insulted— threats  of  vengeance  for  our  offers  of  peace ; 
and  we  may  be  called  fully  united  in  a  determination  to  see  him 


through.  And  before  the  New  York  "  Tribune  "  has  the  pleasure  ot 
apportioning  the  beautiful  lands  of  Virginia  among  the  wretches  to 
whom  he  has  promised  them  there  will  be  such  a  carnage  as  the 
world  has  never  seen.  The  North  seems  quite  as  united  as  we,  and 
how  far  they  may  go  cannot  be  safely  foretold.  At  present  they 
will  not  be  likely  to  invade  our  State,  but  how  soon  they  may  get 
some  pretext  for  doing  so  I  know  not.  Major  General  Lee  is  a 
prudent  and  skillful  warrior.  I  hope  he  may  not  precipitate  hostili- 
ties. Virginia  is  not  ready  for  a  conflict,  but  she  is  making  herself 
so  as  rapidly  as  possible.  Our  city  is  a  military  encampment.  Brig. 
Gen.  P.  S.  G.  Cocke  has  his  headquarters  here.  We  have  a 
thousand  soldiers  in  the  city,  not  more,  if  so  many.  Washington 
contains  nearly  fifteen  thousand  with  many  thousand  more  near  at 
hand.  It  is  rumored  that  the  New  York  Seventh  Regiment  and 
sundry  others  have  refused  to  take  Lincoln's  oath.  They  say  they 
came  to  Washington  under  special  orders  from  General  Scott,  to  de- 
fend the  Capital.  That  they  will  do,  but  nothing  more.  We  shall 
see.  Intercourse  with  Washington,  heretofore  so  great,  has  almost 
ceased  with  our  people.  I  must  try  to  bear  the  humiliation  of  be- 
longing to  the  Southern  Confederacy  under  the  force  put  upon  me 
by  the  North.  We  cannot  stay  with  them,  therefore  we  turn  the 
other  way.  It  is  difficult  to  realize  the  condition  of  things.  Very 
difficult  to  believe  that  we  are  surely  going  into  war,  but  the  proba- 
bilities are  so  great  we  cannot  refuse  to  fear  it.  Who  has  brought 
it  on  us,  is  not  now  under  discussion.  It  is  altogether  unfit  that  we 
reopen  questions  among  ourselves  until  we  make  an  adjustment  with 
the  common  enemy ;  but  if  we  live,  if  we  survive  the  general  wreck, 
we  may  then  take  occasion  to  insist  upon  saddling  the  right  horse. 

1  Three  weeks  before  the  close  of  the  session,  Doctor  Boyce  and  the 
writer  went  to  Savannah  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  Southern  Baptist 
Conventon.  At  Charleston  we  took  a  sail-boat,  in  company  with 
Boyce's  early  friend,  William  G.  Whilden,  and  visited  Fort  Sumter, 
to  see  the  effect  of  the  bombardment  which  had  caused  its  surrender 
by  the  United  States  troops.  We  lunched  on  Morris  Island,  which 
afterward  became  famous  in  connection  with  the  blockade  and  siege. 
In  returning  we  encountered  a  very  high  wind  which  made  the  voyage 
of  the  little  sail-boat  increasingly  difficult,  and  at  last  dangerous. 
Whenever  we  tacked,  beating  up  against  the  wind,  the  waves  burst 
over  us,  wetting  the  whole  person  and  deluging  the  boat.  We  learned 
afterward  that  many  boats  were  upset  in  the  bay,  and  some  lives 

1  Broadus,  "  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  p.  178 /. 


were  lost  At  length  we  gave  up  the  attempt,  and  went  before  the 
wind  to  Point  Pleasant,  returning  to  the  city  at  night  when  the  storm 
was  over,  Boyce  was  a  good  swimmer,  having  had  much  boyish 
practice  in  those  very  waters,  and  was  characteristically  cheerful,  and 
even  hilarious  when  the  waves  would  break  over  us.  It  is  stll  re- 
membered in  what  a  comical  quandary  his  colleague  was,  who  could 
not  swim,  as  to  the  proper  generosity  in  his  assurances  that  the  Negro 
boatman  should  be  rewarded  if  the  boat  capsized  and  his  life  was 
saved.  Enough  must  be  promised  but  not  too  much,  or  the  boat 
might  be  helped  in  going  over,  The  Convention  at  Savannah  passed 
resolutions  showing  sympathy  with  the  cause  of  the  Confederacy, 
Doctor  Boyce  discouraged  anything  of  the  kind,  and  through  life  he 
always  strongly  opposed  the  interference  of  religious  bodies  as  such 
with  political  affairs. 


SAVANNAH,  GA,,  May  9, 1861 :  I  learn  with  deep  regret  that  your 
excellent  husband  is  no  more.  I  remember  how  highly  my  father 
valued  his  friendship,  how  kind  he  has  always  been  to  me,  how 
much  he  has  done  for  his  fellow-men  and  the  Master,  I  think  of  the 
integrity,  the  sound  judgment,  the  straightforward  kindness,  for 
which  all  men  praised  him,  and  of  the  simple  trust  in  Christ  our 
Saviour  of  which  he  gave  ample  proof,  and  I  feel  that  I,  and  all  who 
value  real  worth  and  Christian  usefulness,  share  with  his  family  a 
common  loss,  But  it  is  all  gain  for  him, 

Please  offer  to  all  the  family  the  assurance  of  my  sincere  sympathy, 
I  too  have  lost  a  loved  and  honored  father,  and  I  feel  for  friends  on 
whom  such  a  loss  now  falls. 

The  dreadful  war  was  in  full  blast,  and  the  Seminary 
was  caught  amidships. 


"  Come  as  the  winds  come,  when 

Forests  are  rended ; 
Come  as  the  waves  come,  when 
Navies  are  stranded." 


IN  June,  1861,  Doctor  Broadus  journeyed  to  Virginia, 
preaching  the  commencement  sermon  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  North  Carolina  on  the  way.  After  preaching  in 
Richmond  at  the  First  Church,  in  Charlottesville,  and  in 
Culpeper,  we  see  him  on  June  16,  preaching  before 
Kershaw's  regiment  and  the  Albemarle  regiment  at 
Manassas.  Battle  was  in  the  air.  He  returned  to  Green- 
ville the  middle  of  July. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CULPEPER,  VA,,  July  23, 1861 :  You  will  have  heard  it,  but  you 
must  have  my  word  for  it,  that  on  the  twenty-first  the  Confederate 
army  met  a  grand  attack  of  the  Federals  and  gained  what  might  be 
called  a  glorious  victory.  Glorious  in  the  honor  it  attaches  to  our 
nation,  and  in  its  present  and  prospective  results.  Of  the  fight  on  the 
nineteenth  you  have  read ;  that  was  full  of  good  results  for  us.  Sun- 
day a  grand  attack  of  Lincoln's  fully  appointed  force  was  made.  . .  All 
the  chosen  troops  of  the  Federals,  the  fifteen  thousand  regulars  and 
their  select  artillery,  were  in  the  attack.  The  fighting  was  unparalleled. 
The  regulars  fought  nobly,  fearlessly,  and  skillfully.  About  two 
o'clock,  it  is  said,  the  enemy  had  won  the  battle,  if  they  had  seen 
their  advantage.  Beauregard  saw  it,  and  headed  seven  thousand 
men  to  the  rescue.  Then  dreadful  was  the  conflict.  Johnston  came 
in  nobly.  By  three  o'clock  the  battle  was  decided,  the  enemy  was 

Sherman's  dreadful  battery  had  been  taken  and  retaken  three 
times,  the  third  time  it  was  held.  The  cavalry  pursued,  the  enemy 


Tost  sixty  pieces  of  artillery,  all  the  baggage  wagons  and  the  bag- 
gage, their  commissary  and  hospital  stores,  about  fifteen  thousand 
stand  of  arms,  innumerable  small  arms,  etc.  It  is  said  they  had 
made  a  depot  of  provisions  at  Springfield.  Our  Mr.  Daingerfield 
told  me  this  morning,  they  had  left  stores  there  worth  a  million  and 
a  half  of  dollars.  .  , 

How  plain  it  is  to  any  that  the  God  of  battles  disposed  for  us.  We 
wanted  arms,  he  got  them  for  us.  We  wanted  particularly  hospital 
stores,  medicines,  he  provided  a  medicine  wagon  full  of  all  we 
wanted,  especially  a  large  supply  of  the  very  best  surgical  instru- 
ments. Venly  God  is  with  us.  We  wanted  more  of  everything 
than  we  had,  and  here  we  get  something  of  everything.  The  best 
cannon  belonging  to  the  service,  Sherman's  batteries  of  rifled  can- 
non, with  all  his  elegant  horses  and  perfect  appointments  of  all  sorts. 
Very  few  of  our  friends  are  hurt  as  far  as  I  know.  I  have  not  been 
able  to  hear  from  Clarence,  but  that  his  regiment  was  not  much  in 
the  fight.  I  am  hoping  they  might  get  us  to  Alexandria  very  soon, 
God  grant  it. 

Lincoln  and  Scott  had  certainly  planned  a  great  affair,  and  had  no 
doubt  of  its  success.  They  were  provided  to  go  on  to  Richmond, 
had  everything  necessary  for  enjoying  the  trip.  Great  quantities  of 
champagne,  etc.  And  no  doubt  at  all,  they  confidently  expected  to 
pass  right  through,  driving  Beauregard  before  them  to  Richmond, 
there  to  be  met  by  Butler  from  Fort  Monroe,  and  to  consummate  the 
triumph  by  capturing  the  rebel  Congress.  It  is  thought  many  mem- 
bers of  Congress  (the  Federal  Congress)  followed  the  army  on  Sun- 
day to  witness  and  enjoy  the  victory. 

Great  praise  is  due  to  Culpeper  County  for  its  hospitality  to  the 
sick  and  wounded.  Scarcely  a  family  in  all  the  country  round  but 
has  from  two  to  a  dozen  convalescents,  feasting  them  and  making 
them  comfortable  by  every  contrivance  they  can  make.  Martha  has 
two  very  nice  young  men  that  have  been  with  her  now  more  than  a 

On  July  28th,  the  South  Carolina  Baptist  Convention 
was  in  session  at  Spartanburg  and  Doctor  Broadus 
preached  from  Ps.  44  :  6-8. 

There  was  naturally  much  exultation.  A  thanksgiving  service 
was  appointed  for  Sunday  morning.  The  preacher  urged  our  entire 
dependence  on  Providence,  and  the  great  importance  of  not  taking 
everything  for  granted  from  a  single  success.  The  tone  of  his  ser- 


mon  was  commended  by  some  leading  brethren,  but  others  evidently 
felt  that  he  was  not  quite  up  to  the  requirements  of  the  occasion 
Our  Southern  cause  was  right.  The  right  must  succeed.  Yes,  the 
right  had  succeeded,  and  this  must  continue.  Such  was  the  feeling  of 
many  good  men,  while  of  course  others,  such  as  Doctor  Boyce,  were 
more  thoughtful,  and  better  acquainted  with  the  illustrations  given 
by  history  to  the  true  and  scriptural  doctrine  of  providence.1 

H.  H.  HARRIS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LEWISBURG,  VA.,  Dec.  12, 1861 :  Perhaps  you  have  heard,  or  wift 
hear  by  the  papers,  of  the  disbandment  of  the  University  volunteers. 
.  .  .  What  shall  I  do  next?  that  is  the  question  now  in  my  mind  and 
in  the  decision  of  which  I  want  your  assistance.  I  have  had  little  or 
nothing  to  do  with  the  attempt  to  have  the  company  disbanded,  no 
anxiety  to  get  off  from  a  service  which  I  entered  from  convictions  of 
duty  and  in  which  I  have  been  blessed  with  so  much  better  health 
than  I've  had  for  a  year  or  two,  as  also  in  many  other  ways.  .  . 
During  the  last  five  months  in  the  wilds  of  Western  Virginia  and  in 
camp  where  men  exhibit  themselves  in  their  true  characters  unre- 
strained by  the  rules  of  society,  I  have  seen,  would  I  could  say  felt, 
more  than  I  had  ever  before  conceived  of  the  wickedness  of  man,  the 
destitution  which  prevails,  and  the  great  need  of  ministerial  labor. 
Thoughts  of  going  to  Greenville  therefore_return  upon  me,  although 
the  session  is  so  far  advanced.2 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CHARLESTON,  S.  C.,  Dec.  23, 1861 :  I  have  returned  again  to  my 
work3  with  additional  zest.  .  . 

Our  service  at  night  was  as  largely  attended  as  usual,  or  nearly  so. 
You,  who  have  been  a  pastor,  can  imagine  something  of  my  feelings 
for  these  poor  men.  But  not  all  of  them— now  especially  when  I 
know  that  we  are  in  the  course  of  ten  days  to  occupy  James  Island, 
where  the  battle  is  expected  and  where  we  will  probably  have  to 
bear  the  brunt  of  the  battle,  having  to  receive  the  enemy  until  the  re- 
inforcements come  up.  You  cannot  know  how  tenderly  my  heart 
yearns  over  them.  How  many,  after  all,  must  go  unprepared  into  the 
presence  of  God.  I  feel  like  preaching  all  the  time  and  would  do  it 
if  I  thought  I  could  accomplish  more  that  way.  But  alas  for  the 
unwillingness  of  men  to  hear  the  gospel.  I  would  only  thus  frus- 

1  Broadus,  "  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  p.  179. 

2  He  came  and  stayed  only  during  January  and  was  off  to  the  war  again. 
8  Chaplain  in  the  army.    See  page  187  m  "  Memoir  of  Boyce." 


trate  all  the  good  I  would  do.  Oh,  that  God  might  only  aid  me 
and  help  me  in  what  I  can  do !  It  would  be  enough  to  bring  multi- 
tudes to  him.  But  I  often  wonder  as  1  look  at  the  indifference  of 
men.  On  the  removal  from  Summerville  one  poor  fellow  here,  who  is 
only  half-witted,  was  asking  others  if  they  could  pray,  saying  we 
ought  all  to  be  converted  before  going  to  battle.  It  had  been  told  as 
a  joke,  but  how  fearfully  true  it  is.  And  how  singular  that  such  a 
remark  should  have  come  only  from  such  a  one  and  how  much 
more  so  that  it  should  be  spoken  of  as  a  funny  thing. 

My  heart  is  greatly  cheered  by  the  interest  exhibited  by  the  men. 
I  trust  that  God  will  bless  us.  Pray  for  us,  and  that  often.  Let  me 
know  how  matters  progress  at  the  Seminary. 

While  Doctor  Boyce  was  chaplain  in  the  army,  the 
other  professors  were  trying  to  keep  the  Seminary  going 
and  were  supporting  themselves  by  preaching  to  country 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CULPEPER,  VA.,  Jan.  30, 1862 :  England  will  not  help  us,  I  fear, 
until  we  have  suffered  yet  very  long.  Her  people  are  delighted  that 
Mason  and  Slidell  have  been  surrendered  and  they  thus  saved  a  war. 
That  proves  that  they  are  not  spoiling  for  a  fight.  The  Burnside 
fleet  will  do  much  damage  to  our  coast  and  perhaps  penetrate  the  in- 
terior. The  Kentucky  fights  are  not  certain  to  issue  favorably  to 
us.  They  will  probably  not  do  so  unless  Beauregard  should  so  fill 
the  troops  with  enthusiasm  and  daring  as  to  make  them  invincible. 
Some  hope  for  that. . .  A  sack  of  salt  was  retailed  last  week  in  Rich- 
mond for  one  hundred  and  ninety-two  dollars.  Fifteen  bags,  less 
than  two  bushels  each,  were  sold  here  on  Saturday  last  at  twenty- 
three  dollars  the  bag. 

GEO.  J.  SIMMONS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Feb.  i,  1862 :  .  .  I  am  gratified  to  learn  of  Bro. 
Dickinson's  success.  He  certainly  has  a  popular  cause,  one  that 
strongly  appeals  to  the  benevolence  of  all  Christians,  and  I  feel  a 
laudable  pride  that  the  Baptists  of  the  South  have  been  made  in  the 
Providence  of  God  the  pioneers  in  this  glorious  work.1 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 
CAMP  GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Feb.  5,  1862:  My  best  regards  to 

1  Colportage  work  in  the  army. 


Mrs.  Broadus  and  remembrances  to  Williams  and  Manly,  You  may 
judge  of  the  eagerness  of  our  men  for  books  from  the  fact  that  with 
little  more  than  half  the  regiment  on  hand,  I  distributed  last  Sunday 
three  hundred  Testaments  and  Bibles,  forty  hymn  books,  and  a  large 
box  full  of  reading  books.  Kind  regards  to  all  the  students. 

S.  S.  KIRBY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

JOHN'S  ISLAND,  Feb.  18,  1862 :  .  .  Ought  we  not,  especially  at 
this  time,  to  have  a  tract  for  profane  and  wicked  professors  and 
camp  backsliders,  who  plead  the  influence  of  the  camp  as  an  apology 
for  their  indulgence  in  wickedness  ?  I  think  we  ought,  and  1  write 
to  ask  you  if  you  will  not  write  such  a  one  and  have  it  published  by 
some  of  our  tract  societies? 

In  response  Doctor  Broadus  wrote  the  tract  and  called 
it,  "We  Pray  for  you  at  Home."  It  is  a  noble  appeal 
and  was  accompanied  by  a  hymn  by  Dr.  Basil  Manly,  Jr., 
"Prayer  for  the  Loved  Ones  from  Home."  An  extract 
is  given : 

We  pray  for  the  cause — that  just  and  glorious  cause  in  which  you 
so  nobly  struggle— that  it  may  please  God  to  make  you  triumphant, 
and  that  we  may  have  independence  and  peace.  .  . 

We  pray  for  your  precious  life— that  if  it  be  our  Father's  will,  you 
may  be  spared  to  come  back  to  your  home  and  to  us.  .  . 

We  pray  for  your  soul.  Ah  !  what  shall  it  comfort  us,  and  what 
shall  it  profit  you,  if  you  gain  the  noblest  earthly  triumphs,  the  most 
abiding  earthly  fame,  yea,  every  good  that  earth  can  give,  and  lose 
your  soul?  If  we  continually  beseech  the  Lord  that  your  mortal  life 
may  be  preserved  and  made  happy,  with  what  absorbing,  agonizing 
earnestness  must  we  pray  for  your  immortal  soul,  that  it  maybe  de- 
livered from  the  eternal  degradation  and  wretchedness  which  are  the 
wages  of  sin,  and  be  brought  to  know  the  sweetness  of  God's  serv- 
ice here,  the  rapture  of  his  presence  hereafter.  We  know  it  must  be 
hard  for  you,  amid  the  distractions  of  camp  life,  the  alternate  excite- 
ment and  ennui,  the  absence  of  home  influences  and  the  associations 
of  the  sanctuary,  to  fix  mind  and  heart  on  things  above.  We  do 
not  doubt  the  nobleness  of  your  impulses,  or  the  sincerity  of  your 
frequent  resolutions  to  do  nght,  nor  do  we  exaggerate  the  tempta- 
tions of  a  soldier's  life.  It  is  no  reproach  on  your  manliness,  and  no 
assumption  of  superiority  on  our  part,  to  utter  the  mournful  truth, 
that  spiritually  man  is  always  and  everywhere  weak ;  that  you 


wrestle  against  outnumbering  and  overpowering  spiritual  foes.  We 
pray  that  you  may  be  inclined  and  enabled  to  commit  your  soul  to 
the  divine  Saviour,  who  died  to  redeem  us,  and  ever  lives  to  inter- 
cede for  us,  and  who  with  yearning  love  is  ever  saying,  "  Corne 
unto  me."  We  pray  that  the  Holy  Spirit  may  thoroughly  change 
your  heart,  bringing  you  truly  to  hate  sin,  and  love  holiness,  and 
may  graciously  strengthen  you  to  withstand  temptation,  and  give 
you  more  and  more  the  mastery  over  yourself,  and  the  victory  over 
every  enemy  of  your  soul.  Whether  it  be  appointed  you  to  fall 
soon  in  battle,  or  years  hence  to  die  at  home,  may  God  in  mercy 
forbid  that  you  should  live  in  impenitence  and  die  in  your  sins. 
Whether  we  are  to  sit  with  you  again  around  our  own  fireside,  and 
"  take  sweet  counsel  together  as  we  walk  to  the  house  of  God  in 
company,"  or  are  to  meet  you  no  more  on  earth,  oh,  may  God  in 
his  mercy  save  us  from  an  eternal  separation ! 

ANDREW  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Mar.  10,  1862 :  .  .  Everything  here  is  astir. 
The  brilliant  naval  victory  off  "  Newport  News  "  has  brightened 
many  a  countenance.  The  government  seem  to  have  gone  to  work 
afresh,  and  the  people  are  rising  above  the  depression  caused  by  our 
recent  reverses.  God  grant  us  all  deep  humility,  and  the  spirit  of 
earnest  prayer. 

J.  A.  B.  to  JAMES  P.  BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Mar.  14, 1862:  .  .  We  are  in  much  anxiety 
about  the  application  to  the  governor  and  council,  of  which  Manly 
wrote  you.  If  no  letter  comes  to-night,  Manly  is  going  down  to 
Columbia  to-morrow  in  order  to  ascertain.  If  the  students  are  not 
exempted  from  the  draft,  all  that  are  now  here,  eight,  will  leave 
Tuesday  morning. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.: 

COLUMBIA,  S.  C.,  Mar.  16,  1862 :  I  could  not  find  the  governor 
yesterday  at  his  office,  but  I  succeeded  in  seeing  two  of  the  council, 
who  are  in  fact  our  dictators.  Colonel  Hayne  and  General  Harllee, 
whom  I  saw,  expressed  decidedly  the  opinion  that  our  students  need 
give  themselves  no  uneasiness. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

ADAM'S  RUN,  CAMP  GREENVILLE,  Mar.  16, 1862 :  I  have  been 
thinking  more  deliberately  than  I  could  at  Greenville  about  the  mat- 
ter you  spoke  of  and  concerning  which  I  found  your  letter  on  my 


return  to  camp.  I  think  now  it  would  be  best  to  have  no  commence- 
ment. I  think  also  that  inasmuch  as  we  will  hereafter  change  the 
end  of  the  session  to  the  first  of  May  you  might  close  at  that  time,  and 
announce  the  fact  not  as  a  sudden  ending  of  the  term  but  as  the  be- 
ginning of  a  new  order  of  things.  State  distinctly  the  fact  that  we 
will  open  the  first  of  September.  .  . 

We  have  no  large  diplomas,  had  only  one,  the  plate  is  in  Phila- 
delphia. Bro.  Hyde  will  therefore  have  to  wait  until  the  war  is 
over.  He  might  receive  a  written  one.  I  would  have  it  and  the 
small  ones  given  at  the  Seminary  building  without  any  other  cere- 
mony. The  Board  will  not  meet  until  summer  at  the  State  Conven- 
tion. Let  me  know,  as  I  would  like  to  be  at  the  final  examinations 
so  far  as  practicable.  .  . 

I  see  that  the  Mission  Board  are  going  to  appoint  missionaries  to 
the  soldiers.  It  will  be  a  valuable  work.  It  will  be  a  much  pleas- 
anter  one  in  many  respects  than  that  of  chaplain.  I  trust  that  many 
of  our  best  ministers  will  devote  themselves  to  this  work.  .  . 

I  feel  grateful  to  all  of  you  for  your  kindness  to  me  during  my 
absence  as  in  former  times,  and  especially  so  to  Bro.  Williams  for 
his  labors  with  my  class.  I  shall  have  the  comfort  of  knowing  that 
at  least  one  class  ought  to  understand  theology  if  they  do  not. 
What  would  I  not  give  for  his  wonderful  power  to  put  things  clearly 
before  those  he  addresses.  Best  regards  to  them,  also  to  your  wife 
and  kind  remembrances  to  the  children. 

JAMES  THOMAS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Mar.  21, 1862  :  I  do  not  know  but  in  the  muta- 
tions of  these  troubles  I  may  seek  refuge  with  my  family  at  Green- 
ville. My  son  William  and  family  have  fled  from  Warrenton,  left 
house  and  home,  and  are  expected  at  my  house  to-night.  Our  army 
has  fallen  back  from  the  Potomac  to  Gordonsville,  Culpeper  Court 
House,  and  Fredericksburg.  .  . 

Now  you  may  think  I  am  alarmed  ;  not  so,  no  more  than  I  was 
when  the  troubles  first  commenced.  I  always  felt  that  the  earth  never 
saw  such  scenes  as  would  be  when  abolition  got  into  power.  They 
are  getting  nearer  to  us  but  I  trust  they  will  never  get  to  Richmond, 
and  I  don't  believe  it ;  yet  I  fear  it  as  a  possibility.  I  wish  to  be 
prepared,  if  I  can,  to  take  care  of  my  family.  Have  you  many  Ne- 
groes in  your  region  ?  Do  you  ail  feel  safe? 

MRS.  MARY  STUART  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B. : 
BELMONT,  VA.,  April  6,  1862 :  You  will  no  doubt  be  surprised  to 


hear  from  me  so  soon  again,  and  would  that  I  had  other  than  sad 
tidings  to  communicate !  My  dear  father1  is  very  ill,  lying,  as  it  were, 
at  the  gates  of  death.  When  I  first  realized  the  terrible  apprehension, 
day  before  yesterday,  that  he  might  never  recover,  my  first  impulse 
was  to  write  to  you  and  beg  you  to  pray  for  his  restoration  to  health. 
No  one,  1  believe,  feels  more  deeply  interested  in  him,  or  knows  better 
than  yourself  what  he  is  to  his  family,  and  would  more  willingly 
render  this  office  of  friendship — earnest,  Christian  prayer. 

We  have  the  promise  of  Scripture  that  the  prayer  of  faith  shall 
heal  the  sick,  and  I  believe  it  firmly. 

BELMONT,  VA.,  April  8,  1862 :  With  a  sad  heart  I  have  to  make 
the  announcement  to  you  that  my  beloved  father  is  no  moie.  Words 
cannot  express,  as  you  well  know,  our  sense  of  this  appalling  calam- 
ity. I  beg  you  now,  to  pray  not  for  him  but  for  us ;  if  ever  there 
was  a  stricken,  bereaved  family  we  are  one  now.  I  hope  I  may  be 
able  to  compose  my  faculties  sufficiently  to  give  you  some  particu- 
lars, for  I  am  certain  all  concerning  him  would  interest  you.  I  sup- 
pose you  received  a  letter  I  wrote  you  last  Sunday  morning.  Alas  ! 
while  I  was  beseeching  prayers  to  be  made  for  his  restoration  the 
fiat  had  already  gone  forth,  and  I  believe  now  he  was  dying  at  that 
time.  He  expired  about  half-past  ten  o'clock  Monday  morning, 
quietly,  almost  without  a  struggle,  but  without  the  power  of  giving 
utterance  to  a  single  parting  admonition,  or  even  bidding  one  of  us 
farewell.  .  .  We  must  believe  this  was  a  wise  arrangement  of  Provi- 
dence to  spare  him  some  keen  pangs.  .  . 

There  was  no  need  of  dying  testimony  from  him,  for  his  life  had 
been  a  "  living  epistle,"  and  as  far  as  he  is  concerned  we  ought, 
and  I  trust  we  do,  rejoice  that  his  toil-worn  body  and  wearied  spirit 
are  at  rest.  True  to  his  character  to  the  last,  no  sick  person  ever 
gave  so  little  trouble,  and  he  even  did  not  like  to  trouble  any  one  to 
lift  him  into  bed  the  night  before  he  died.  Even  while  I  write  all 
this  I  cannot  believe  the  sad  reality,  that  we  shall  never  hear  his 
loving  voice  again,  nor  have  his  counsel  and  direction  more.  The 
thought  is  too  full  of  pain  to  take  in.  Oh,  it  will  lend  fresh  charms 
to  our  prospects  of  heaven, — the  hope  of  meeting  him  !  Pray  for  us 
all,  but  especially  the  dear  boys,  who  will  be  almost  heartbroken,  I 

H.  H.  HARRIS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

No.  4  MONROE  HILL,  UNIVERSITY  OF  VA.,  April  9, 1862 :  If 

1  Dr  Gessner  Harrison. 


suddenly  set  down  in  CharlottesviIIe  some  fine  day,  I  doubt  whether 
you  would  know  where  you  were.  The  surrounding  mountains  in- 
deed preserve  their  relative  places,  so  do  the  old  streets  and  most  of 
the  houses,  but  the  people— I  hardly  know  one  in  fifty  whom  I  meet. 
Instead  of  the  young  men  who  are  gone  we  have  a  weakly  looking 
set  of  convalescents  from  the  hospitals ;  at  least  half  South  Caro- 
linians, each  eating  his  "pint  of  goobers."  And  instead  of  the 
ladies,  who  stay  at  home  much  more  than  they  used  to,  we  have 
refugees  from  Loudoun,  Fauquier,  Culpeper,  Greenbrier,  etc.,  with 
whom  both  hotels  and  many  private  houses  are  filled.  And  finally, 
instead  of  the  students  are  Colonel  Barksdale's  47th  Virginia  Militia, 
seventy  strong  on  West  Range,  Colonel  McKinnie's  88th  Regi- 
ment, one  hundred  strong  on  East  Range,  and  our  company  on 
Monroe  Hill  and  Dawson's  Row,  I  believe  they  count  about  twenty 
students  attending  lectures. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CAMP  LEESBURG,  April  9,  1862  :  I  had  seen  the  announcement 
in  the  papers  of  the  death  of  Doctor  Harrison.  No  one  but  one  of 
literary  pursuits,  and  especially  such  as  value  the  classics,  can  realize 
the  loss  to  the  country  of  such  a  man.  By  all  such  he  will  be  uni- 
versally deplored.  I  have  noticed  that  his  family  have  been  griev- 
ously afflicted  during  the  past  year.  Do  you  know,  I  saw  him  only 
once  and  that  for  a  moment?  But  it  was  long  enough  to  show  me 
that  his  private  virtues  equaled  his  public  advantages  to  the  world. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LYNCHBURG,  April  12,  1862  :  God  help  us  to  be  grateful  that  our 
lives  are  spared  through  so  much  dreadful  war.  I  left  Culpeper  on 
the  1 8th  of  March,  came  to  Lynchburg  and  got  a  house,  and  on  the 
23d  got  here  through  great  tribulation  with  my  family  and  effects. 
We  are  keeping  house,  and  hope  to  have  you  with  us  before  many 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  G.  W.  RANDOLPH  : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Aug.  20,  1862  :  Hon.  G.  W  Randolph,  Secre- 
tary of  War.  Dear  Sir  :  Allow  me  to  ask  you  if  the  clause  in  the 
exemption  bill  of  the  Conscription  Act  by  which  ministers  of  the 
gospel  are  exempted  does  not  also  by  a  fair  construction  exempt 
students  of  theology  preparing  for  the  Christian  ministry.  .  . 

The  inquiry  I  address  to  you  is  of  importance  to  several  semi- 
naries of  different  denominations  and  not  simply  to  the  one  on  be- 
half of  which  I  address  you.  Should  these  students  not  be  exempted, 


their  doors  must  be  closed  and  the  supply  of  educated  ministers  to 
their  respective  denominations  be  entirely  cut  off.  This  supply  is 
now  limited.  To  destroy  it  will  be  disastrous  to  the  moral  and  re- 
ligious condition  of  the  country.  To  continue  it  will  scarcely 
weaken  at  all  the  army  of  the  Confederate  States.  The  statistics 
of  the  past  show  that  not  more  than  one  hundred  students  will 
probably  be  found  each  year  in  all  the  seminaries  combined.  .  . 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  August  25, 1862 :  Best  regards  to  Mrs.  B .  I 

would  send  a  pretty  message,  but  I  have  always  been  afraid  to  say 
anything  pretty  since  she  gave  my  compliments  the  cold  shoulder. 
Tell  her  anyhow  that,  whatever  I  think  of  you,  I  still  recognize 
her  as  the  better  half.  Wouldn't  she  like  to  know  what  I  told 
Doctor  Jeter  the  other  day  when  he  asked  me  what  sort  of  wife 
she  makes  Brother  Broadus?  Best  love  to  my  colleagues,  as  we 
congressmen  say,  or  I  should  say,  my  learned  and  distinguished 
colleague,  for  whose  intellect  and  acquirements  I  have  the  profound 
est  respect. 

When  the  Federal  army  got  possession  of  Fredericks- 
burg,  in  April,  1862,  Dr.  Wm.  F.  Broaddus  was  one 
among  the  sixty  prominent  citizens  arrested  in  retaliation 
and  as  hostages  for  some  Northern  men  imprisoned  in 
Richmond.  They  were  kept  in  the  Old  Capitol  Prison 
from  April  to  October  and  were  then  released  through 
the  kind  offices  of  Mr.  Marye  of  Fredericksburg. 

WM.  F.  BROADDUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

FREDERICKSBURG,  VA.,  Oct.  8,  1862 :  Yours  of  the  2nd  inst  is 
at  hand,  containing  congratulations  quite  enough,  and  of  questions 
more  than  enough,  I  accept  the  congratulations  in  full,  and  will 
answer  the  questions  in  part. 

1.  "  Did  your  health  suffer?"    Not  at  all.    I  had  ice  water  and 
newspapers  in  abundance,  and  my  lady  friends  in  Baltimore  and 
Washington  sent  constant  supplies  of  the  very  best  eatables.    We 
cooked  our  own  meals  in  our  own  rooms,  and  lived  like  old  Vir- 
ginians.   The  whole  nineteen  fared  welL    We  never  went  to  the 
prison  table.  .  . 

2.  "  What  of  Northern  sentiment?  "    Much  divided  I  think.  The 
"  National  Intelligencer,"  and  many  other  leading  sheets,  denounce 


the  proclamation  and  prophecy  evil.  Editors  from  Pennsylvania, 
Iowa,  Illinois,  and  Ohio  were  in  the  prison.  They  say  the  Northerners 
will  shortly  shed  each  other's  blood.  I  attach  some  consequence  to 
their  opinions. 

3.  "  Did  you  see  Samson?"  Yes;  twice  he  called  to  see  me. 
He  is  tiue  to  the  South.  Fuller  also  came  to  see  me.  He  take  the 
oath !  Phew J  He  is  all  right ;  so  are  Adams,  Pntchard,  Wilson. 
On  parole  one  day  in  Washington,  I  found  most  of  my  old  friends 
"Secesh,"  some  bold  as  lions,  others  prudently  silent,  lest  Mrs. 
Grundy  should  know  their  sentiments.  Washington  is  about 
equally  divided  on  the  questions  involved  in  the  war.  .  . 

6.  "  Will  there  ever  be  peace? "  I  think  so,  soon.  Neither  sec- 
tion can  stand  it  much  longer,  and  Europe  will  intervene,  or  inter- 
pose, or  inter-something  else,  before  very  long.  Above  all,  the  God 
of  peace  will  give  commandment  that  the  war  shall  cease,  and  then, 
who  can  prevent  peace  ? 

I  do  not  know  what  you  mean  by  *'  notwithstanding  Sharpsburg." 
You  surely  have  not  heard  the  truth  touching  this  most  brilliant  of 
all  achievements. 

The  Seminary  was  closed  this  fall,  and  did  not  open 
again  till  after  the  war,  as  Doctor  Boyce  failed  to  obtain 
exemption  for  ministerial  students.  Since  the  preceding 
spring  Doctor  Broadus  had  been  preaching  every  Sunday 
at  various  points  in  South  Carolina.  In  November  he 
became  pastor  at  Cedar  Grove  and  at  Williamston,  and 
continued  to  fill  in  the  other  Sundays  at  various  points. 
While  the  weary  war  was  dragging  on,  Doctor  Broadus 
began  his  "  Commentary  on  Matthew/'  Everything 
grew  darker  and  darker.  One  cheering  circumstance 
was  the  coming  of  his  warm  friend,  Rev.  W.  D.  Thomas, 
of  Virginia,  in  February,  1863,  as  pastor  of  the  church  at 

J.  WM.  JONES  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ING, Mar.  30,  1863  :  By  the  way— what  think  you  of  the  proposition 
I  made  in  my  last  that  you  spend  your  summer  as  army  missionary? 
Or,  if  you  would  like  it,  I  could  get  you  a  commission  as  chaplain 
to  labor  in  A.  P.  Hill's  Division,  where  you  would  be  very  comforta- 


bly  quartered  with  brethren  Ned  Hill  and  Jim  Field,  or  in  a  good 
artillery  regiment.  I  am  very  sure  that  you  would  find  it  a  wide 
field  of  usefulness,  and  it  may  be  that  your  health  would  be  materi- 
ally improved  by  it.  Think  about  it  and  if  you  should  decide  to 
take  the  chaplaincy  write  me  to  that  effect  at  once.  ,  . 

We  shall  probably  follow  Mr. "  Fighting  Joe  "  on  another  "  change 
of  base  "  so  soon  as  the  woods  are  in  condition  to  allow  us  to  move. 
I  saw  Toy  ten  days  ago.  He  is  chaplain  in  the  Fifty-third  Georgia 
Regiment,  Seemes'  Brigade,  McLaw's  Division,  and  is  quartered 
near  here.  Is  looking  very  well  and  seems  to  be  enjoying  himself. 
His  Syriac  books  are  in  Norfolk  and  he  has,  therefore,  been  com- 
pelled to  fall  back  on  German  for  amusement. 

Wednesday  night,  April  15,  1863 : . .  I  was  very  glad  to  hear  that 
you  were  at  work  on  the  notes,1  and  have  no  sort  of  doubt  that  they 
will  prove  widely  useful.  I  shall  most  certainly  secure  one  of  the 
earliest  copies  printed  if  I  live  to  see  them  published.  But  I  fear  that 
your  labors  in  this  direction  will  prevent  your  visit  to  the  army  of 
Northern  Virginia,  on  which  I've  so  much  set  my  heart.  .  .  Of 
course  we  can't  tell,  but  it  seems  to  be  the  general  impression  that 
General  Lee  intends  crossing  the  upper  Rappahannock  and  making 
a  flank  move  on  Mr.  Hooker.  In  that  case  I  take  it  for  granted  that 
our  corps  (Jackson's)  will  as  usual  make  the  move  some  dark  night 
while  Longstreet  amuses  the  enemy  in  front  of  Fredericksburg.  I 
look  to  the  opening  of  the  campaign  with  perfect  confidence — our 
army  is  in  splendid  condition  and  fine  spirits.  I  was  gratified  to 
learn  the  other  day  from  a  perfectly  reliable  source  that  our  army 
here  is  now  stronger  than  it  was  at  the  Fredericksburg  fight,  although 
three  divisions  have  been  sent  off ;  the  increase  being  from  the  return 
of  those  who  were  wounded  or  sick.  Our  successful  resistance  at 
Charleston  and  Vicksburg  has  had  a  fine  effect  on  the  spirits  of  our 
army  generally. 

Stonewall  Jackson  urged  Doctor  Broadus,  saying  to 
Doctor  Jones :  "  Write  to  him  by  all  means  and  beg 
him  to  come.  Tell  him  that  he  never  had  a  better  op- 
portunity of  preaching  the  gospel  than  he  would  have 
right  now  in  these  camps." 

He  promptly  replied  that  he  would  be  glad  to  come ;  that  he  had 

been  seriously  and  prayerfully  considering  the  question ;  and  that 

i  On  Matthew,  ~ 


he  had  only  been  prevented  from  entering  the  army  before  by  a 
doubt  as  to  whether  his  feeble  health  could  stand  the  exposure  of 
camp  life ;  but  that  he  would  at  least  try  it  as  soon  as  he  could  make 
his  arrangements.  When  I  met  General  Jackson  a  few  days  after  the 
reception  of  Doctor  Broadus's  letter,  and  told  him  that  he  would 
come,  the  great  soldier  said  in  his  characteristic  phrase:  "  That  is 
good  ;  very  good.  I  am  so  glad  of  that.  And  when  Doctor  Broadus 
comes  you  must  bring  him  to  see  me,  I  want  him  to  preach  at  my 
headquarters,  and  I  wish  to  help  him  in  his  work  all  I  can."  Alas ! 
the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  came  on  a  few  days  afterward,  and 
before  the  great  preacher  could  see  the  great  soldier,  Stonewall 
Jackson  had  "  crossed  over  the  nver  to  rest  under  the  shade  of  the 

July  and  August  and  half  of  September  were  spent  in 
daily  preaching  to  Lee's  Army,  now  in  the  churches  at 
Winchester,  now  at  the  convalescent  camp,  now  to 
Corse's  Brigade,  the  hospital  at  Charlottesvjlle,  Mc- 
Gowan's  Brigade,  Mahone's  Brigade,  Smith's  Brigade, 
Gordon's  Brigade,  Scales'  Brigade,  Jones*  Battalion  of 
Artillery,  Brown's  Artillery,  and  Nelson's  Artillery.  J. 
A.  B.  afterwards  wrote  :  "  For  three  months  of  that  sum- 
mer I  preached  as  a  missionary  in  General  Lee's  army. 
It  was  the  most  interesting  and  thoroughly  delightful 
preaching  I  was  ever  engaged  in."  Besides  the  preach- 
ing Doctor  Broadus  was  war  correspondent  of  the  "  Char- 
leston News  and  Courier." 

It  was  furious  and  exciting  work,  and  Doctor  Broadus 
threw  his  whole  soul  into  it  till  finally  his  throat  gave  way 
completely  from  so  much  out-door  speaking.  Dr.  J.  Wm. 
Jones  has  a  most  interesting  account  of  this  phase  of 
Doctor  Broadus's  career  in  "  Christ  in  the  Camp." 3 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  CHARLOTTE  E.  BROADUS : 

COLUMBIA,  S.  C.,  Tuesday,  June  22, 1863 :  Hot,  hot,  weary  day ; 
but  got  on  safely,  reading  the  papers,  and  talking  with  various  ac- 
quaintances, and  sleeping,  and  eating.  Very  good  food  I  have,  and 

1  Dr.  J  W.  Jones,  in  "Seminary  Magazine,"  April,  1895. 
*  "  Christ  in  the  Camp,"  pp.  312-315,  and  ja6. 


much.  Old  Negro  woman,  handing  water,  looked  at  niy  open  bas- 
ket, and  said,  "  Massa,  whar  is  you  gwme  to? "  "  Oh,  I  am  go- 
ing to  Virginia."  "Ah,  well,"  she  said  with  an  air  of  relief  and 
satisfaction,  as  if  that  accounted  for  my  having  so  much.  At  junc- 
tion with  Spartanburg  train,  met  Mr.  and  Mrs.  De  Fontaine  ("  Per- 
sonne  "),  was  introduced,  and  had  some  pleasant  conversation.  He 
is  busy  with  his  book  about  the  war,  and  hopes  to  have  it  out  in  two* 
orthree  months.  He  is  pro-Beauregard  and  anti-Davis,  very  strongly, 
and  so  we  didn't  quite  agree.  Showed  me  a  confidential  letter  from 
Beauregard,  written  in  very  good  spirit,  but  intimating  that  he  had 
been  badly  treated  by  the  president ;  also  a  pamphlet  printed  by 
Beauregard  (but  not  published),  defending  himself,  and  hard  on  the 
president.  His  wife  is  a  joyous,  gay  girl,  bright  and  witty,  and  suits 
him  very  well,  I  guess.  He  is  a  small  man,  with  thin  and  very  pale 
face,  and  brown  hair  and  beard  :  very  gentlemanly  and  agreeable. 

A  deserter  on  the  train  jumped  off  while  in  rapid  motion,  with 
handcuffs  on,  and  was  not  caught.  Several  were  brought  down 

LYNCHBURG,  VA.,  June  27,  1863  :  Here  I  am,  sitting  on  brother's 
porch  steps,  at  5.30  A.  M.  Have  been  here  half  an  hour,  and  read 
the  morning  paper  through.  The  family  are  not  yet  up,  and  I  have 
forbidden  the  servant  to  wake  them.  It  is  a  pleasant  morning,  and 
my  heart  glows  at  the  thought  that  I  am  in  Virginia  again.  For  an 
hour  before  we  reached  here  it  was  light,  and  we  were  coming  up  the 
James — crossing  it  several  times,  skirting  its  rich  bottoms,  catching 
glimpses  of  its  pretty  hills  and  green  vales,  here  a  huge  rock,  rising 
abrupt  from  the  river,  there  a  clump  of  trees  high  on  a  hill,  and  again 
a  pretty  house  lying  on  the  slope,  or  nestling  in  a  vale,  and  every- 
where the  glorious  green  grass ;  ah !  if  you  were  here  I  should  be 
very  happy. 

Saturday,  July  4, 1863 :  Jones  got  back  late  last  night,  and  came 
this  morning  before  I  was  dressed,  and  so  after  breakfast  I  came  out 
with  him  to  camp,  and  am  now  writing  in  his  tent.  His  regiment, 
Thirteenth  Virginia,  is  all  the  infantry  that  hasn't  crossed  the  Poto- 
mac, and  they  will  probably  go  next  week.  The  men  had  famous 
plundering  after  the  late  capture.  In  the  "  Sentinel "  of  July  i  (if 
Thomas  has  preserved  it)  you  will  find  a  letter  he  wrote,  giving  the 
best  account  I  have  seen  of  the  capture  of  Winchester.  .  . 

What  can  I  do  at  preaching?    I  fear,  not  much.    There  are  about 


twenty  men  stationed  here,  but  they  are  busy  with  picket  and  provost 
duty.  There  are  many  passing  through,  but  they  stop  only  a  few 
hours  or  a  day.  Five  miles  off,  at  Jordan's  Springs,  is  a  hospital  of 
a  thousand  sick  and  wounded.  I  am  to  preach  to-morrow  morning 
at  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  in  the  afternoon  or  evening  at  some 
other,  and  then  to  try  an  afternoon  service  next  week  and  see  if  we 
can  do  anything.  .  . 

WINCHESTER,  VA.  (Camp  isth  Va.  Inf.),  Monday,  July  6, 
1863 :  I  did  not  go  back  to  town  on  Saturday.  They  have  pure 
coffee,  captured  of  course,  and  it  begins  to  disagree  with  me.  Other- 
wise, I  get  on  well  enough.  My  sleeping  is  on  a  little  wooden  frame, 
having  under  me  an  oilcloth  and  a  blanket  to  soften  the  plank,  and 
another  blanket  for  cover,  with  my  overcoat  for  a  pillow.  .  .  Toler- 
able congregation  at  O.  S.  Presbyterian  Church  yesterday  morning. 
Preached  on  the  prayer  for  the  Ephesians  (3  :  14,  etc.).  At  night, 
great  crowd  at  Lutheran  church— text,  Prov.  3  :  17,  "  Her  ways 
are  ways  of  pleasantness,"  etc.  You  perceive  that  I  am  taking  my 
old  sermons.  It  is  very  difficult  here  to  think  up  an  unfamiliar  dis- 
course. I  haven't  got  used  to  the  tent,  and  am  constantly  making 
acquaintances.  A  good  many  soldiers  in  attendance  both  times  yes- 
terday. The  sermons  were  not  particularly  good  or  particularly  bad. 
God  grant  that  they  may  do  some  good.  Oh,  it  is  so  hard  to  preach 
as  one  ought  to  do !  I  long  for  the  opportunity,  yet  do  not  rise  to 
meet  it  with  whole-souled  earnestness  and  living  faith,  and  after- 
wards I  feel  sad  and  ashamed.  There  is  an  appointment  for  me  to 
preach  this  and  several  successive  afternoons  (five  o'clock)  at  the 
Lutheran  church.  But  I  fear  nothing  can  be  done,  as  the  whole 
community,  citizens  and  soldiers,  is  astir  about  the  late  battle  near 
Gettysburg,  of  which  we  have  very  conflicting  and  very  exciting  ac- 
counts, and  there  will  probably  be  wounded  men  here  to-day  or  to- 
morrow, requiring  attention.  But  we'll  see  how  things  look  this  af- 
ternoon. I  do  not  go  into  the  reports  current  about  the  battle,  because 
you  will  see  more  reliable  accounts  before  you  receive  this.  .  .  I 
can't  say  that  camp-life  attracts  me.  I  suppose  that  with  the  army, 
where  a  whole  division  would  often  be  within  walking  distance,  one 
might  find  much  more  to  interest  him.  Out  here  we  have  but  a 
fraction  of  a  regiment. 

WINCHESTER,  VA.,  July  7,  1863  :  I  went  to  the  stage  office  to 
secure  a  seat  to  Staunton,  and  learned  that  the  chief  surgeon  here 
has  impressed  the  stages  to  send  off  the  slightly  wounded,  and  citi- 


zens  must  wait.  So  I  mean  to  wait,  and  meantime  to  do  all  I  can  in 
the  hospitals.  As  things  get  quiet  in  the  wards,  I  can  go  in  and  sing 
and  pray  and  sometimes  talk  ;  and  in  some  way  or  other  I  may  get 
a  chance  to  preach  some  during  the  week,  with  plenty  of  chances 
for  Sunday.  .  .  I  am  very  well  satisfied,  because  it  is  so  clear  that  I 
must  remain.  I  shall,  of  course,  be  in  not  the  slightest  danger ;  for 
even  if  General  Lee  has  to  leave  Maryland  again,  as  some  folks 
now  fear,  I  can  keep  on  the  Virginia  side  of  him.  I  have  only  a 
carpet  bag,  am  very  well,  and  can  walk  if  I  can't  ride.  So  be  easy 
about  me,  as  I  am.  Took  tea  last  evening  with  Doctor  Boyd,  the 
distinguished  New  School  Presbyterian  minister — very  kind  family. 
The  late  battles  were  at  first  a  success,  and  afterwards  a  reverse, 
nothing  to  boast  of  on  either  side,  and  dreadful  losses  on  both.  That 
is  all  we  can  make  out  to-day. 

WINCHESTER,  VA.,  July  8, 1863 :  After  dispatching  my  letter 

yesterday  at  twelve  o'clock,  I  went  to  Mrs.  MagilPs.  Mrs.  M lives 

on  the  main  street,  which  is  the  turnpike,  right  at  the  north  end  of 
the  town,  and  all  the  wounded  soldiers  who  were  coming  from  Get- 
tysburg via  Martinsburg,  passed  right  by  her  door.  I  found  the 
family  busy  in  preparing  and  handing  out  slices  of  buttered  bread  to 
the  poor  fellows,  and  took  hold  to  help.  Money  had  been  placed  in  Mrs. 

M 's  hands  for  this  purpose,  by  persons  aware  that  she  always  did 

this,  and  so  we  went  into  it  largely.  When  the  bread  got  low,  she 
sent  to  the  baker's  for  a  great  basket  full  of  loaves.  Pound  after 
pound  of  butter  was  brought  out  with  bowls  of  scrambled  eggs  to  be 
spread  on  the  bread  instead  of  butter — every  now  and  then  there 
came  out  a  pot  of  coffee,  and  a  neighbor  several  times  sent  in  sup- 
plies, including  some  buttermilk.  The  result  of  it  was  that  we 
worked  there,  stopping  for  dinner,  until  five  o'clock,  when  the  sup- 
plies were  exhausted,  and  everybody  broken  down,  and  stll  the 
wounded  were  pouring  in,  on  foot,  on  horseback,  in  ambulances  or 
wagons.  They  are  sending  on  toward  Staunton  all  that  are  able  to 
go,  most  of  them  on  foot ;  and  the  hospitals  here,  with  the  basement 
of  one  church,  are  overflowing. 

WINCHESTER,  Saturday,  July  11,  1863:  By  the  way,  Mrs.  Ma- 
gill  had  some  corn  bread  yesterday  for  breakfast,  the  first  time  they 
had  seen  any  corn  bread  for  six  months.  They  were  handing  it 
around  (egg  bread)  as  a  great  rarity  and  delicacy,  and  I  told  them 
I  would  not  condescend  to  eat  it.  I  black  my  shoes  every  morning, 
as  Mr.  Graham  does  his,  and  they  shine  in  a  style  they  are  not 
used  to. 


Walter  Bowie  is  here,  with  a  very  bad  wound  in  the  foot.  He  is 
a  noble  fellow,  and  bears  up  beautifully.  He  is  captain,  and  was 
commanding  the  regiment  when  he  was  struck. 

WINCHESTER,  VA.,  Monday,  July  13, 1863 :  .  .  General  Lee  is 
in  line  of  battle,  extending  from  Hagerstown  to  Falling  Waters, 
below  Williamsport,  and  awaiting  an  attack  from  Meade.  If  they 
attack,  he  will  defeat  them.  If  they  keep  aloof  and  Burnside  and 
somebody  should  strengthen  the  force  that  threatens  Richmond,  Lee 
will  have  to  go  there,  It  is  now  believed  here,  that  if  there  is  no 
fight  in  a  few  days,  Lee  will  recross  the  Potomac,  and  the  second 
Maryland  Campaign  will  be  ended,  with  very  slender  results. 

I  preached  yesterday  morning  at  Doctor  Boyd's  church,  at  night 
at  the  Lutheran  again.  Jones  and  I  have  appointed  preaching,  es- 
pecially for  the  soldiers,  for  every  afternoon  this  week  at  five  o'clock, 
at  a  Methodist  church  near  the  principal  hospital.  1  don't  think  we 
can  do  much,  but  something  is  better  than  nothing. 

WINCHESTER,  VA.,  Friday,  July  17,  1863 :  Unpleasant  rumor 
this  morning  that  Charleston  has  fallen.  If  it  should  fall,  I  shall 
think  of  coming  home  sooner  than  I  had  intended.  Don't  be  uneasy 
about  me,  whatever  happens.  I  mean  to  be  prudent,  and  hope  God 
may  preserve  me  as  well  as  you. 

WINCHESTER,  VA.,  Tuesday,  July  21,  1863  :  I  preached  Satur- 
day morning  to  Corse's  Brigade,  two  miles  out  of  town,  and  in  the 
afternoon  my  last  sermon  at  Doctor  Boyd's  church.  Sunday  morn- 
ing I  went  out  to  the  brigade  again,  and  preached  forenoon  and 
afternoon.  At  last  I  was  preaching  to  the  soldiers,  and  I  enjoyed 
it  very  much.  Some  of  the  regiments  contain  many  Baptists,  from 
Fredericksburg  and  Caroline,  from  Richmond  and  Henrico,  etc., 
including  several  Broadduses  from  Caroline.  Mr.  August,  formerly 
Methodist  preacher  in  Charlottesville,  was  chaplain  to  one  of  the 
regiments  and  treated  me  very  kindly.  He  had  found  some  hats  for 
sale  here,  and  taken  two  or  three  out,  and  one  of  them  did  not  fit  the 
man  it  was  intended  for,  and  did  fit  me ;  so  the  major  and  one  of  the 
lieutenants  gave  it  to  me.  Cost  them  twenty  dollars,  worth  thirty 
or  forty  dollars  in  Richmond.  My  Williamston  hat  is  generally 
acknowledged  to  be  superior  to  anything  that  has  been  seen  of  Con- 
federate make.  That  I  have  in  my  carpet-bag. 

STAUNTON,  VA.,  July  24,  1863  :  .  .  Setting  out  Wednesday  af- 
ternoon at  three  o'clock  I  rode  on  the  deck  seat  of  the  stage,  which 


was  filled  with  wounded  men  and  surgeons.  So  all  the  next  day. 
There  was  no  cushion  but  my  overcoat.  A  North  Carolina  captain 
along  was  sick,  and  finding  him  tired  with  sitting  flat  on  the  top,  I 
gave  him  my  seat  in  the  afternoon  of  yesterday,  and  rode  on  a  trunk 
in  the  middle  of  the  top,  where  I  fought  the  branches  of  the  trees, 
played  with  the  telegraph  wire,  and  occasionally  calculated  how  far 
off  I  should  fall  if  my  trunk  were  to  imitate  the  "  Flying  Trunk  "  of 
Anderson's  story,  and  at  the  next  great  jolt  bounce  off  into  the  air. 
We  got  in  safely  at  8  o'clock  last  night.  .  . 

I  worked  awhile  with  Taylor  this  morning  distributing  newspapers 
and  tracts  in  the  hospitals,  and  afterwards  rode  to  see  the  graveyard, 
where  the  graves  of  twelve  hundred  soldiers  lie  in  long  rows  and 
squares,  and  ten  or  a  dozen  are  regularly  dug  beforehand  and  kept 
waiting.  Oh,  this  dreadful  war ! 


1863  :  This  morning  I  am  going  to  Culpeper,  to  preach  in  the  army 
again.  I  think  Uncle  William  and  Hiden  can  do  more  good  among 
the  soldiers  here  without  me  than  with  me.  Think  I  shall  stay  in 
Culpeper,  if  the  army  doesn't  move,  for  a  week  or  ten  days,  and  then 
come  back  here  to  rest.  Most  of  the  army  are  within  a  few  miles  of 

CULPEPER  C.  H.,  Monday,  Aug.  3,  1863 :  .  .  I  went  to  Cousin 
James  Broadus's.  His  wife  died  several  weeks  ago,  ten  days  after 
the  arrival  of  her  daughter,  Mrs,  Stone,  from  Africa.  Sue,  Mrs* 
Stone,  is  looking  well,  having  greatly  improved  during  her  trip.  She 
spent  some  time  in  England,  including  a  week  at  the  residence  of  the 
celebrated  Isaac  Taylor,  one  of  whose  daughters  has  been  her  fellow- 
missionary.  She  gave  me  interesting  accounts  of  him  Saturday 
night,  and  I  expected  to  have  much  more  talk  with  her  if  I  had  re- 
mained here.  She  also  stayed  some  time  in  Baltimore,  and  brought 
me  five  pair  of  beautiful  yarn  socks  from  Miss  C.  TM  who  knit  them 
expressly  to  send  me.  .  . 

Tea  with  Major  E.  B.  Hill,  where  I  met  General  A.  P.  He  was 
very  cordial.  His  dignities  have  not  puffed  him  up,  but  have  only 
sobered  him.  He  accosted  me  as  "  John  "  at  the  beginning,  and  it 
was  "  John  "  and  "  Powell "  all  the  time.  .  .  This  morning  at  day- 
break I  was  aroused  by  a  trooper  at  the  door,  with  Major  Field's 
compliments,  and  they  were  about  to  move,  and  he  had  brought  a 
horse  for  me  if  1  chose  to  go  with  them.  My  cold  continued  and  my 
throat  was  slightly  sore,  and  the  sun  promised  to  be  very  hot,  so 
that  I  declined  his  offer,  determining  to  take  the  cars  for  Orange.  .  f 


LOCUST  GROVE,  CHARLOTTESVILLE,  Aug.  5, 1863:  Felt  very 

weak  and  prostrate  when  I  reached  Charlottesville,  don't  know  why, 
for  no  derangement  of  the  system.  Even  before  night,  the  delicious 
coolness  and  quiet  of  your  old  home  refreshed  me,  and  now,  after  a 
long  night's  sleep,  I  feel  considerably  better. 

ORANGE  C.  H.,  VA.,  Saturday,  Aug.  15, 1863  :  I  wrote  at  Lo- 
cust Grove  yesterday  afternoon.  Mr.  Hart  took  tea  with  me,  and 
listened  to  some  pages  of  my  manuscript  on  Matthew.  He  seems  to 
take  real  interest  in  my  work,  and  I  hope  for  benefit  from  his  sug- 
gestions. .  .  My  efforts  in  Mahone's  Brigade  were  not  wholly 
fruitless.  I  am  told  that  a  Presbyterian  officer  in  one  of  the  regi- 
ments urged  an  effort  to  get  me  as  chaplain,  and  said  he  would 
himself  pay  three  hundred  dollars  extra  towards  the  salary.  (Don't 
be  uneasy :  no  notion  of  turning  chaplain.)  And,  what  is  more  im- 
portant, they  have  been  holding  prayer  meetings  all  the  week  and 
had  last  night  five  hundred  present,  with  much  appearance  of  inter- 
est. I  hope  Hatcher's  sermons  to-morrow  will  be  a  blessing.  I  mean 
to  try  to  get  there  myself  within  a  week  or  so. 

EARLY'S  DIVISION,  Monday,  Aug.  17, 1863 :  .  .  There  is  a  famous 
old  Baptist  church  here,  known  as  "  Pisgah,"  a  small  bnck  house, 
in  which  we  have  meetings,  and  our  camp  is  one  hundred  yards  off. 
Quite  a  revival  in  almost  the  whole  division.  I  preached  Sunday 
morning  here,  and  in  the  afternoon  went  a  mile  back  to  Gordon's 
Brigade  of  Georgians,  and  preached.  General  Gordon  is  a  Baptist 
and  a  very  pleasing  man.  Last  night  I  slept  in  Jones'  tent  on  the 
ground,  with  my  clothes  on,  and  slept  pretty  soundly,  thanks  to  being 
tired.  Had  some  of  my  tea  made  in  a  tin  cup  for  supper  and  break- 
fast, which  helped  me  mightily.  Dinner  yesterday  nothing  but  beef 
and  peas  (cow-peas),  with  bread,  but  I  enjoyed  it.  This  morning 
preached  again  at  ten  o'clock,  and  afterwards  Jones  baptized  nine.  .  . 
In  all,  over  forty  in  this  brigade  have  been  received  into  the  various 
denominations  within  ten  days,  and  the  work  is  widening.  .  . 

You  have  acted  nobly,  my  dear  wife,  in  submitting  so  patiently  to 
my  absence,  and  I  am  sure  you'll  bear  it  still.  Whatever  good  I  can 
do  here,  you  deserve  the  credit  of  it  much  more  than  I  do. 

ORANGE  COUNTY,  VA.,  Tuesday,  Aug.  18,  1863 :  Wrote  last 
night  from  camp  of  Early's  Division.  This  morning  came  up  and 
preached  at  the  chaplains'  meeting  on  the  text,  "  Who  is  sufficient 
for  these  things?"  Overwhelmed  with  invitations  to  come  and 


preach  in  different  brigades.  About  sixty  preachers  were  present  of 
the  different  denominations,  including  nearly  all  the  chaplains  of 
Ewell's  and  of  Hill's  Corps.  Came  down  to  Mr.  Scott's  to  dinner, 
where  I  now  am,  in  company  with  Jones,  Hatcher,  Jos.  S.  Brown, 
and  Herbert  Harris.  Am  going  back  to  the  division  this  evening, 
and  expect  to  remain  about  there  till  after  Sunday,  and  then  to  come 
up  and  preach  in  Hill's  Corps.  Hatcher  reports  decided  interest  in 
Mahone's  Brigade.  There  are  six  or  eight  brigades  in  which  there 
is  a  great  work  going  on. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  ELIZA  S.  BROADUS  : 

EARLY'S  DIVISION,  EWELL'S  CORPS,  A.  N.  V.,  Thursday,  Aug. 
20,  1863  :  I  was  preaching  yesterday  about  Joshua,  and  his  saying, 
"  As  for  me  and  my  house,  we  will  serve  the  Lord,' '  and  there,  in  the 
midst  of  the  sermon,  I  felt  anxious  about  you  and  Annie.  Oh,  may 
God  give  you  the  grace  to  put  your  trust  in  the  Saviour,  and  to 
devote  your  lives  to  his  delightful  service— that  I  and  my  house  may 
serve  the  Lord. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS,  CHARLOTTE  E.  BROADUS : 

SMITH'S  BRIGADE,  Saturday,  Aug.  22, 1863 :  Yesterday  morning 
not  long  before  the  sermon  ended,  Hon.  Jeremiah  Morton  and  two 
ladies  rode  up,  having  supposed  the  service  would  be  at  eleven  o'clock, 
while  it  was  at  nine.  We  were  in  a  grove,  the  church  being  too  small, 
and  they  were  approaching  from  my  rear.  What  a  sensation  !  I 
told  some  of  them  afterwards  that  I  knew,  before  the  party  came 
within  my  view,  that  either  General  Lee  was  approaching,  or  a  lady. 
Poor  fellows,  they  tried  hard  to  listen  to  the  balance  of  the  sermon, 
but  ever  so  many  would  be  glancing  again  and  again  to  the  side 
where  the  ladies  sat  on  their  horses,  with  riding  dresses  and  hats, 
looking  quite  picturesque  under  the  oak  tree.  .  . 

I  am  going  to  Orange  C.  H.  this  morning,  and  expect  to  preach 
in  Hill's  Camp  hereafter.  Shall  probably  make  Bro.  Scott's  my 
headquarters.  I  have  stood  the  camp-sleeping  without  catching 
cold,  and  am  thankful  for  the  privilege  of  this  week's  steady  preach- 

ORANGE  C.  H.,  Aug.  28,  1863:  I  have  not  written  for  two  or 
three  days.  Am  staying  at  Bro.  Scott's.  Preaching  every  morn- 
ing at  eleven  o'clock  in  Mahone's  Brigade.  Caught  a  slight  cold 
the  first  of  the  week,  which  is  affecting  my  throat  somewhat,  so  that 
I  have  avoided  preaching  more  than  once  a  day.  Congregations 


good  in  the  morning,  and  very  large  at  night.  I  am  going  to-night 
because  I  can't  keep  in  sympathy  with  the  meeting  unless  I  attend 
them,  although  I  fear  for  my  throat  in  the  night  air.  Mean  only  to 
make  fifteen  minutes'  talk.  .  .  Oh,  there  is  such  an  opportunity  to 
preach  in  the  army  now,  that  I  want  to  be  preaching  all  day  long, 
and  can  but  lament  my  feebleness,  and  console  myself  with  remem- 
bering that  something  is  better  than  nothing,  .  . 

If  my  health  were  vigorous  and  my  "  Commentary"  work  had 
never  been  undertaken,  I  should  have  no  hesitation  in  thinking  it 
my  duty  to  labor  in  the  army  permanently.  I  could,  with  God's 
blessing,  do  much  good,  though  there  are  numerous  brethren  who 
could  do  more,  for  I  greatly  lack  some  important  requisites  for  such 
work.  .  .  I  could,  perhaps,  stand  a  soldier's  life  as  a  soldier,  but 
with  all  the  anxiety  and  nervous  exhaustion  attendant  upon  a  preach- 
er's work,  which  even  before  1  went  to  Greenville  used  often  to 
bring  me  into  great  prostration,  I  could  not  stand  it.  This  is  my 
chief  reason,  but  I  do  feel  that  my  "  Commentary  "  work  is  of  more 
importance,  and  that  even  at  home  I  should  not  be  living  merely  for 
myself.  .  .  I  think  I  want  to  do  right  about  it. 


CEDAR  GROVE,  S.  C.,  Aug.  $ist,  1863  :  The  reception  of  your 
letter  made  many  little  hearts  happy.  When  the  announcement  was 
made  to  the  Sunday-school  that  it  would  then  be  read,  all  noise  was 
hushed,  eager  faces  were  turned  to  listen — faces  that  lit  up  with 
smiles,  as  the  little  ones  of  your  flock  heard  that  they  were  not  for- 
gotten amid  your  many  labors  and  duties.  But  when  what  you 
said  concerning  the  battle  that  was  going  on  when  you  got  there, 
was  read,  eyes  in  that  quiet  little  church  sparkled,  but  not  with 
smiles  now.  And  the  looks  of  assent  that  were  given  to  your  ad- 
vice, augured  that  it  would  be  followed. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  CHARLOTTE  E.  BROADUS : 

ORANGE  C.  H.,  VA.,  Friday,  Sept.  4, 1863  :  .  .  Hillary  Hatcher 
is  still  going  on  with  his  meeting,  and  yesterday  twenty-seven  were 
received  for  different  denominations,  making  sixty-four  in  all,  of 
whom  twenty-four  are  Baptists.  It  is  understood  that  Hatcher  will 
to-morrow  be  appointed  chaplain  to  one  of  the  regiments  of  Mahone's 
brigade,  and  H.  H.  Harris  has  just  been  appointed  to  another  regi- 
ment. The  two  regiments  march  together,  and  camp  together. 
Hatcher  and  Harris  were  fellow-students  at  Richmond  College,  and 
will  work  pleasantly,  and  they  two  can  do  the  work  of  the  brigade. 


On  Sunday  last,  a  captain  m  the  6th,  who  is  a  zealous  Baptist,  sent 
me  word  by  Hatcher  that  if  I  would  furnish  a  recommendation  of 
Harris,  the  colonel  would  appoint  him,  and  the  appointment  has  been 
made  accordingly.  I  feel  very  glad  that  I  have  been,  however  slightly 
and  casually,  the  means  of  furnishing  this  interesting  Virginia 
brigade  with  two  good  chaplains. 

ORANGE  C.  H.,  Monday,  Sept.  7,  1863  :  Yesterday  morning  I 
preached  at  McGowan's  brigade,  and  dined  there  with  Harrison 
Griffith  and  Col.  Brown  (who  is  a  Baptist).  Excellent  dinner  I 
made,  fine  beef  soup,  really  well  prepared,  and  plenty  of  it,  and  cap- 
ital green  apple  pies,  very  well  made  indeed.  These  were  my  dinner, 
as  I  took  no  meat.  Griffith's  wife  was  expected  yesterday  after- 
noon, and  it  was  pretty  to  see  him  and  a  young  lieut.  colonel  from 
Newberry,  whose  wife  was  coming  also.  Both  put  on  their  very 
handsomest.  The  young  colonel  came  by  an  hour  too  soon,  going 
to  the  depot,  and  told  Griffith  confidentially  that  he  felt  just  as  he 
used  to  feel  when  he  was  going  courting,  didn't  want  any  dinner 
at  all,  and  couldn't  wait  a  moment.  Griffith  tried  to  be  very  quiet, 
but  he  was  very  fidgety  for  dinner  to  be  ready,  and  then  confessed 
that  he  had  no  appetite,  and  put  off.  Happy  fellows,  I  sympathize 
with  them,  Later  in  the  evening,  somebody  handed  me  a  letter 
which  Mrs.  Griffith  had  brought  from  the  Cedar  Grove  Sunday- 
school.  At  four  P.  M.  I  preached,  by  special  and  repeated  invitation, 
at  General  Scales'  brigade  (North  Carolina),  dose  to  McGowan's. 
I  met  Genl.  S ,  in  Winchester,  slightly  wounded.  He  is  a  Presby- 
terian. Genl.  Hill  and  Maj.  Genl.  Wilcox  were  present  and  also 
Mrs.  Hill  and  Mrs.  Scales— great  crowd—"  Her  ways  are  ways  of 
pleasantness,"  etc.  Hill  made  some  fuss  over  me,  introducing,  etc., 
and  inviting  me  to  come  and  stay  with  him  and  preach  at  his  head- 

BEAUMONT,  NEAR  GORDONSVILLE,  VA.,  Saturday,  Sept.  12, 

1863  :  Thursday  afternoon,  by  arrangement  made  at  Gordonsville, 
went  to  (Lt  Col.  Hillary)  Jones'  battalion,  and  preached.  Charley 
[Sinclair]  looks  very  cheerful,  and,  as  is  meet,  a  little  stuck  up  at 
being  a  man  and  a  soldier.  Col.  Jones,  who  has  recently  become  a 
communicant,  assured  me  that  a  better  company  for  a  lad  to  enter 
could  not  be  found  than  Camngton's,  and  I  took  it  on  me  to  solicit 
in  Charley's  behalf  the  friendly  notice  of  Capt.  Carrington  him- 
self. .  . 

Yesterday  morning  I  went  to  Blue  Run  and  preached  to  Col. 
(John  Thompson)  Brown's  Battery.  Much  interest  there.  Dr.  J. 


R.  Bagby,  our  former  student,  has  been  holding  prayer  meetings, 
and  several  have  professed  conversion.  Many  wept  during  the  ser- 
mon, and  not  at  allusions  to  home,  but  to  their  sins,  and  God's 
great  mercy.  .  .  Gilmer  is  dreadfully  opposed  to  inviting  men  for 
ward  to  prayer,  etc.,  though  Lacy,  Hoge,  and  most  of  the  Presby- 
terians, do  it  just  like  the  rest  of  us. 

Dr.  J.  Wm.  Jones,  in  the  "  Seminary  Magazine  "  for 
April,  1895,  says: 

As  for  his  preaching,  I  had  appointments  for  him  three  times 
every  day,  and  occasionally  four  times.  He  drew  large  crowds,  and 
as  he  looked  into  the  eyes  of  those  bronzed  heroes  of  many  a  battle, 
and  realized  that  they  might  be  summoned  at  any  hour  into  another 
battle,  and  into  eternity,  his  very  soul  was  stirred  within  him,  and  I 
never  heard  him  preach  with  such  beautiful  simplicity  and  thrilling 
power  the  old  gospel  which  he  loved  so  well.  I  have  frequently  told 
him  that  he  never  preached  as  well  as  he  did  in  the  army,  and  I  think 
that  he  agreed  with  me.  We  had  four  series  of  meetings  running 
at  the  same  time— one  in  my  brigade  (Smith's  Va.),  one  m  Gordon's 
(Ga.)  brigade,  one  in  Hay's  (La.)  brigade,  and  one  in  Hoke's 
(N.  C.)  brigade.  There  were  two  hundred  and  fifty  professions  of 
conversion  in  Smith's  brigade,  over  two  hundred  in  Hays',  and  large 
numbers  in  the  other  brigades.  Again  and  again  would  the  vast  con- 
gregations be  melted  down  under  the  power  of  the  great  preacher, 
and  men  "  unused  to  the  melting  mood"  would  sob  with  uncontrol- 
lable emotion. 

I  especially  recall  a  sermon  I  heard  him  preach  at  Gen.  Gordon's 
headquarters  about  sunset  on  the  evening  of  the  Confederate  Fast 
Day  (he  preached  four  times  that  day).  Gen.  Gordon  had  sent 
around  by  special  couriers  notice  that  Doctor  Broadus  would  preach, 
and  there  was  an  immense  crowd— probably  five  thousand— in  at- 
tendance. Generals  Lee,  A.  P.  Hill  (an  old  schoolmate  and  special 
friend  of  Doctor  Broadus),  Ewell,  Early,  and  a  number  of  other 
generals  were  there,  while  all  through  the  crowd  the  wreaths  and 
stars  and  bars  of  rank  mingled  with  the  rude  garb  of  the  private 
soldier,  and  the  vast  sea  of  upturned,  eager  faces  as  the  men  sat  on 
the  bare  ground,  made  a  scene  not  easily  forgotten. 

The  songs,  simple  old  hymns,  containing  the  very  marrow  of  the 
gospel,  were  sung  "  with  the  spirit  and  understanding,"  and  stirred 
every  heart.  The  reading  of  the  Scriptures,  and  the  appropriate, 
fervent,  melting  prayer,  such  as  only  John  A.  Broadus  could  make— 


were  all  fit  preparations  for  the  sermon.  The  text  was  Prov.  3  :  17, 
"  Her  ways  are  ways  of  pleasantness,  and  all  her  paths  are  peace." 
I  have  heard  him  preach  from  that  text  several  times,  but  never 
with  the  pathos  and  power  that  he  had  that  day.  He  caught  the 
vast  crowd  with  his  first  sentence,  and  held,  and  thrilled,  and  moved 
them  to  the  close  of  the  sermon.  There  were  times  when  there  was 
scarcely  a  dry  eye  among  those  gathered  thousands,  and  all  through  * 
the  sermon  "  Something  on  the  soldier's  cheek  washed  off  the  stain 
of  powder."  It  was  touching  to  see  the  commander-in-chief  and  his 
great  lieutenants  and  other  officers,  the  very  flower  of  our  Confed- 
erate chivalry,  mingling  their  tears  with  those  of  "the  unknown 
heroes"  of  the  rank  and  file — men  who  never  quailed  in  battle, 
trembling  and  not  ashamed  to  weep  under  the  power  of  the  simple 
preaching  of  the  glorious  gospel  of  our  Lord  Jesus.  At  the  close  of 
the  service  they  came  by  the  hundreds  to  ask  an  interest  in  the 
prayers  of  God's  people,  or  profess  a  new-found  faith  in  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ,  and  I  doubt  not  that  our  beloved  brother  has  greeted 
on  the  other  shore  not  a  few  who  heard  him  that  day  or  at  other 
points  in  the  army. 

Before  the  end  of  September,  Doctor  Broadus  was 
back  in  Greenville.  He  now  became  pastor  of  the  Clear 
Spring  Church  besides  Cedar  Grove  and  Williamston, 
and  he  took  Siloam  Church  in  the  fall  of  1864.  From 
1863  to  1866  Doctor  Broadus  was  Corresponding  Secre- 
tary of  the  Sunday-school  Board  at  Greenville.  This 
Board  was  chiefly  established  by  the  aid  of  Doctor 
Broadus  and  Doctor  Manly.  It  grew  out  of  the  necessi- 
ties of  the  war  to  supply  the  wants  of  the  children.  The 
Board  published  "The  Child's  Index,"  question  books 
by  Manly,  "  Catechism  "  by  Boyce,  "  Little  Lessons  for 
Little  People  "  by  Manly,  etc.  Though  the  publications 
were  on  the  poorest  kind  of  Confederate  paper,  the 
quality  of  the  contributions  was  excellent,  and  about  a 
hundred  thousand  copies  of  the  little  books  were  sold. 
In  January,  1866,  the  Board  established  "  Kind  Words." 
The  chief  contributors  were  John  A.  Broadus,  Doctor 
Manly,  Doctor  Williams,  Dr.  Wm.  F.  Broaddus,  Dr.  W. 



D,  Thomas,  Colonel  Elford,  and  Dr.  Geo.  B.  Taylor. 
Doctor  Broadus  wrote  as  "  J.  A.  B./'  "  J.  Lovechild," 
"J.  L.,"  "Theophilus,"  "  A.  B.,"  "  A.,"  "  Zerubba- 
bel,"  "Z.,"  "R."  Other  familiar  pseudonyms  were 
"Henry  Hinter "  and  "Junior"  for  Doctor  Manly, 
"  Cousin  Will  "  for  Wm.  F.  Broaddus,  "  Cousin  Guy  " 
for  G.  B.  Taylor,  "Grandfather  Grey  "  for  Col.  Elford, 
"William  Wrinkled  "  for  Dr.  William  Williams,  "Didy- 
mus  "  for  Doctor  Thomas.  Dr.  Wm.  F.  Broaddus  wrote 
also  a  famous  series  entitled  "Sermons  for  my  Little 
Cousins,"  all  from  the  text  "  A  Habit  is  a  Habit."  Some 
of  Doctor  Broadus's  noteworthy  articles  were  "  Old  Mr. 
Experience,"  "Leg  over  Leg  as  the  Dog  went  to  Do- 
ver," and  the  "  Letter  R." 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  April  15,  1864 :  Have  just  written  to  Williams, 
urging  him  to  go  with  me  to  Atlanta,  according  to  your  suggestion, 
which  Elford,  Boyce,  and  Thomas  approve.  Expect  to  go  down  on 
Tuesday  with  Boyce,  who  has  to  go  to  Graniteville,  and  have  asked 
Williams  to  go  with  us  that  day.  Meet  us  at  Ninety-six  if  you  can, 
and  we  can  talk  matters  over.  I'll  carry  (if  nothing  happens)  Tho- 
luck  and  some  other  things  on  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  and  if  you 
don't  meet  us  will  leave  them  at  Ninety-six.  Wish  I  could  spare 
you  Alexander,  or  the  remarkable  unpublished  work  you  wot  of. 
Thank  you  for  encouraging  me  to  keep  at  it,  for  it  is  hard  for  me  to 
work  cheerily  amid  so  many  interruptions  and  drawbacks.  I  think 
I  am  now  making  the  "  Notes"  a  good  deal  better  than  when  you 
last  examined,  but  I  get  on  very,  very  slowly.  I  am  now  in  the  8th 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C  ,  May  28,  1864  :  Glad  you  are  getting  on  so 
well  with  your  continuation  of  the  "  Child's  Question  Book."  The 
notices  of  it,  private  as  well  as  public,  are  all  full  of  commendation. 
The  "  Primer  "  will  be  ready  next  week,  and  Boyce's  "  Catechism  " 
is  in  the  printer's  hands.  I  advertise  "  S.  S.  Tickets  "  and  "  Teach- 
er's Class  Books,"  to  be  ready  by  ist  July.  What  do  you  think 
about  the  tickets— what  to  put  on  them?  Do  you  think  it  important 
to  have  texts  of  sermons?  If  so,  don't  you  want  to  send  me  some 

THE  SHOCK  OF  WAR  21 1 

of  your  favorites— just  referring  to  them,  or  catchwords,  by  which  I 
can  find  them  ? 

During  the  last  year  of  the  war  Doctor  Boyce  was 
aid-de-camp  to  Governor  McGrath.  Doctors  Broadus, 
Manly,  and  Williams  were  preaching  to  country  churches. 
The  bare  necessities  of  life  were  hard  to  get.  The  Semi- 
nary seemed  dead.  The  end  of  the  war  no  one  could 
see  even  just  before  the  surrender  of  General  Lee. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  11,  1865  :  I  take  it  there  will  now  be 
war  in  this  country  fully  as  long  as  you  or  I  will  live.  AH  thought 
of  doing  this  or  that  "  after  the  war,"  must,  I  fear,  be  abandoned. 
I  still  have  strong  hope  that  our  children  may  live  to  see  independ- 
ence, and  maybe  our  grandchildren,  happiness.  But  "  man's  ex- 
tremity is  God's  opportunity."  As  wonderful  things  have  hap- 
pened in  history  as  that  our  cause  should  now  begin  to  rise  and 


Dive  through  the  stormy  surface  of  the  flood 
To  the  great  current  flowing  underneath. 

— Wordsworth. 

AT  last  the  war  was  over  and  the  South  was  prostrate. 
Could  the  Seminary  reopen  ?  The  professors  had 
been  living  on  their  small  salaries  from  their  country 
churches,  paid  chiefly  "  in  kind."  Doctor  Boyce  at  first 
proposed  to  leave  the  Seminary  so  as  to  make  money  for 
it  by  his  business  talents. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  July  3,  1865  :  Boyce  makes  a  definite  proposition. 
He  has  determined  to  leave  the  Seminary  and  engage  in  business. 
He  proposes  to  lend  to  each  of  us  three  a  thousand  dollars  for  the 
next  session,  on  the  faith  of  our  salary  of  $1800,  which  the  Semi- 
nary will  owe  us,  to  be  paid  when  it  can  get  the  means.  I  add  the 
following  suggestions.  You  and  Williams  might  arrange  with  your 
churches  to  preach  once  a  month  to  each  during  the  session,  ana 
twice  a  month  in  vacation.  We  could,  for  the  present,  cease  to  have 
lectures  on  Saturday,  and  this  would  take  each  of  us  away  two 
Mondays  of  the  month,  or  perhaps  I  might  go  only  one  Monday.  .  . 
C.  J.  Elford,  with  whom  I  have  been  talking,  thinks  the  plan 
entirely  feasible.  He  says,  as  do  others,  that  unless  there  is  a  great 
drought,  corn  will  be  much  cheaper  next  winter  than  ever  before 
since  we  came  here.  .  . 

Boyce  expects  to  leave  next  Tuesday  for  New  York,  and  wants 
us  to  decide  this  week  if  possible.  I  am  about  to  write  a  similar  let- 
ler  to  Williams,  but  greatly  fear  he  will  not  get  it.  If  possible  ride 
up  and  see  him,  and  let  me  have  answer  from  both  immediately, 
certainly  not  later  than  Monday's  mail.  Give  the  letter  to  the  mail 
agent  in  person.  I  say  agree  to  it,  by  all  means.  Boyce  will  lose 
the  use  of  capital,  but  will  have  no  risk,  as  we  shall  be  personally 


responsible  to  him,  and  the  Seminary,  with  its  whole  subscribed1 
endowment  of  at  least  $140,000,  responsible  to  us. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

NINETY-SIX,  S.  C.,  July  6,  1865  :  Yours  of  3d  reached  me  yes- 
terday at  dinner,  and  I  went  immediately  to  Williams  ,  . 

Williams  will  write  you  his  views.  .  .  Meanwhile,  here  are  my 
ideas — for  him  and  you  to  consider — as  far  as  I  have  been  able  to 
think  through  the  case.  [We  give  a  few  extracts], 

It  is  desirable  to  return  to  the  Seminary,  if  possible  to  reorganize 
it.  That  work  is  the  most  agreeable  to  my  feelings.  Its  prompt 
re-establishment  secures  the  institution  for  the  churches  of  the  country 
with  all  its  boundless  possibilities  for  good.  And  we  are  committed 
and  pledged  to  it,  not  only  by  being  its  representatives  before  the 
public,  its  active  officers,  but  also  by  having  received  our  salaries 
during  the  war.  .  . 

There  is  hazard  to  ourselves  in  incurring  a  personal  debt  which 
neither  of  us  has  funds  to  pay  if  it  finally  falls  on  us.  .  . 

Will  there  be  any  students  ?    Where  from  ?    How  supported  ? 

Calculations  on  pay  from  churches  must  be  extremely  moderate. 
Three  hundred  dollars,  I  think,  is  as  much  as  could  be  counted  on 
with  safety  The  people  are  both  impoverished  and  utterly  dis- 

Can  collections  be  pushed  for  the  Seminary  either  of  old  or  new 
subscriptions,  for  a  number  of  years  ?  Will  not  the  local  institutions, 
the  denominational  State  colleges,  claim  with  more  power  and  suc- 
cess than  we  the  sympathies  and  slender  contributions  of  the  people, 
so  that  we  should  be  postponed  to  a  more  convenient  season?  Most 
of  the  existing  bonds  were  given  by  men  who,  I  suppose,  are  now 
unable,  even  if  willing,  to  pay,  and  who  would  almost  feel  it  as  an 
insult,  if  collections  were  pressed  with  decided  earnestness. 

The  whole  question  turns,  it  appears  to  me,  on  the  other  questions : 
Shall  we  have  quiet  soon  ?  Will  the  labor  system  settle  down  to  a 
stable  equilibrium  ?  .  . 

In  short,  if  there  is  a  reasonable  probability  that  Boyce's  generous 
advance  can  be  refunded  by  the  Seminary,  in  a  reasonable  time,  we 
ought  to  try  it,  otherwise  not.  .  . 

I  would  like  to  help  you  at  Siloam.  The  difficulty  is  I  ought  to  go 
up  about  that  time  for  my  wife,  and  having  no  money  to  go  by  cars, 
must  take  the  dirt  road,  and  that  takes  time.  Til  see  about  it.  This 
letter,  of  course,  is  for  Boyce  as  well  as  you.  I  exceedingly  regret 

1  This  subscribed  endowment  became  of  little  value  because  of  the  war. 


the  idea  of  his  withdrawing  from  us,  but  suppose  he  feels  it  his 
duty  as  well  as  interest.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  Seminary,  and 
its  representative  man  more  than  any  of  us. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  July  12,  1865  :  Very  low  spirited  letter  from 
Williams.  Am  going  to  urge  him  to  go  to  Siloam,  Monday,  and  be 
with  us  at  least  that  day  and  the  next,  and  let  us  talk  again  about 
the  matter.  .  . 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Augustas,  1865  :  Boyce  home  this  evening. 
Hopeful  about  his  affairs.  Desires  to  stand  up  to  his  proposition. 
But  says  the  Seminary  must  not  fall  below  three  professors.  If 
Williams  can't  possibly  take  hold,  he  will  feel  bound  to  do  it  himself, 
though  with  the  certainty  of  considerable,  and  the  danger  of  enor- 
mous, losses  from  inability  to  move  about  as  his  affairs  may  require, 
and  with  a  very  poor  chance  to  teach  satisfactorily.  It  will,  there- 
fore, be  a  favor  to  him  personally,  if  Williams  can  join  us. 

The  end  of  the  Seminary  seemed  at  hand.  When 
they  all  came  together,  Broadus  said:  "Suppose  we 
quietly  agree  that  the  Seminary  may  die,  but  we'll  die 
first/'1  So  the  four  professors  held  together.  There 
was  no  chance  to  advertise  the  Seminary  so  as  to  get 
students.  Col.  Elford  proposed  to  start  a  paper  with 
the  professors  as  editors.  It  was  favorably  considered, 
in  fact,  decided  on  at  first,  but  seems  never  to  have 
gotten  really  started.  Everything  was  paralyzed  by  the 
effect  of  the  war.  When  the  Seminary  did  reopen  on 
Nov.  ist,  it  was  with  only  seven  students.  In  homilet- 
ics  Doctor  Broadus  had  only  one  student,  and  he  was 
blind.  But  it  was  like  Doctor  Broadus  to  give  this  one 
blind  student  the  best  he  had.  The  careful  preparation 
of  full  lectures  for  the  blind  brother  led  to  the  writing  of 
"  Preparation  and  Delivery  of  Sermons." 3 

At  this  time  he  was  also  teaching  a  large  Bible  class  of 
ladies  which  had  begun  in  the  Sunday-school ;  but  when 

1  Broadus's  ' '  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  p.  200.  a  /fcrf.,  p.  aoi. 


he  was  absent,  preaching  every  Sunday,  they  requested 
him  to  meet  them  on  Wednesday  afternoons,  in  the  lec- 
ture room  of  the  church. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  C.  F.  D.  : 

Is  it  any  harm  for  me  to  express  the  earnest  desire  that  you  should 
become  a  Christian,  and  now  ?  We  are  friends,  and  I  delight  in  it — 
I  have  been  your  teacher  in  the  Scriptures,  and  you  have  listened  to 
me  often  as  I  preached  the  gospel— and  I  pray  you,  be  reconciled  to 
God.  Seek  the  Lord  while  he  may  be  found.  Some  people  deceive 
themselves,  but  religion  is  not  deception.  Oh,  be  a  Christian,  and 
try  to  bring  all  you  love  to  be  Christians  too.  Begin  to  pray,  that 
you  may  pray  for  others  as  well  as  yourself,  I  am  going  to  make 
daily  prayer  for  you.  Oh,  pray  yourself— have  mercy  on  yourself. 

C.  A,  BUCKBEE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

NEW  YORK,  Nov.  3,  1865  :  Yours  of  Oct.  24  is  just  received.  It 
gives  us  joy  to  hear  from  you  once  more.  Your  letter  breathes  a 
generous  Christian  spirit  in  reference  to  our  country  and  the  feel- 
ings of  the  people.  Your  sentiments  are  in  perfect  harmony  with 
those  of  the  great  majority  of  the  people  at  the  North.  We  have 
had  conversation  with  a  number  of  brethren  from  Alabama,  Georgia, 
and  other  States,  and  find  that  all  are  disposed  to  cultivate  a  truly 
Christian  and  generous  disposition,  in  a  spirit  of  cordiality  and  con- 
fidence. This  we  must  do,  for  each  other's  sake,  the  country,  the 
colored  people,  and  the  cause  of  our  Redeemer. 

Since  1861  we  have  gone  on  in  our  work,  though  we  missed  the 
aid  of  our  brethren  in  the  South. 

J.  A.  B.  to  "  THE  NATIONAL  INTELLIGENCER  "  : 

As  to  Governor  Perry.  .  .  I  believe  him  to  be  an  honest  man,  an 
article  more  scarce  in  the  world,  even  among  politicians,  than  could 
be  desired.  He  was  always  a  Union  man,  and  opposed  secession 
with  all  his  might  to  the  last,  .  .  but  afterward  supported  the  war, 
as  any  other  decent  man  born  and  bred  here,  and  rooted  in  the  soil, 
would  have  done. 

The  pathos  of  the  reconstruction  period  was  relieved 
by  some  humor.  Some  of  the  new  advisers  of  the  Ne- 
groes counseled  them  not  to  take  their  hats  off  when 
speaking  to  white  people.  One  morning  a  Greenville 


Negro  met  Doctor  Broadus  on  the  street  and  said  : 
"Good  morning,  Mr.  Broadus,"  with  a  stiff  air.  But  he 
soon  caught  himself  and  doffed  his  hat  with  a  hearty 
"  Howdy,  Marse  Jeems  "  as  he  was  wont  to  call  Doctor 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : l 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  27,  1866  :  The  political  prospect  now 
is  very  dark.  God  have  mercy  on  this  troubled  land.  I  conclude 
not  to  order  any  more  books,  nor  to  buy  anything  I  can  do  without, 
until  I  get  more  money,  or  see  a  brighter  prospect  for  the  country.  .  . 

Mr.  Getsinger's  departure  leaves  me  with  nobody  in  homiletics 
but  Mr.  Lunn.  As  it  happens,  nearly  all  the  remainder  of  my  course 
is  lectures,  and  he  is  a  good  listener.  The  Presbyterian  Seminaiy  at 
Columbia  has  five  students,  though  they  offer  to  pay  the  students' 
board.  Before  the  war  they  reached  sixty  odd. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Feb.  i,  1866  :  Really  it  is  right  dull  to  de- 
liver my  most  elaborate  lectures  in  homiletics  to  one  man,  and  that  a 
blind  man.  Of  course  I  whittle  it  all  down  to  a  simple  talk. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Feb.  6, 1866:  .  >  I  was  much  interested  in 
your  graphic  description  of  experiences  in  Richmond.  Such  details 
are  the  life  of  letter  writing.  I  deeply  sympathize  with  your  mother 
in  the  loss  of  her  sister.  I  have  known  what  it  means  to  watch  long 
beside  one  suffering  and  sinking,  and  at  last  see  her  pass  away,  a 
dear,  dear  sister.  I  am  very  sorry  I  never  knew  your  aunt.  It  is  a 
trial  about  the  life  we  are  living  here,  that  we  cannot  get  acquainted 
with  each  other's  kindred,  and  can  so  seldom  see  those  we  know 
best.  But  anything  personal  must  be  sacrificed  to  usefulness. 

NEAR  NINETY-SIX,  S.  C.,  Feb.  19,  1866:  I  came  down  on  Satur- 
day as  usual.  Left  the  family  as  well  as  usual.  Cars  start  at  4.30 
o'clock  now,  and  it  was  the  coldest  weather  we  have  had  this  winter. 
Bro,  Williams  came  down  also  to  an  appointment,  and  we  chatted 
and  read.  So  cold  at  the  church  that  we  built  a  fire  out  of  doors, 
sheltered  by  the  house  from  the  wind,  brought  out  some  benches, 
and  I  believe  the  little  group  of  twelve  or  fifteen  enjoyed  the  services 

1  Mrs  Broadus  had  returned  to  Charlottesville  for  her  first  visit  since  before  the 
war.  She  remained  some  months  and  was  much  benefited  in  health.  At  Columbia, 
on  the  way  home,  she  was  met  with  the  grievous  tidings  of  the  death  of  her  little 
Nellie,  a  radiant,  delightful  child ;  she  had  been  ill  but  a  few  days. 


uncommonly.    I  sat  on  one  of  the  benches  and  preached,  with  the 
Bible  lying  on  my  knees. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Mar.  2, 1866:  There  was  an  examination  in 
systematic  theology  to-day,  so  that  I  had  no  lectures,  and  I  have 
reveled  all  day  in  the  new  books.  Some  valuable  German  works 
on  homiletics— if  I  just  had  somebody  to  teach.  Origen  on  Mat- 
thew, in  the  Greek,  and  Grote's  "  Plato  and  the  Other  Companions 
of  Socrates,"  3  volumes,  8vo,  fai.—OutchJ  It  is  a  noble  work, 
and  we  must  both  read  it  very  diligently  to  get  the  worth  of  the  money. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Mar  8,  1866 :  I  have  had  some  long  talks 
with  Thomas.  He  thinks,  from  the  way  folks  in  Virginia  talked, 
that  the  brethren  will  keep  the  Seminary  going  in  some  way,  and  I 
feel  a  little  less  discouraged  about  it  than  of  late.  . 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  10,  1866:  It  is  settled  that  I  am  to  go 
to  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention  which  meets  Tuesday,  May  22, 
at  Russellville,  Ky.,  not  far  from  Nashville.  .  .  See  Uncle  William 
and  say  that  I  earnestly  hope  he  will  find  it  practicable  to  go.  The 
fate  of  the  Seminary  must  be  decided  there,  by  a  consultation  among 
its  friends,  and  he  could  give  us  important  help.  Tell  him  the  enter- 
prise must  fail  unless  there  is  a  vigorous  effort  en  the  part  of  its 
special  friends. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  17,  1866 :  Made  my  last  lecture  in 
homiletics  to-day.  Quite  possible  that  it  will  be  the  last  indeed. 

I  must  work  now  over  the  affairs  of  the  S.  S.  Board,  especially  Its 
report  to  the  Convention,  which  it  will  take  me  many  days  to  pre- 
pare. With  the  session  of  the  Convention,  I  shall  lay  down  that 
work,  positively  and  altogether. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  24,  1866:  This  afternoon  the  horse 
came  from  Cedar  Grove,  with  a  top  buggy  lent  by  a  Bethel  man, 
till  they  can  procure  one.  The  horse  is  not  handsome,  but  seems  to 
be  of  solid  qualities,  gentle  and  able  to  go  along  quite  well.  He  is 
seven  or  eight  years  old.  They  paid  a  hundred  and  forty-five  dol- 
lars in  gold  for  him.  So  if  nothing  happens  you  can  continue  your 
buggy  rides  after  your  return  home. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  ELIZA  S.  BROADUS : 

RUSSELLVILLE,  Ky.,  May  24, 1866:  Keep  account  of  the  postage 
as  usual,  and  preserve  this  list  until  my  return*  This  will  be  a  t»u- 


blesome  job  to  you,  but  it  is  a  comfort  to  me  that  I  have  a  daughter 
sufficiently  intelligent  and  careful  to  be  trusted  with  such  things. 
We  have  got  a  secretary  now  (Mr.  Bitting)  and  you  and  I  both  may 
hope  soon  to  be  relieved. 

Extract  fiom  J.  A.  B.'s  report  as  corresponding  secre- 
tary of  the  Sunday-school  Board : 

In  looking  back  now  (May,  1866)  upon  their  labors  during  the 
war,  the  Board  feels  glad  that  the  Baptist  denomination  did  at  least 
attempt  some  general  effort  towards  the  advancement  of  the  Sunday- 
school  work  at  that  period— a  thing  which,  so  far  as  they  are  in- 
formed, was  not  attempted  by  any  corresponding  organization  in 
other  denominations.  And  though  what  we  did  was  sadly  little, 
compared  to  the  need  and  with  our  wishes,  the  Board  are  thankful 
that  we  are  enabled,  amid  the  surpassing  difficulties,  to  accomplish 
so  much.  .  . 

Sunday-schools  for  the  colored  people  have,  for  many  years  past, 
been  conducted  in  different  sections  of  the  South,  particularly  in  the 
cities  and  towns.  The  recent  emancipation  furnishes  increased  mo- 
tives for  seeking  to  establish  such  schools,  and  there  can  be  no  lon- 
ger any  disposition  to  restrict  them  to  oral  instruction.  On  every 
account  it  is  more  important  that  the  colored  people  should  be  brought 
under  the  influence  of  morality  and  religion,  and  that  they  should  be 
able  to  read  for  themselves  the  blessed  word  of  salvation.  And  this 
work  must  of  necessity  be  done  mainly  by  ourselves.  No  other 
persons  can  possibly  reach  them  on  so  large  a  scale  as  the  whites 
among  whom  they  live,  and  no  others  are  likely  to  have  so  much 
influence  with  them,  especially  in  the  wide  country  districts  where 
they  are  mainly  found.  We  are  solemnly  bound  to  use  this  influ- 
ence for  their  highest  good,  and  we  may  increase  it  by  kindly  and 
judicious  efforts  to  promote  their  educational  and  religious  welfare. 
The  Board  are  therefore  impressed  with  the  conviction,  that  both 
organized  and  individual  exertions  ought  at  once  to  be  made,  all 
over  the  country,  to  establish  colored  Sunday-schools,  and  they  hope 
the  Convention  will  give  to  this  idea  their  special  recommendation. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

WASHINGTON  CITY,  May  30,  1866:  The  meeting  at  Russellville 
for  the  Seminary  gave  us  great  encouragement,  and  is  thought  to 
have  insured  the  success  of  the  institution.  Over  ten  thousand  dol- 
lars were  subscribed  on  the  spot,  to  be  paid  in  five  annual  instal- 


ments,  and  agents  were  heartily  invited  to  Kentucky  and  Missouri. 
We  are  in  good  spirits. 

J.  A.  B.  to  DR.  B.  GRIFFITH  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  June  21,  1866:  I  earnestly  hope  that  the 
contemplated  Review  may  succeed  in  obtaining  a  national  circula- 
tion. But  I  cannot  undertake  to  occupy  the  position  of  associate 
editor,  nor  do  I  think  the  plan  of  having  associate  editors  is  really 
best  for  the  enterprise.  .  . 

I  need  not  apologize  for  the  freedom  with  which  I  make  these  sug- 
gestions. They  will  be  regarded  as  showing  my  sincere  desire  to 
see  the  Review  do  well.  I  shall  be  very  glad  if  you  can  give  it  such 
a  truly  religious  character,  and  succeed  in  keeping  it  so  free  from  all 
that  ought  to  give  offense,  that  we  of  the  South  may  find  no  diffi- 
culty in  yielding  it  a  hearty  support.  It  has  been  one  of  our  plans 
at  this  place  to  establish  a  Review  here  some  day ;  but  the  crippled 
state  of  our  finances  would  make  that  impossible  now,  and  the  future 
must  decide  whether  it  shall  hereafter  be  considered  desirable. 

J.  A.  B.  to  C.  E.  TAYLOR : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  July  20,  1866 :  I  sympathize  with  the  feel- 
ings you  express.  But  we  have  so  few  Baptist  ministers  who  are 
thoroughly  educated  and  are  going  to  have  so  very  few  of  that  class 
from  among  those  who  were  in  the  army,  that  I  feel  an  exceeding 
desire  to  see  any  young  brother  who  has  ability,  preparation,  and 
sufficient  means,  passing  on  through  the  most  thorough  and  patient 
preparation.  Four  years  from  now  you  would  be  twenty-seven  and 
Jesus  began  his  ministry  at  thirty  and  Paul  at  near  forty. 

The  years  lost  in  the  war  ought  to  be  treated  with  reference  to 
mental  culture,  as  a  sort  of  resection — just  consent  to  lose  the  piece 
and  join  the  two  extremities.  After  graduating  at  the  University  of 
Virginia,  if  you  cannot  restrain  your  impatience  so  far  as  to  take 
two  more  years  here,  one  session  would  give  you  our  most  indispen- 
sably important  studies,  Hebrew,  Greek,  Systematic  Theology,  and 

Meantime,  if  you  can  do  half  as  much  good  among  the  students 
as  your  brother  George  did,  your  college  years  will  be  by  no  means 
a  blank  in  the  record  of  your  life-time  usefulness. 

From  intimations  received,  I  expect  if  we  live,  to  see  you  attain 
usefulness  of  a  high  order.  God  bless  you,  in  heart  and  in  life,  in 
your  current  efforts  to  do  good  and  in  your  plans  for  the  future.  In 
patience  possess  your  soul. 


R.  H.  GRIFFITH  to  J.  A  B. : 

CHARLOTTE,  N.  C.,  Aug.  20,  1866 :  It  is  not  so  much  that  I 
suppose  that  my  views  of  the  matter  are  of  any  moment  with  you, 
as  for  the  satisfaction  it  will  furnish  myself  in  giving  expression  to 
my  feelings,  that  I  write  to  say  to  you  that  I  am  very,  very  glad  that 
\  ou  have  decided  to  remain  in  your  present  position  in  the  Seminary.1 
I  really  believe  that  such  is  the  sentiment  of  the  great  body  of  our 
brethren  throughout  the  South,  and  I  trust  that  you  will  receive  from 
those  whose  views  should  have  weight,  such  assurances  of  their 
gratification  at  your  decision,  as  will  go  far  towards  furnishing 
heart-compensation  for  the  self-denial  you  make  in  remaining.  And 
yet,  far  more  than  this,  I  pray  that  the  Master  may  so  bless  your  labors 
and  so  furnish  your  heart  with  delight  in  the  work  of  your  position 
that  you  may  have  the  self-satisfaction  of  feeling  that  he  has  di- 
rected your  decision.  May  our  heavenly  Father  not  only  bless  your 
labors  and  accept  your  sacrifices  there,  but  graciously  fill  your  heart 
with  the  delights  of  his  presence. 

You  will  excuse  me  for  saying  this  much.  It  was  in  my  heart, 
and  I  feel  better  now  I've  said  it. 


CHARLOTTE,  N.  C.,  Sept.  17, 1866:  Tell  the  young  brethren  to 
learn  to  sing  a  few  tunes,  for  I  have  seen  some  good  meetings 
spoiled  for  want  of  some  person  to  raise  the  tune. 

Doctor  Broadus  from  the  start  took  great  interest  in 

the  students  learning  how  to  sing. 


J.  A.  B.  to  H,  P.  GRIFFITH  [member  of  the  Cedar  Grove  Church]  : 
GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Oct.  5, 1866 :  I  am  quite  sick,  and  utterly 
broken  in  spirits — intermittent  fever— very  weak.     Doctor  Earle 
says  it  will  take  several  weeks  before  I  can  do  anything. 

I  am  specially  dispirited  at  being  utterly  unable  to  obtain  any 
money  in  my  present  condition.    It  is  impossible  for  an  honest  man 
to  live  in  town  without  money  all  the  time.    How  much  more  when  ' 
he  is  prostrate  on  his  bed.  .  . 

If  any  of  those  who  owe  me  and  who,  I  know,  find  it  exceedingly 
hard  to  pay  anything,  could  understand  my  present  state  of  need 
and  mortification,  they  would  feel  like  making  a  most  earnest  effort  to 
pay  me  something. 

1  He  had  been  asked  to  be  President  of  Richmond  College. 


I  should  not  have  been  willing  to  speak  thus/if  in  my  usual  health, 
for  I  should  have  been  more  hopeful  and  there  would  have  been 
some  chance  that  I  might  find  out  some  way  of  getting  something.  . . 

Keep  on  the  old  way ;  that  if  any  prefer  giving  provisions  instead 
of  money,  let  them  do  so. 

J.  M.  BROADUS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  Nov.  i,  1866:  I  told  Bro.  Bitting  to  tell  you 
that  if  you  wanted  to  hear  from  me  you  could  take  the  usual  course 
for  getting  a  letter ;  but  upon  reflection,  I  think  I  am  now  your 
debtor,  not  having  written  you  since  your  letter  explaining  the  Rich- 
mond College  affair.  Well,  just  a  word  about  that :  I  approved  your 
course  in  that  matter  and  surely  everybody  else  approves  it  ex- 
cepting such  as  cannot  see  how  a  man  is  justified  in  "  refusing  a 
good  offer  " — good  in  the  sense  of  promising  a  handsome  yield  of 
money.  Martha  and  I  were  talking  of  it  when  I  saw  her  last  week. 
The  four  or  five  thousand  dollars  shocked  her  sensibilities,  but  she 
accepted  the  explanation  and  agreed  you  had  done  right.  What  is 
the  matter  that  you  do  not  write  for  the  "  Herald"  any  more?  I 
need  not  say  that  your  articles  afforded  a  large  proportion  of  my 
pleasure  in  the  paper.  Are  you  busy  with  your  twelve  pupils? 
Maybe  your  commentary  has  been  resumed.  And  are  you  still  serv- 
ing three  churches  ? 

Some  reminiscences  of  Doctor  Broadus's  work  at  Cedar 
Grove  Church  have  been  furnished  by  Prof.  H.  P. 

Griffith : 

I  noted  a  little  exhibition  of  delicate  feeling  and  of  fine  perception 
on  his  part  which  I  was  fully  prepared  to  appreciate.  He  asked  me 
to  open  the  Bible  and  read  a  passage  from  one  of  the  minor  books. 
There  were  young  ladies  present  and  he  must  have  noticed  my  blank 
look,  and  so  he  with  hardly  any  pause,  went  on  to  enumerate  in  order 
the  names  of  the  books,  so  that  to  my  great  relief  I  had  no  difficulty 
in  finding  the  places.  .  . 

Just  after  the  war  when  the  Ku  Klux  were  committing  great 
atrocities  and  terrorizing  the  upper  part  of  South  Carolina,  I  was 
with  Doctor  Broadus  at  a  place  where  a  small  party  of  six  or  eight 
young  men  were  present.  They  were  all  strangers  to  him  and  some 
of  them  were  to  me.  One  of  the  young  men  introduced  the  subject 
of  the  Ku  Klux  and  several  of  them  put  verbal  endorsement  on  the 
organization,  or  expressed  their  approval  of  it,  as  many  good  men 


did.  Doctor  Broadus  was  silent  for  some  time,  but  finally  he  spoke, 
and  I  never  heard  a  more  scathing  rebuke  administered  than  he  gave 
the  young  men  and  the  Ku  Klux.  He  grew  eloquent  over  the  woes 
already  inflicted  by  the  organization,  and  spoke  with  withering 
power  of  the  criminality  of  lawlessness  and  of  the  just  retribution 
that  was  sure  to  come.  After  we  had  left,  I  said,  "  Doctor  you  were 
pretty  hard  on  those  young  men."  He  replied,  "  Yes,  I  saw  that 
two  or  three  of  them  were  Ku  Klux,  and  I  felt  it  my  duty  to  repri- 
mand them  in  strong  terms." 

There  was  a  member  of  our  church  who  would  never  contribute 
anything  to  the  pastor's  salary,  though  he  was  a  man  of  some 
means.  He  pretended  to  believe  that  it  was  wrong  to  pay  a  man  for 
preaching,  and  he  could  at  any  time  quote  Scripture  in  defense  of  his 
position.  His  position  was  a  great  hobby  with  him,  and  he  was 
always  eager  for  a  wrangle  with  some  one  who  would  take  the 
other  side.  Doctor  Broadus  skillfully  avoided  all  contact  with  him 
on  his  hobby  for  several  years.  But  by  and  by  the  man  quit  at- 
tending church.  After  he  had  stayed  away  many  months,  Doctor 
Broadus  went  to  see  him  at  his  home.  He  began  to  talk  with  him 
kindly  and  lovingly  about  his  staying  away  from  church,  told  him 
that  he  was  neglecting  a  duty  and  a  privilege,  and  besides  was  set- 
ting an  example  that  would  do  harm  to  others.  He  told  him  further- 
more that  he  (Doctor  B )  had  just  come  from  the  bedside  of  an 

old  man  in  a  dying  condition  who  had  for  years  done  just  what  he 
was  doing,  and  now  it  was  the  source  of  bitter  regret  to  the  old  man 
that  he  had  so  acted  ;  and  that  the  time  was  coming  when  he  too 
would  bitterly  regret  the  way  he  was  doing.  At  about  this  stage 
the  man  sprang  his  hobby,  and  said,  "  Well,  what  do  you  want 
money  for  preaching  for?  "  Doctor  Broadus's  reply  was  like  the  light- 
ning's flash.  He  rose  to  his  feet  in  towering  indignation,  and  said ; 
"  Thy  money  perish  with  thee !  I  have  not  asked  you  for  money. 
Wait  till  I  ask  you  for  it,  before  you  insult  me  with  such  an  insinua- 
tion." And  he  turned  and  left  the  man  literally  writhing  under  his 
indignant  scorn. 

In  those  days  he  made  it  a  point  to  learn  something  from  every- 
body he  met.  I  saw  him  once  stand  by  a  blacksmith  and  watch 
him  intently  while  he  shod  a  horse.  He  not  only  watched,  but 
asked  many  pertinent  questions  about  the  process.  The  blacksmith 
was  greatly  flattered  by  the  interest  manifested,  and  a  casual  ob- 
server would  have  thought  that  Doctor  Broadus  was  trying  to  learn 
the  trade  of  shoeing  horses.  At  another  time  I  was  traveling  with 
him  on  a  railroad.  By  some  means  he  found  that  a  certain  portly- 


looking  gentleman  who  sat  far  from  us  was  a  big  railroad  official. 

On  learning  this,  Doctor  B went  to  him,  introduced  himself  and 

was  soon  seated  by  him  and  apparently  engaged  in  a  very  interest- 
ing conversation.  He  remained  with  him  for  perhaps  an  hour,  and 
when  he  came  to  me,  he  said :  "  That  is  Mr. ,  one  of  the  rail- 
road magnates.  I  do  love  to  meet  a  man  who  can  tell  me  a  whole 
heap  of  things  that  I  know  nothing  about." 

In  July,  1864, 1  was  brought  home,  badly  wounded.  Somewhere 
in  North  Carolina  I  was  surprised  and  delighted  to  see  Doctor 
Broadus  step  into  the  train.  He  was  homeward  bound  and  stayed 
with  me  through  the  rest  of  the  journey,  showing  me  every  possible 
kindness  and  attention.  I  was  unable  to  walk,  and  was  physically 
prostrate.  I  remember  that  an  officer  poured  out  some  whisky  from 
a  canteen  for  me  and  told  me  to  drink  it.  Before  I  had  done  so,  how- 
ever, he  added,  "  Stop,  I'll  get  some  sugar  and  sweeten  it."  Doctor 
Broadus  answered  quickly,  "  No,  don't  do  that.  If  he  is  going  to 
take  the  whisky  as  a  medicine,  let  him  do  it  and  don't  try  to  make 
a  beverage  of  it."  The  sugar  was  not  brought.  During  the  day 
on  which  we  arrived  at  home  he  sat  down  by  me  in  the  car  and 
talked  to  me  long  and  affectionately.  He  gave  me  a  good  deal  of 
advice  in  regard  to  building  up  my  health  and  thereby  improving 
jny  wounds,  and  he  added :  "  Harrison,  you  will  now  be  the  head 
of  a  family  when  you  get  home  (I  was  married  and  had  one  child) 
and  it  will  be  a  good  time  for  you  to  begin  to  have  family  prayer. 
Kneel  down  with  your  wife  every  night,  and  teach  your  little  girl 
to  be  still  while  you  lift  up  your  heart  to  God."  He  then  went 
on  to  mention  many  things  to  be  prayed  for,  and  indeed  outlined 
the  kind  of  prayer  that  I  should  use,  so  that  it  would  be  easy  for 
me  to  make  it.  He  did  all  this  with  such  charming  tact,  and  yet 
he  was  so  simple  and  earnest  and  affectionate,  that  I  was  impressed 
for  a  lifetime. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  \_en  route  to  Southern  Baptist  Convention]  : 

ATLANTA,  GA.,  May  6,  1867  :  In  the  afternoon  tihere  was  a  union 
celebration  of  all  the  Protestant  Sunday-schools.  It  was  a  grand 
procession,  the  schools  amounting  to  actually  two  thousand  present. 
An  immense  hall  was  crowded,  and  a  multitude  found  it  impossible 
to  enter.  Probably  twenty-five  hundred  were  kept  forty-five  minutes 
listening  to  a  most  inappropriate  address  from  a  distinguishec1 

preacher,  Doctor  M .    It  was  full  of  spread  eagle,  geology  and 

infidelity,  cyclopedia  and  dictionary,  and  the  poor  children  sat  try- 
ing to  listen. 


MEMPHIS,  TENN.,  May  8, 1867  :  Mr.  Keen  and  I  went  before 
dinner  to  see  the  "  R.  E  Lee,"  a  new  and  marvelously  splendid  Mis- 
sissippi River  steamer.  I  then  got  my  first  sight  of  the  Mississippi. 
A  mighty  river  moving  in  its  majesty  always  strongly  affects  me. 
I  must  try  to  go  alone  some  day,  and  sit  and  gaze  an  hour  upon  the 
grandest  of  earth's  rivers.  At  such  a  moment  there  is  but  one  per- 
son whose  presence  would  not  disturb  me.  The  "  R.  E.  Lee"  is  a 
magnificent  affair,  the  saloon  as  splendidly  gilt  as  the  halls  of  Con- 
gress, and  beautifully  furnished.  Oh,  how  much  I  should  like  to 
take  passage  in  it  next  week  for  New  Orleans.  When  we  get  rich 
we  must  take  a  trip  on  the  Mississippi. 

J.  H.  THAYER  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

ANDOVER,  MASS.,  May  13,  1867  :  Please  accept  my  thanks  for 
your  very  kind  note  of  the  2$d  ult.  The  suggestions  you  make  re- 
specting "  Winer's  Grammar"  seem  to  me  to  be  well  founded.  My 
experience  in  the  use  of  it  as  a  text-book,  though  brief,  has  been 
similar  to  your  own.  The  first  and  gravest  difficulty  I  encountered, 
however,  on  making  daily  use  of  Masson's  translation  arose  from 
its  untrustworthiness.  With  all  its  ease  as  a  translation,  I  found  it 
could  not  be  relied  upon  as  a  faithful  reproduction  of  the  original. 

Doctor  Broadus  was  asked  to  preach  the  baccalaureate 
sermon  at  Washington  College.  When  he  demurred  at 
the  distance  and  expense,  Gen.  R.  E.  Lee  sent  back  this 
message  through  the  Baptist  pastor,  Rev.  J.  Wm.  Jones  : 

LEXINGTON,  VA.,  May  18,  1867  s  General  Lee  says  :  "Tell  him 
we  are  as  poor  as  church  mice,  but  would  most  gladly  pay  four 
times  the  amount  in  order  to  have  one  of  his  gospel  sermons  and 
have  the  pleasure  of  his  society." 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

DANVILLE,  VA.,  June  5,  1867  :  Parted  from  Misses  P and 

W this  morning  at  Greensboro.    They  are  going  to  a  Catholic 

convent  school,  and  as  I  looked  at  them  in  their  girlish  simplicity, 
I  felt  like  I  was  leading  maidens  to  a  sacrifice.  I  tried  to  say  some 
things  before  parting,  as  much  as  delicacy  would  allow,  and  trust  it 
may  do  them  a  little  good,  as  we  had  become  attached  to  each  other, 
and  they  wept  at  my  words.  I  merely  urged  that  they  should  love 
Christ,  and  must  lodge  fast  in  their  minds  the  idea  that  Jesus  is  as 


truly  human,  with  as  tender  human  sympathy  as  his  mother  or  any 
one,  and  that  no  one  must  ever  come  between  the  soul  and  him. 

Between  Columbia  and  Charlotte  I  had  much  pleasant  talk  with 
Rev.  Dr.  Woodrow,  of  the  Presbyterian  Seminary  at  Columbia,  to 
whom  I  was  introduced,  and  who  is  a  very  agreeable  man. 

LOCUST  GROVE,  CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  June  6, 1867  :  At 
Gordonsville  the  others  took  the  O  and  Alexandria  train  by  a  new 
arrangement  and  went  ahead.  I  was  on  the  platform  and  waited  for 
the  Central  train,  which  had  backed  some  distance,  to  come  up, 
taking  for  granted  it  would  stop.  Finding  that  it  was  passing  without 
stopping,  bewildered  at  the  idea  of  being  left,  and  imagining  that  the 
train  was  not  yet  moving  rapidly,  I  committed  a  great  folly  by  try- 
ing to  get  on  while  it  was  in  motion.  I  seized  the  iron  rods  with  my 
two  hands,  was  immediately  dragged  from  my  feet,  and  found  my- 
self between  the  platform  and  the  swiftly  moving  car,  holding  by 
my  hands,  and  dragged  over  the  crossties,  sadly  near  the  terrible 
wheels.  By  a  great  effort  I  lifted  myself  so  as  to  get  one  knee  on 
the  bottom  step,  and  thus  got  on,  fiercely  scolded  by  an  unknown 
passenger,  and  feeling,  I  trust,  thankful  that  my  grievous  impru- 
dence had  produced  no  worse  consequences,  and  that  I  myself,  and 
not  another,  would  tell  you  the  story.  One  ankle  was  a  little  bruised 
by  striking  a  crosstie,  and  the  jar  and  fright  made  me  nervous  for 
some  hours.  I  shiver  still  when  I  think  of  it.  If  my  life  is  spared 
long,  it  is  greatly  to  be  feared  that  I  shall  do  a  variety  of  foolish 
things,  but  I  feel  at  present  a  strong  confidence  that  I  shall  never 
again  try  to  get  on  a  train  in  motion.  .  . 

The  first  thing  I  did  upon  entering  the  yard  was  to  pluck  a  rose 
from  the  "  Giant  of  Battles,"  and  some  leaves  of  it  shall  be  enclosed 
in  this.  .  . 

I  throw  open  the  blinds,  and  yonder  he  the  green  fields,  smiling 
under  the  level  rays  of  the  declining  sun,  and  farther  the  long  line  of 
the  Blue  Ridge,  which  bears  my  thoughts  southward  to  that  far-off 
home  where  the  sweet  wife  sits  who  left  this  beautiful  landscape  for 
love  of  me.  God  be  thanked  that  she  will  not  have  a  telegraphic 
dispatch  to-morrow  night  telling  her  that  her  husband's  crushed 
body  lies  still  at  Gordonsville.  And  God  grant  that  we  may  meet 
again  at  the  appointed  time,  both  improved  in  health,  and  that  I  may 
be  enabled  to  be  to  you  somewhat  such  a  husband  as  I  wish  and 
mean  this  evening. 

LYNCHBURG,  June  8, 1867 :  Boyce  is  somewhat  sick  this  evening. 
He  is  much  distressed  and  depressed  by  the  death  of  Elf  ord.  He  has 



about  determined  to  stay  and  teach  his  classes  next  session,  and  de- 
cide a  year  hence  about  his  future. 

You  may  know  what  a  crowd l  there  is,  from  the  fact  that  I  did  not 
speak  to  Uncle  William  till  noon  to-day,  nor  to  John  Hart  till  just 
now,  five  o'clock. 

LOCUST  GROVE,  CHARLOTTESVILLE,  June  13,  1867 :  Went 
up  to  the  University  and  dined  at  Mr.  Smith's.  I  heard  part  of  a 
lecture  from  Mr.  Smith  on  "  Electricity,"  and  was  very  much  in- 
terested. Went  into  Mr.  Peters'  examination  in  Latin,  and  met  Mr. 
Holmes  there  also.  Mary  Smith  has  been  much  interested  of  late 
in  translating  from  the  German,  prose  and  poetry ;  among  other 
things,  a  complete  translation  of  Schiller's  "  Song  of  the  Bell," 
which  was  mislaid,  and  I  could  not  see  it.  If  Annie  receives  two 
numbers  of  a  Philadelphia  weekly,  "  The  Age,"  she  will  find  in  it  a 
story,  "  The  Broken  Pitcher,"  which  Mrs.  Smith  translated.  .  .  I 
mean  to  write  for  them.  In  the  evening  before  coming  back,  I  rode 
on  horseback  to  the  country.  Everywhere  I  go  I  want  you  with  me 
— every  feature  of  the  landscape  makes  me  think  of  you,  every  me- 
mento of  the  past  is  somehow  associated  with  you. 

GOSHEN  DEPOT,  VA.,  June  16, 1867  :  I  left  Lexington  last  night. 
...  I  was  treated  with  great  respect  and  kindness,  of  course,  and 
my  sermon,  though  imperfect,  succeeded  better  than  I  had  feared, 
and  I  trust  did  some  good. 

I  wrote  Saturday  morning.  That  afternoon  General  Lee  and  several 
professors  called.  There  was  a  concert  at  night,  but  I  stayed  at  home, 
hoarse,  and  feeling  badly.  Sunday  morning  it  rained  considerably, 
which  prevented  my  going  to  Sunday-school,  and  prevented  the 
huge  Presbyterian  church  from  running  over.  It  was  full,  including 
some  four  hundred  college  students  and  cadets.  I  did  greatly  long 
to  make  them  think  of  Jesus.2  Oh,  that  I  could  once  speak  of  him 
somewhat  as  a  man  ought  to  speak.  1  dined  at  Colonel  Reid's, 
whose  only  son  died  at  the  University  while  I  was  chaplain,  and  I 
preached  his  funeral  sermon  one  Sunday  afternoon  in  the  public  hall. 
(I  think  you  were  present.)  One  of  his  daughters  married  James 
White.  I  spoke  to  old  Doctor  White  of  you  as  his  pupil,  and  he 
said  some  kind  and  handsome  things,  speaking  also  of  your  father, 
as  having  given  him  a  very  kind  and  valuable  support  in  his  early 
years  of  teaching  and  preaching  at  Charlottesville.  In  the  after- 

1  June  meetings  of  Virginia  Baptists. 
2  He  preached  on  "  One  Jesus,"  from  Acts  35  :  19. 


noon  I  attended  a  prayer  meeting  at  the  Baptist  church,  and  talked 
to  them,  having  steadily  declined  to  preach.  Took  tea  with  a  Bap- 
tist brother  and  at  night  heard  Dr.  B.  M.  Smith,  formerly  of  Staun- 
ton,  before  the  Christian  Association.  General  Lee  invited  me  to 
dine  with  him,  and  then  to  take  tea  on  Monday,  but  I  was  already 
engaged  for  both.  Monday  I  saw  the  town—called  on  Mrs.  Lee, 
who  is  an  invalid  in  a  wheeled  chair,  but  exceedingly  agreeable.  .  . 
In  the  afternoon  visited  Jackson's  grave.  Took  tea  with  Professor 
Harris,1  who  was  my  classmate  at  the  University,  and  met  there 
most  of  the  new  professors,  some  half-dozen  very  pleasing  gentle- 
men. At  nine  o'clock  went  to  the  celebration  of  the  Ugly  Club, 
which  was  quite  entertaining. 

J.  M.  GREEN  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

MACON,  GA.,  May  6,  1868  :  Some  two  months  since  I  wrote  to 
my  friend,  Doctor  Davidson,  of  Lexington,  requesting  to  know  if  I 
could  obtain  a  biography  of  that  distinguished  scholar,  Gessner  Har- 
rison, whose  name,  although  perhaps  the  greatest  scholar  that 
America  has  produced,  is  almost  unknown  to  his  Southern  country- 
men. I  desire  to  procure  such  a  notice  of  his  life  and  character  as 
would  be  appropriate  for  insertion  in  the  papers  and  m  a  biographical 
dictionary.  I  felt  that  a  man  who  had  conferred  so  much  honor  on 
his  country  should  not  be  allowed  to  pass  away  without  the  slightest 
attempt  to  perpetuate  his  name  and  fame.  I  have,  therefore,  at  the 
suggestion  of  Doctor  Davidson,  taken  the  liberty  to  ask  of  you  if 
you  would  not  undertake  to  prepare  and  have  published  such  a 
sketch  of  Doctor  Harrison's  life,  and  also  send  me  a  copy  of  the 
same  for  republication  here.  My  reason  for  applying  to  you,  is  that 

I  have  learned  from  Doctor  D that  you  have  been  appointed  to 

prepare  and  deliver  a  eulogy  on  the  life  and  character  of  your  dis- 
tinguished relative  before  the  alumni  of  the  University  of  Virginia. 

In  May,  1868,  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention  met 
in  Baltimore.  Many  visiting  ministers  attended  from  the 
adjacent  Northern  States. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

BALTIMORE,  MD.,  May  8,  1868  :  Just  adjourned— great  hurry. 
I  am  quite  hoarse,  but  general  health  improving.  Have  declined 
preaching  and  been  excused.  Meeting  for  Seminary  this  evening— 

1  Carter  Johns  Harris. 


new  plan— much  feeling.    Don't  know  yet  what  the  result  will  be 
The  Lord  direct.    I  said  that  reliable  arrangements  must  be  made  or 
I  must  resign  this  very  summer. 
All  straight  and  smooth  about  the  Northerners. 

BALTIMORE,  Saturday,  May  9,  1868  :  Session  for  the  day  nearly 
over.  Morning  spent  on  the  Seminary.  Remarkable  interest.  I 
suppose  we  shall  be  sustained,  but  it  is  not  absolutely  certain.  It  is 
certain  that  we  shall  not,  for  some  years  to  come,  remove  the  Semi- 
nary from  Greenville. 

Fuss  this  afternoon  about  the  North  and  the  South.  Pomdexter 
grew  heated  and  Doctor  Welch,  from  New  York,  is  now  making  an 
injudicious  reply.  These  old  men  are  rather  hotheaded  and  I  fear 
some  of  the  young  men  may  catch  the  contagion.  Things  look  a 
little  black  in  that  direction. 

BALTIMORE,  May  12,  1868 :  We  are  still  engaged— some  sense, 
and  some  nonsense.  Sunday-school  Board  moved  to  Memphis, 
after  somewhat  hot  debate,  Boyce  and  Graves.  I  took  tea  yester- 
day with  Miss  Cornelia  Taliaferro.  .  . 

There  is  to  be  a  meeting  Thursday  at  twelve  o'clock  of  a  society 
for  the  education  of  Southern  girls.  I  gave  notice  of  it  last  Sunday 
with  some  remarks  which  pleased  the  ladies,  and  some  of  them  be- 
sieged me  last  night  to  stay  and  speak  on  Thursday.  The  very  ex- 
istence of  the  Seminary  depends  on  the  support  of  Baltimore,  and  I 
agreed  to  remain.  .  Have  just  refused  to  change  back  to  biennial 
sessions,  with  less  discussion  than  1  had  feared.  .  .  It  is  settled  that 
I  am  to  resign  my  churches,  and  spend  the  summer  collecting  in 

J.  A.  B.  to  A.  B.  WOODRUFF  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  May  18,  1868 :  What  can  I  say?  I 
can  hardly  bear  the  thought,  but  it  must  be  so. 

There  was  talk  of  sending  me  to  England,  but  I  objected ;  I  am  to 
spend  the  summer  in  Virginia,  partly  perhaps  at  the  Springs,  and 
hope  that  I  shall  be  strong  next  fall  for  my  duties  in  the  Seminary. 
Brethren  seem  determined  that  I  shall  live.  I  can  no  longer  do  both 
a  professor's  and  a  pastor's  work,  and  everything  must  bend  to  the 
Seminary.  For  it  I  left  my  position  here,  which  was  to  me  the  most 
attractive  pastorate  in  the  country.  Brilliant  proposals  are  made  in 
different  directions,  but  I  have  no  thought  of  anything  else  than  ad- 
hering to  the  Seminary,  though  the  salary  is  not  increased,  and  I 
shall  have  hard  work  to  live. 


My  best  love  to  your  dear  wife.  I  have  formed  many  friendships 
at  Bethel  which  will  be  cherished  as  long  as  I  live. 


The  first  year  of  Doctor  Broadus' s  pastorate  was  for  only  one 
Sunday  in  the  month.  He  came  down  from  Greenville,  a  distance 
of  twenty-four  miles,  on  every  Saturday  before  the  second  Sunday, 
preached  that  day  and  the  day  following,  and  returned  to  his  home 
on  Sunday,  and  for  that  service  we  paid  him  $200.  .  .  During 
this  second  year  he  prepared  and  presented  to  the  members  of  the 
church  a  scheme  for  reading  the  Bible  through  in  a  year.  Many  of 
the  members  adopted  his  scheme  and  found  pleasure  and  profit  too, 
in  carrying  out  his  plan.  .  . 

He  had  a  most  affectionate  way  of  drawing  out  the  members  to 
lead  in  public  prayer.  And  it  was  wonderful  to  see  the  extent  of 
success  in  this  line  of  work.  Men  who  had  always  been  considered 
immovable  as  to  this  order  of  Christian  duty  would  melt  down  under 
the  influence  of  his  affectionate  loving  spirit  and  draw  us  all  nearer 
to  a  throne  of  grace  .  . 

When  he  left  us,  in  June,  1868,  it  was  one  of  the  saddest  days  our 
church  had  ever  experienced.  He  was  beloved  by  all,  and  in  fact  we 
could  hardly  exist  without  him.  The  church  had  just  voted  him  a 
vacation  of  some  weeks  and  he  was  then  absent  on  that  vacation. 
His  letter  of  resignation  came  and  was  accepted  under  a  sense  of  the 
saddest  duty. 

He  was  always  prompt  to  fill  his  appointments  when  it  was  possi- 
ble for  him  to  do  so  and  he  was  just  as  prompt  to  return  to  his  home, 
although  he  would  very  often  have  lo  use  a  part  of  the  night  to 
reach  his  home.  Some  of  the  brethren  of  our  church  prepared  and 
furnished  him  a  buggy  and  umbrella,  while  the  brethren  of  the  Cedar 
Grove  Church,  near-by,  and  which  he  also  supplied,  furnished  him 
a  horse,  and  this  supplied  him  with  the  means  of  transportation  for 
his  work.  The  women  of  the  congregation  wove  and  made  him  a 
full  suit  of  jeans  which  he  wore  for  a  long  time  and  enjoyed  very 
much.  It  was  a  work  of  love  on  the  part  of  these  Christian  women. 

After  the  Convention,  Doctor  and  Mrs.  Broadus  were 
invited  to  visit  Miss  Cornelia  Taliaferro  in  Baltimore. 
They  greatly  enjoyed  their  stay  of  ten  days,  meeting 

Dr.  Richard  Fuller,  who  was  Miss  T 's  pastor,  and  a 

number  of  other  friends.     Meanwhile  Doctor  Broadus 


went  over  to  New  York  with  Doctor  Manly  to  attend  the 
May  Anniversaries.  He  had  been  formally  asked  to 
address  the  Home  Mission  Society  upon  "  The  Religious 
Condition  and  Wants  of  the  South." 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

NEW  YORK,  May  26,  1868 ;  This  afternoon  we  were  formally  re- 
ceived, with  two  or  three  hours  of  grand  glorification  speeches,  great 
crowd,  and  prodigious  enthusiasm.  I  feel  worn  with  excitement,  and 
to-night  have  to  make  my  address.  I  am  ashamed  to  predict  a  fail- 
ure—you laugh  at  me  for  doing  so  ;  but  the  circumstances  are  very 
trying,  and  I  shall  speak  under  many  disadvantages.  I  fear  and 
tremble,  for  I  should  like  to  do  good,  and  there  is  a  chance  for  doing 

DR.  NATHAN  BISHOP  to  J.  A.  B. . 

NEW  YORK,  May  28, 1868 :  Remembering  that  the  faithful  laborer 
is  worthy  of  his  hire  and  believing  that  your  views  and  conduct  are 
aiding  in  restoring  good  will  between  Northern  and  Southern  Bap- 
tists, I  enclose  one  hundred  dollars  for  you  personally  to  encourage 
you  in  your  efforts  as  a  peacemaker. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA  ,  June  5,  1868:  I  have  had  an  exciting  day. 
Seminary  up  this  morning  at  eleven  o'clock.  Manly  and  R.  Fur- 
man  made  admirable  speeches,  and  I  tried  collecting.  Got  more  than 
I  expected,  viz,  eight  men  to  give  one  hundred  dollars  a  year  for 
five  years,  making  four  thousand  dollars  in  all.  There  will  proba- 
bly be  two  or  three  others.  Also  got  over  one  hundred  dollars  cash 
collection,  and  two  or  three  hundred  has  been  paid  on  bonds.  The 
interest  for  the  Seminary  is  strong,  and  I  feel  encouraged.  I  have  to 
make  a  short  speech  to-night  for  Richmond  College. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  June  15,  1868:  Encouraged  by  Bro. 
Jeter,  I  have  just  written  to  Gould  &  Lincoln  about  publishing  my 
"  Notes  on  Matthew."  I  am  a  stranger  to  them,  and  beg  you  will 
write  them  a  note  on  my  behalf. 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  June  24,  1868:  Gould  &  Lincoln 
write  very  kindly,  etc.—need  not  wait  for  letters  referred  to,  for  could 


not  undertake  to  issue  so  costly  a  work  now,  which  could  not  have 
a  rapid  sale,  when  business  is  so  depressed,  etc.  Would  publish  with 
pleasure  if  the  plates  were  furnished,  which  of  course  I  can't  do.  A 
final  disappointment  to  me  for  the  present.  Perhaps  it  will  turn  out 
for  the  best.  I  must  try  now  and  learn  something  instead  of  pro- 

My  health  is  improving.  I  am  trying  very  hard  to  rest  and  be- 
have myself. 

S.  S.  CUTTING  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

SARATOGA  SPRINGS,  June  27,  1868 :  How  deeply  I  am  myself 
interested  in  your  work  you  already  know.  The  education  of  min- 
isters is  not  a  question  of  the  passing  hour  only.  There  is  a  great 
future  before  our  country,  fraught  with  mingled  good  and  evil,  and 
the  good  will  be  much  in  proportion  as  the  churches  of  our  blessed 
Lord  are  taught  and  guided  by  a  consecrated  and  able  ministry. 
That  this  question  so  looms  up  at  the  South  at  the  present  time,  is  to 
me  among  the  happiest  of  auguries,  and  whether  for  the  cause  of  re- 
union in  our  Baptist  family,  or  of  happily  restored  civil  relations,  or 
of  our  country's  evangelization  and  its  permanent  well-being,  I  know 
of  no  way  in  which  a  Northern  Baptist  can  use  his  means  more 
effectually  for  good  than  in  aiding  in  the  support  of  young  men  at 

B.  GRIFFITH  to  J.  A.  B. : 

PHILADELPHIA,  Dec.  31,  1868 :  Your  package  of  MS.  Commen- 
tary has  arrived  safely,  and  will  be  submitted  to  the  Publishing 
Committee  at  their  first  meeting,  after  which  I  shall  be  glad  to  report 
their  action. 

I  greatly  hope  that  this  work  may  prove  to  be  just  what  is  needed. 

Doctor  Weston,  a  few  days  after  the  reception  of  your  first  letter, 
informed  me  that  he  was  maturing  a  plan  for  having  a  commentary l 
prepared  on  the  Gospels  and  other  books  of  the  New  Testament  by 
different  parties ;  each  person  writing  on  one  separate  and  distinct 
book.  Doctor  Hovey  was  to  be  asked  to  write  on  John.  Doctor 
Kendrick  on  Luke,  I  think.  He  proposed  writing  on  Matthew  him- 
self ;  but  he  will  now  probably  desire  you  to  take  Matthew.  He  pur- 
posed asking  you  to  unite  m  the  plan  and  to  be  one  of  the  writers. 
I  presume  he  will  confer  with  you  before  long. 

The  idea  is  a  good  one,  provided  the  right  men  are  selected  1o 
write  on  the  books  on  which  they  can  do  best. 

1  This  plan  resulted  m  the  excellent  "  American  Commentary.", 


By  May,  1869,  Doctor  Broadus's  health  was  still  much 
impaired.  '  A  new  professor,  Dr.  C.  H.  Toy,  was  added 
at  this  meeting  by  the  trustees,  so  that  Doctor  Broadus 
could  be  relieved  of  homiletics,  Doctor  Manly  taking 
homiletics  and  Doctor  Toy  Old  Testament  interpretation. 
Doctor  Broadus  took  some  interest  in  the  discussion  of 
the  translation  given  to  i  Tim.  i  :  10,  by  the  Bible  Union 
Revision  of  Doctor  Conant,  where  "  menstealers"  is 
rendered  "  slavedealers."  He  strongly  insisted  that 
"menstealers"  was  correct.  In  July  Doctor  Broadus 
wrote  a  very  remarkable  article  in  the  "  Baptist  Quar- 
terly "  on  the  closing  verses  of  Mark,  strongly  advocat- 
ing their  genuineness.1  The  article  was  entitled  "  Exe- 
getical  Notes  "  and  dealt  with  the  style  of  these  verses 
compared  with  the  rest  of  Mark, 

Dean  Burgon  in  his  book  on  the  authenticity  of  this 
part  of  Mark  quotes  freely  from  Doctor  Broadus's  article.2 

B.  F.  WESTCOTT  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

HARROW,  LONDON,  N.  W.,  Sept.  3,  1868:  Allow  me  to  thank 
you  most  sincerely  for  your  obliging  note  and  the  journal  which  ac- 
companied it.  I  have  read  with  interest  the  careful  and  sound  criti- 
cism to  which  you  kindly  called  my  attention.  The  limitations  which 
you  fix  to  the  application  of  simply  mechanical  rules  in  estimating 
the  real  character  and  style  are,  I  believe,  most  true  and  necessary. 
Style,  indeed,  is  the  result  of  the  relation  between  the  individual  nature 
and  the  subject,  and  when  the  subject  is  varied  it  must,  if  it  is  to  be 
spontaneous,  vary  in  like  manner  with  the  same  writer.  The  neglect 
of  this  obvious  principle  has  led  to  the  most  irrational  conclusions  in 
reference  to  the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul's  captivity,  and  to  the  Pastoral 
Epistles.  As  soon  as  we  really  apprehend  that  style  is  a  function  of 
the  circumstances  as  well  as  of  the  man,  difficulties  vanish  which  are 
otherwise  grave  and  perplexing. 

With  regard  to  the  passage  of  St.  Mark,  which  you  most  ably 
analyze,  external  evidence  leaves  no  doubt,  in  my  opinion,  that  it  was 

1  See  Prolegomena  to  Tischendorfs  "No-y«»*  Testamentum,"  by  Caspar  Rene 
Gregory,  p  1260,  where  he  speaks  of  Doctor  Broadus  as  "  vtr  docttssimus," 

2  Doctor  Broadus  afterward  felt  more  uncertain  about  these  last  verses  of  Mark. 


a  very  early  addition  to  the  Gospel  and  not,  I  think,  by  St.  Mark.  The 
writer  of  ver.  5  could  not — to  express  a  feeling  which  hardly  can  be  re- 
duced into  an  argument — have  continued  his  narrative  in  ver.  g.  My 
experience  too,  in  dealing  very  minutely  with  the  Greek  text  leads  me 
to  think  that  such  a  combination  as  K  B  k  Arm  (pp.)  is  never  wrong. 
We  are  under  engagement  now  to  complete  our  text  of  the  New 
Testament  next  year  ;  the  work,  which  will  appear  very  simple,  has 
cost  immense  labor,  but  1  hope  it  may  issue  in  the  substantial  ancient 
text.  It  is  an  advantage  that  every  reading  has  had  the  advantage 
of  a  two-fold  judgment. 

The  prospectus  which  you  enclosed  interests  me  extremely,  and  I 
should  gladly  know  more  of  the  remarkable  Seminary  which  it 
describes.  Indeed,  there  is  nothing  to  which  I  look  forward  with 
more  interest  than  a  visit  to  America.  At  present  my  work  renders 
this  impossible,  but  it  is  not  past  hope. 

As  a  very  slight  indication  of  what  we  try  to  do  in  guiding  the 
reading  of  candidates  for  Holy  Orders,  I  send  a  little  paper  of  hints 
which  is  asked  in  our  own  examinations. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  L.  M.  CURRY  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  n,  1870:  I  was  very  much  obliged  to 
you  for  the  copy  of  "  Protestantism — how  far  a  failure."  It  is 
very  timely  and  admirably  done.  I  opine  that  "  Clippings  with 
Comments  "  in  the  "  Herald"  are  from  you,  and  should  be  glad  to 
see  more  of  them. 

I  could  not  fail  to  heed  your  suggestion  last  fall  that  I  should  work 
towards  the  task  of  preparing  a  life  of  Christ.  For  some  years,  in 
fact,  I  have  felt  that  if  I  could  do  several  things  preparatory,  and  then 
write,  deliberately  and  with  ample  labor,  a  life  of  our  Lord,  it  would 
be  the  goal  of  my  literary  aspirations ;  and  that  one  of  my  wisest 
and  most  cherished  friends  should  have  suggested  the  same  thing,  is 
a  matter  of  much  interest  to  me.  But  the  way  is  long,  and  I  am 
weak,  and  elaborate  composition  is  very  wearing  to  me.  Last  sum- 
mer I  went  to  work  at  a  treatise  on  the  "  Preparation  and  Delivery 
of  Sermons,"  hoping  to  make  a  text-book  for  Manly,  and  at  the 
same  time  meet  the  wants  of  young  ministers  who  have  no  course  of 
instruction  in  homiletics,  and  give  some  useful  hints  to  older  minis- 
ters. I  worked  at  it  all  summer,  but  have  not  yet  completed  it 
Such  books  do  not  get  a  wide  sale,  and  no  publisher  is  willing  to 
take  one  from  an  unknown  Southern  author.  So  I  am  arranging  to 
publish  at  my  own  expense,  through  Smith  &  English.  A  generous 
contribution  from  unknown  persons  in  Richmond,  lately  received 


through  Wm  B.  Isaacs  &  Co.,  came  when  I  was  quite  despondent 
about  the  prospect  of  commanding  the  means  to  publish,  and  will  be 
a  very  important  help  to  me. 

I  don't  want  my  intention  to  issue  the  book  publicly  known  till  I 
am  prepared  to  announce  it.  I  hope  to  get  it  out  by  the  end  of  this 

session.  W.  D.  T x  has  with  exemplary  patience,  nay,  with  chai- 

acteristic  kindness,  encouraged  me  to  read  my  successive  chapters  to 
him,  and  has  made  useful  criticisms  and  suggestions. 

If  I  can  get  this  out,  and  mend  my  health  next  summer,  then  I 
want  to  finish  the  long-delayed  "  Notes  on  Matthew,"  which  the  Publi- 
cation Society  will  publish. 

Your  kind  suggestion  has  led  me  to  this  long  account  of  my  occu- 
pations and  plans.  You  will  pardon  it. 

We  are  having  a  good  session  (fifty-eight  students  in  all),  except 
that  the  bonds  are  not  promptly  paid,  and  our  finances  are  low.  I 
have  been  exceedingly  gratified  at  the  prosperity  of  Richmond  Col- 
lege, which  in  the  present  state  of  affairs  in  Virginia  seems  to  me 
very  marked  and  encouraging.  We  have  a  fine  young  man  here 
from  Berryville,  Kerfoot  (graduate  of  Columbian),  who  heard  you 
two  or  three  times  on  your  tours,  and  speaks  with  unbounded  en- 
thusiasm of  the  addresses. 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  24, 1870 :  If  I  could  for  a  moment  think 
of  leaving  here,  I  should  look  with  pleasure  upon  the  idea  of  joining 
you  at  Richmond  College.  But  I  am  satisfied  that  I  have  "  found 
my  work."  Oh,  for  strength  of  body  and  of  character  to  per- 
form it 

DR.  HOWARD  OSGOOD  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CHESTER,  PA.,  April  7,  1870  :  Doctor  Weston  tells  me  that  you 
expect  to  pass  by  here  on  your  way  to  New  York.  It  will  give  me 
a  great  deal  of  pleasure  to  have  you  stop  at  Chester  and  make  my 
house  your  resting-place.  Though  I  have  not  the  pleasure  of  a 
personal  acquaintance  with  you,  that  is  just  the  benefit  I  seek,  and  if 
you  will  come  under  my  roof  I  will  do  all  in  my  power  to  make  your 
stay  agreeable. 

I  have  been  requested  to  write  a  paper  on  "  The  Necessity  of  an 
Abridged  Course  of  Studies  in  our  Theological  Seminaries."  My 
own  views  of  the  necessity  of  such  a  course  are  decided — but  I  should 
like  to  have  a  statement  of  your  experience  at  Greenville. 

1  W.  D.  Thomas 


W.  D.  THOMAS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  May  21,  1870  : 1  By  this  time  you  have 
heard  from  Boyce.  I  can't  decide  for  you  in  the  case,  but,  if  you 
can  see  your  way  to  do  so,  will  be  glad  for  you  to  enjoy  the  trip  to 
Europe.  If  you  go,  you  had  better  get  such  guide  books  from  Curry 
and  myself  as  we  have  on  hand.  As  we  have  talked  the  matter 
over  I  need  say  nothing  more.  .  . 

As  to  the  Convention  at  Louisville  I  wish  to  say  a  few  things.  I 
did  not  say  all  on  the  subject  of  co-operation  which  I  could  say,  nor 
all  which  I  would  have  said  had  it  been  necessary.  I  certainly  said 
nothing  which  ought  to  offend  any  man  North.  My  convictions  on 
the  whole  subject  are  clear  and  strong.  I  am  in  favor  of  cultivating 
kindly  feeling,  in  favor  of  fraternal  intercourse,  in  favor  of  correspond- 
ing in  a  brotherly  way  through  messages  with  Northern  societies, 
but  utterly  opposed  to  having  our  Boards  in  any  way  complicated  or 
associated  with  theirs. 

As  a  result  of  the  visit  to  New  York,  where  he  went  to 
speak  at  the  Educational  Convention,  Doctor  Broadus 
was  urged  by  telegraph  to  become  pastor  of  the  Calvary 
Church,  New  York  City.  On  April  24  he  preached  for 
the  first  time  in  North  Orange,  which  led  to  the  many 
engagements  in  following  years. 

W.  A.  GELLATLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

NEW  YORK,  May  30,  1870  :  A  great  many  people  in  Orange 
were  disappointed  yesterday,  but  they  will  all  be  glad  when  you  re- 
turn. I  am  afraid  you  are  taking  so  strong  a  hold  on  the  hearts  of 
the  people  that  they  will  suffer  severely  when  you  get  through ;  you 
must  try  and  arrange  to  stay  with  us  on  through  July  and  August. 
I  wish  it  might  be  that  the  Lord  would  indicate  it  to  be  his  will  that 
you  should  remain  with  us  for  some  years,  at  least  long  enough  to 
enable  you  to  recuperate,  so  that  you  could  return  to  your  work  at 
Greenville  with  such  an  increase  of  health  and  strength  as  would 
enable  you  to  continue  your  work  for  years  to  come.  My  fear  is  that 
you  will  return  there  and  work  yourself  to  death  in  a  few  years, 
whereas  a  change  of  labor  and  climate  for  a  few  years  would 
lengthen  the  time  of  your  usefulness  in  the  work  so  dear  to  your 

1  Doctor  Boyce  had  persuaded  the  trustees  to  send  Doctor  Broadus  to  Europe  and 
Palestine  for  a  year  of  rest  and  travel. 


heart.    But  I  fear  I  am  on  forbidden  ground— nevertheless,  "  out  of 
the  fulness  of  the  heart  the  mouth  speaketh." 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  S.  B.  : 

NEW  YORK,  June  14,  1870 :  After  writing  to  your  mother  yester- 
day, at  three  P.  M.  I  caught  the  steamer,  and  reached  West  Point 
•  (fifty  odd  miles)  about  six.  It  was  a  great  delight  to  see  the  famous 
scenery  of  the  Hudson.  1  have  a  map  of  description  which  I  mean 
to  carry  home  for  Sam.  At  West  Point,  it  happened  to  be  the  sea- 
son of  examinations.  I  got  only  an  extemporized  couch  in  the 
cupola  of  the  hotel,  with  the  music  of  the  "hop"  sounding  four 
stories  lower  till  nearly  morning,  and  with  the  frequent  whistle  of 
steamers  rounding  the  point,  or  the  roar  of  trains  passing  up  on  the 
other  side  of  the  river,  and  waking  the  mighty  echoes  of  the  High- 
lands. You  may  imagine  how  much  sleep  I  got,  between  eleven 
and  five  o'clock,  for  at  five  the  reveille  waked  me,  and  I  feared  to 
sleep  again,  lest  the  tired  servants  should  neglect  to  wake  me.  For 
these  delightful  accommodations  I  paid  (supper,  lodging  and  break- 
fast) three  dollars  and  a  half.  However,  the  fare  on  the  steamer  is 
trifling  (seventy-five  cents  for  the  fifty  miles),  and  the  ride  was  de- 
lightfuL  I  saw  the  dress  parade  last  evening  and  the  drill  of  recruits 
before  breakfast,  and  through  the  window  saw  the  Secretary  of  War 
in  a  minuet  (I  suppose  it  was),  and  the  cadets  and  young  officers 
with  the  belles  in  the  waltz.  Very  few  were  graceful,  though  some 
were.  If  they  would  keep  dancing  within  bounds,  I  should  make 
no  ado  about  it.  But  they  will  not,  never  do  for  any  long  time. 
And  now-a-days  they  begin  at  once  with  round  dances,  which 
makes  everything  else  tame,  to  be  thrown  in,  like  a  promenade, 
only  for  variety. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

NEW  YORK,  June  27,  1870 :  Upon  conference  with  Bro.  Boyce, 
I  found  that  he  would  be  willing  to  take  the  whole  of  New  Testa- 
ment English,  so  that  there  may  be  no  hindrance  to  your  taking  the 
whole  of  your  polemics. 

I  have  sent  to  Pagan  all  of  the  book  except  Delivery  as  respects 
Voice  and  Action  (two  chapters)  and  Public  Worship  (one  chap- 
ter). These  I  can  finish  this  and  the  next  week,  if  nothing  happens. 
I  have  been  taking  it  very  easy.  The  hot  weather  last  week  pros- 
trated me  considerably.  To-day  I  feel  much  better. 

Next  week  1  design  returning  to  Charlottesville,  and  on  23d  July 
I  am  to  sail  from  here  to  Glasgow.  The  steamers  are  declared  by 


ladies  and  gentlemen  who  have  tried  both,  to  be  fully  as  comfortable 
as  the  Cunarders— some  of  them  say  more  so. 

Doctor  Broadus  supplied  at  North  Orange  Church  till 
July  3,  and  formed  many  delightful  friendships  that 
lasted  through  life.  July  9  he  writes  to  Manly  :  "  Nearly 
done  on  Action.  Profiting  by  your  notes."  It  was  diffi- 
cult then  for  Southern  authors  to  get  a  book  on  the 
market.  But  Smith,  English  &  Co.  pushed  the  "  Prepa- 
ration and  Delivery,"  and  Doctor  Manly  saw  that  it  got 
good  notices. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  S.  B.  : 

LYNCHBURG,  VA.,  July  16, 1870:  I  took  B —  L — with  me 

to  hear  a  lecture  by  Doctor  M .  Subject:  "Man."  The  fol- 
lowing is  an  humble  attempt  to  report  it : 

A  collection  of  heterogeneous  and  irreconcilably  incongruous  ma- 
terials, conglomerated  into  an  indescribable  incomprehensibility,  or- 
namented with  fantastic  creations  of  an  insane  imagination,  and 
constituting  the  climacteric  of  sophomoric  oratorization. 

He  has  in  several  respects  great  powers,  but  uses  them  in  the  most 
deplorable  taste,  and  to  hear  people  call  that  eloquence  is  melancholy 
and  disheartening. 


The  heart  ran  o'er 

With  silent  worship  of  the  great  of  old ! 
The  dead,  but  sceptred  sovereigns  who  still  rule 
Our  spirits  from  their  urns. 

— Byron. 

MANY  good  wishes  were  to  go  with  Doctor  Broadus 
in  his  search  for  health  and  greater  knowledge. 

ROBERT  E.  LEE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

LEXINGTON,  VA  ,  June  21, 1870 :  I  am  glad  to  learn  that  you  have 
decided  to  visit  Europe,  and  trust  complete  relaxation  from  duty  and 
the  objects  of  interest  that  will  at  all  points  attract  your  attention,  may 
entirely  restore  your  health,  and  that  you  will  return  renovated  in 
strength  and  vigor,  to  gladden  the  hearts  of  your  many  friends. 

He  had  originally  planned  to  sail  July  21  on  the  Anchor 
Line  steamer  "  Cambria,"  and  he  changed  to  the  "  An- 
glia  " J  for  the  soth.  But  suddenly  a  suggestion  was  made 
that  two  daughters  of  a  warm  friend  of  his  accompany 
him  as  far  as  Italy.  So  it  was  happily  arranged  and  pas- 
sage was  taken  on  the  "  Scotia/'  a  Cunarder.  Among 
the  passenger  were  Mrs.  Horace  Greeley,  Gen'l  Phil. 
Sheridan,  and  some  German  barons  and  Polish  counts, 
"lam  glad, "  he  wrote  before  landing,  "I  am  on  the 
'  Scotia.'  It  is  good  to  feel  when  you  wake  at  night, 
tossed  against  the  side  of  the  berth  and  hear  the  waves 
break  against  the  side  of  the  rolling  ship,  that  you  are  on 
one  of  the  best  and  safest  ships  in  existence." 

1  On  Oct.  15, 1870,  Dr  Warren  Randolph  sailed  on  the  "  Anglia,"  having  changed 
from  the  "  Cambria  "  of  the  week  before.  The  "Cambria  "  went  down  with  all  on 



J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  S.  B. : 

CORK,  IRELAND,  Aug.  5,  1870 :  At  Queenstown  we  touched  Ire- 
land. The  queer  little  donkeys,  dragging  huge  baggage  carts,  and 
the  queer  little  beggars,  offering  to  sell  matches,  fiddling,  dancing, 
jesting  all  around  us,  made  a  strange  sight.  One  bright  little  girl  I 
questioned,  that  the  ladies  might  hear  the  rich  Irish  brogue  at  home, 
and  then  gave  her  a  penny.  She  was  jubilant,  and  told  the  young 
ladies  she  wished  'em  a  good  husband,  which  they  thought  a  fine 
wish.  A  woman  led  in  a  man  who  tried  to  seem  blind,  but  clearly 
was  not.  The  little  girl  looked  up  at  him  with  the  most  comical 
look  I  ever  saw  in  my  life.  No  one  in  our  circle  has  mentioned  it 
all  day  but  everybody  laughs  afresh.  But  it  is  impossible  to  give 
any  idea  of  the  rude  Irish  wit  that  played  like  summer  lightning 
around  us  as  we  waited  at  the  wharf  for  the  steamer  to  Cork. 

One  gets  out  of  Europe  largely  what  he  takes  with 
him  ;  and  Doctor  Broadus  was  well  prepared  for  travel. 
He  wrote  copious  and  delightful  letters  to  his  family, 
enough  to  make  a  large  volume.  From  Feb.  5,  1871  to 
May  13,  1871,  a  diary  was  kept  of  the  tour  in  Egypt, 
Asia,  and  Greece,  while  full  and  charming  letters  de- 
scribe the  entire  trip  abroad.  From  these  notes  a  nota- 
ble series  of  articles,  entitled  "  Recollections  of  Travel/' 
was  written  for  the  "  Religious  Herald/'  The  material 
for  this  chapter  is  so  abundant  that  only  cullings  of  a 
more  personal  nature  can  be  attempted. 

Of  course  Blarney  Castle  was  visited  and  the  Lakes 
of  Killarney.  Here  the  driver  played  a  trick  and  drove 
the  party  seventeen  miles  out  of  the  way  in  a  pouring 
rain,  in  order  to  get  more  pay.  As  a  result,  Doctor 
Broadus  was  thrown  into  a  bilious  fever  and  was  de- 
tained at  Dublin  for  ten  days  in  a  hotel  which  did  not 
have  too  many  modern  conveniences.  He  was  glad  not 
to  be  alone.  He  writes:  "The  young  ladies  are  not 
only  contented,  but  thoroughly  kind,  and  quite  skillful  in 
nursing.  .  .  have  done  all  they  could  to  help  me/'  A 
stay  at  Harrogate  became  necessary. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

HARROGATE,  Aug.  30, 1870 :  Here  are  four  kinds  of  water.  . 
Imagine  yourself  drinking  White  Sulphur  water  with  almost  as 
much  salt  as  it  would  hold  in  solution,  and  quite  warm,  and  you 
have  my  fix  in  the  morning  before  breakfast.  It  is  cold  here,  like 
the  mountains  of  Virginia.  Yesterday  and  to-day  have  been  fair 
and  magnificent  autumn  days.  Yesterday  we  made  an  excursion  to 
York,  nineteen  miles.  .  .  We  saw  the  old  walls,  very  curious— a 
jail,  part  of  whose  wall  belonged  to  a  castle  built  by  William  the 
Conqueror— and  the  Cathedral,  which  was  our  special  object.  It  is 
the  second  largest  in  the  kingdom.  Its  grandeur,  beauty,  sublimity, 
thrilled  and  awed  me.  Nothing  else  I  have  seen  made  half  such 
an  impression,  except  the  ocean  during  a  gale.  Some  of  the  win- 
dows are  wonderful  in  their  immense  size  and  resplendent  beauty. 

HARROGATE,  Sept.  i,  1870:  To-day  the  session  of  the  Semi- 
nary begins.  I  have  thought  much  about  it  for  some  days  past,  and 
it  has  been  always  present  in  my  prayers.  God  be  merciful  to  them 
and  bless  them,  and  cause  his  face  to  shine  upon  them — those  noble 
men,  my  colleagues,  and  the  dear  young  brethren.  May  there  be 
many  more  than  last  year,  and  may  all  be  prosperous. 


Saturday  we  went  to  Loch  Lomond,  which  is  beautiful  beyond  all 
description,  beyond  anything  I  have  ever  imagined.  We  saw  more 
to-day  of  the  same  kind  of  scenery,  for  which  Scotland  surpasses 
all  countries — the  mingling  of  lakes  and  mountains.  The  long 
slender  loch  runs  for  miles  and  miles,  winding  among  the  numerous, 
various,  and  wild-looking  mountains,  separated  by  every  species  of 
glen,  ravine,  and  chasm,  clad  in  evergreens  or  in  mosses,  with 
sometimes  a  little  stream  running  from  the  immense  height  like  a 
thread  of  silver  down  to  the  lake.  .  . 

We  have  had  beautiful  scenery  till  I  was  overwhelmed,  and  could 
not  look  at  it.  Made  acquaintance  with  a  couple  of  Highland  gen- 
tlemen, named  Ross,  who  are  highly  educated  and  exceedingly 
agreeable,  real  English  people. 

STIRLING,  Sept.  8,  1870:  The  gentlemen  I  mentioned,  Mr. 
Ross,  with  his  wife  and  little  boy  and  his  brother,  were  much  with 
us  on  Tuesday.  He  is  a  leading  man  in  the  great  family  of  Ross, 
and  a  large  landholder  In  Rosshire,  but  spends  most  of  the  year  in 
England.  He  is  one  of  the  handsomest  men  I  ever  saw,  and  being 
educated,  traveled,  and  singularly  pleasing  in  manner  and  disposi- 


tion,  he  is  attractive  in  the  highest  degree.  His  wife  told  me  that  at 
home  in  England  she  often  walks  ten  miles  for  exercise,  and  in  the 
Highlands  has  walked  twenty  miles  among  the  mountains  with  her 
husband,  deer-stalking.  .  .  Our  friend,  Mr.  Ross,  expecting  on 
Tuesday  to  get  to  his  Highland  estate,  arrayed  himself  that  morn- 
ing in  full  Highland  costume,  to  please  his  dependents.  As  a  chief- 
tain, he  wore  at  his  belt  a  silver- mounted  knife,  almost  equal  to  a 
bowie-knife,  and  on  the  outer  portion  of  its  sheath  were  stuck  in  a 
knife  and  fork  for  eating.  In  the  right  stocking  was  stuck  a  deer- 
knife.  .  .  Have  gained  two  pounds  since  leaving  Harrogate,  a  week 
ago,  and  gained  greatly  in  strength.  I  enclose  '*  blue  bells  of  Scot- 
land" from  the  field  of  Bannockburn,  near  where  Bruce  planted  his 
banner.  They  were  beautiful  when  gathered. 

EDINBURGH,  Sept.  13,  1870:  I  sent  Charlie  some  photographs  of 
Edinburgh.  Our  hotel  is  on  Princes  Street  The  Scott  monument 
is  fifty  yards  from  our  door  and  is  the  most  beautiful  thing  of  the 
kind  I  know  of,  two  hundred  feet  high,  with  a  statue  of  Sir  Walter 
that  one  never  wearies  of  surveying.  The  photographs  of  the  High 
Street  and  of  the  Castle  give  precisely  the  views  that  we  get  every 
time  we  go  out.  But  I  sent  the  collection  mainly  because  it  is  pub- 
lished and  sold  by  C.  Sinclair.  He  says  that  Caithness  (in  the 

North)  is  the  great  place  for  Sinclairs,  the  Earl  of  C being  of 

that  name.  In  Edinburgh  I  see  from  the  directory  there  are  but 
seventy-seven  Sinclairs  mentioned,  that  is,  separate  concerns.  Of 
these,  five  are  named  George,  and  seven  named  John.  St.  Clair, 
Earl  of  Caithness,  and  several  of  his  family  are  buried  at  Holyrood, 
in  the  beautiful  old  Abbey,  and  a  son  of  Sir  George  Sinclair  in  Mel- 
rose  Abbey.  I  wanted  to  go  to-morrow  to  Rosslyn  Castle,  seven 
miles  from  here,  which  belongs  to  the  Earls  of  Caithness  and  is  very 

J.  A.  B.  to  THOMAS  A.  BROADUS  (son  of  J.  M.  Broadus) : 

BIRMINGHAM,  Sept.  16,  1870:  Reached  Keswick  (pronounced 
Kezzick)  at  eleven.  Saw,  but  could  not  enter,  the  late  residence  of 
Southey.  Derwentwater,  a  river  hard-by,  is  a  beautiful  stream. 
Skiddaw,  the  mountain  so  eulogized,  is  tame  beside  the  Scotch  moun- 
tains. Southey  was  poet-laureate,  a  voracious  reader  and  volumin- 
ous writer,  and  very  famous  in  his  day — and  in  thirty  years  the 
world  has  forgotten  him.  Some  of  his  minor  poems  will  keep  their 
place  in  collections,  and  his  "  Life  of  Wesley  "  is  a  classic— that  is 
all.  .  . 



I  found  it  hard  to  refrain  from  buying  Wordsworth  this  morning 
and  plunging  into  his  poems,  but  I  knew  it  would  do  me  hurt.  He 
is  in  some  respects  the  great  poet  of  the  age,  yet  one  that  the  crowd 
will  never  appreciate.  Two  railway  bookstalls,  at  Penwith  and 
Keswick,  amid  hundreds  of  volumes,  offered  but  two  copies  of 
Wordsworth,  and  nothing  of  Southey's. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  ANNIE  H.  BROADUS  : 

STRATFORD-ON-AVON,  Sept.  16,  1870:  Wednesday  afternoon 
we  left  Edinburgh.  That  morning  I  called  on  Doctor  Hanna,  but 
he  was  out.  .  . 

We  got  here  at  seven,  and  are  at  the  Shakespeare  Hotel— quite 
nice.  Portraits  of  Shakespeare  all  about  the  house.  Rooms  named 
after  some  play,  the  name  of  which  is  over  the  door.  The  girls  are 
in  "  Love's  Labour's  Lost,"  and  I  m  "  All's  Well  that  Ends  Well." 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

WARWICK,  Sept.  19,  1870 :  I  feel  quite  powerless  to  describe  the 
Shakespeare  localities,  or  to  tell  aught  of  the  feelings  awakened  by 
seeing  them  I  have  never  seen  so  good  a  description  as  that  of 
Hugh  Miller,  in  "  First  Impressions  of  England."  .  . 

To-day,  a  beautiful  day  since  eleven  o'clock,  we  have  seen  Kenil- 
worth  and  Warwick  Castles.  Kemlworth  is  a  magnificent  ruin,  but 
after  all,  its  real  interest  is  in  the  historical  and  imaginative  associa- 
tions. Warwick  Castle  surpasses  my  wildest  fancy.  The  grounds 
are  a  succession  of  varied  beauties.  The  castle  is  truly  grand  and 
imposing.  The  furniture  has  given  me  a  new  conception  of  splendor. 
One  table  (the  Venetian  table)  is  valued  at  ten  thousand  pounds. 
It  is  inlaid  with  costly  stones,  many  of  them  rare  jewels.  The 
Cedars  of  Lebanon  are  far  grander  than  are  now  to  be  found  in 
Lebanon  itself.  There  are  three,  seen  from  the  windows  of  the 
boudoir,  that  were  brought  from  the  Holy  Land  during  the  Crusades 
and  planted  here  seven  hundred  years  ago.  They  are  magnificent. 

My  health  improves  very  slowly.  I  have  been  traveling  too  fast, 
seeing  and  doing  too  much.  I  have  determined  to  take  it  more 

LANGHAM  HOTEL,  LONDON,  Sept.  20, 1870 :  We  had  four  and 

a  half  hours  at  Oxford,  and  spent  it  with  exceeding  great  pleasure, 
and  most  respectably  heavy  expense.  .  - 

At  University  College  we  saw  a  memorial  of  Sir  Wm.  Jones,  by 
Flaxman,  which  I  am  sure  I  shall  never  forget — worthy  of  Sir  Wm. 


and  worthy  of  Flaxman.  At  Magdalen  College  we  saw  the  varied 
and  beautiful  grounds,  with  the  Poet's  Walk,  where  Addison  loved 
to  stroll.  At  New  College  we  visited  the  famous  and  beautiful 
chapel.  (New  College  is  now  five  hundred  years  old).  These  are 
the  most  remarkable  of  the  nineteen  colleges.  You  know  they  are 
entirely  distinct  establishments,  as  much  as  if  a  hundred  miles  apart, 
and  that  the  University  of  Oxford  is  simply  a  general  organization 
which  gives  degrees  to  the  men  prepared  by  the  different  colleges. 
Then  we  spent  one  and  a  half  hours  at  the  famous  Bodleian  Library, 
the  most  valuable  (British  Museum  has  the  largest  number  of  books) 
in  the  world.  Oh,  the  books,  the  books— the  early  and  rare  editions, 
the  illuminated  manuscripts  of  the  Middle  Ages,  the  autographs  of 
famous  persons,  and  the  portraits,  the  portraits  of  hundreds  of  the 
earth's  greatest  ones.  Happy  students,  fellows,  professors,  who 
have  constant  access  to  the  Bodleian  Library, 

LONDON,  Sept.  26,  1870  :  I  was  greatly  delighted  with  Spurgeon, 
especially  with  his  conduct  of  public  worship.  The  congregational 
singing  has  often  been  described,  and  is  as  good  as  can  well  be 
conceived.  Spurgeon  is  an  excellent  reader  of  Scripture,  and  re- 
markably impressive  in  reading  hymns,  and  the  prayers  were  quite 
what  they  ought  to  have  been.  The  sermon  was  hardly  up  to  his 
average  in  freshness,  but  was  exceedingly  well  delivered,  without 
affectation  or  apparent  effort,  but  with  singular  earnestness,  and 
directness.  The  whole  thing— house,  congregation,  order,  worship, 
preaching,  was  as  nearly  up  to  my  ideal  as  I  ever  expect  to  see  in 
this  life.  Of  course  Spurgeon  has  his  faults  and  deficiencies,  but  he 
is  a  wonderful  man.  Then  he  preaches  the  real  gospel,  and  God 
blesses  him.  After  the  services  concluded,  I  went  to  a  room  in  the 
rear  to  present  my  letter,  and  was  cordially  received.  Somebody 

must  tell  Mrs.  V that  I  "  thought  of  her  "  repeatedly  during  the 

sermon,  and  "  gave  her  love  "  to  Spurgeon,  and  he  said  such  a  mes- 
sage encouraged  him.  (I  made  quite  a  little  story  of  it,  and  the 
gentlemen  in  the  room  were  apparently  much  interested,  not  to  say 
amused. ) 

We  went  straight  toward  St.  Paul's,  where  Liddon  has  been 
preaching  every  Sunday  afternoon  in  September,  and  there  would 
be  difficulty  in  getting  a  good  seat  We  lunched  at  the  Cathedral 
Hotel,  hard  by,  and  then  stood  three-quarters  of  an  hour  at  the  door 
of  St.  Paul's,  waiting  for  it  to  open.  Meantime  a  good  crowd  had 
collected  behind  us,  and  there  was  a  tremendous  rush  when  the  door 
opened,  to  get  chairs  near  the  preaching  stand.  The  crowd  looked 


immense  in  the  vast  cathedral,  and  yet  there  were  not  half  as  many 
as  were  quietly  seated  in  Spurgeon's  Tabernacle.  There  everybody 
could  hear,  and  here,  in  the  grand  and  beautiful  show-place,  Mr. 
Liddon  was  tearing  his  throat  in  the  vain  attempt  to  be  heard  by  all. 
The  grand  choral  service  was  all  Chinese  to  me.  .  . 

This  morning  I  received  the  "Herald"  of  the  eighth,  with  Bro. 
Long's1  review  of  my  book,  the  first  information  I  have  had  of  its 
appearance.  I  am  exceedingly  indebted  to  Bro.  Long  for  a  notice 
so  very  carefully  prepared,  so  very  kind,  and  calculated  materially 
to  promote  the  acceptance  of  the  book.  I  mean  to  write  to  him. 

LONDON.  Sept.  29, 1870 :  Wednesday  morning  we  went  to  Mr. 
Gilliafs,  Mr.  Thomas's  correspondent  and  friend.  Delightful 
weather,  beautiful  country,  seventeen  miles  in  train,  five  in  open 
carriage.  Exceedingly  handsome  country  mansion,  built  by  him- 
self, with  a  surprisingly  beautiful  situation,  and  a  wide  view  of  hill 
and  dale,  of  stream  and  park  and  dwelling.  Some  magnificent  oaks, 
elms,  and  beeches,  and  some  great  Cedars  of  Lebanon,  next  oldest 
in  the  kingdom  to  those  we  saw  at  Warwick  Castle.  I  got  him  to 
show  me  over  the  house,  from  wine  cellar  (thousands  of  bottles,  be- 
sides some  barrels,  etc.)  to  roof  of  tower— a  fine  specimen,  no  doubt, 
of  a  new  and  elegant  country  residence.  The  grounds  too,  gardens, 
green  houses,  hot  houses,  grapery,  stables,  all  very  handsome.  .  . 

Mr,  G is  a  graduate  of  Oxford,  and  once  traveled  a  year  in 

America ;  a  good  business  man,  intelligent,  very  friendly  and  suffi- 
ciently agreeable.  He  is  a  thorough-going  high  churchman,  never 
before  met  a  Baptist  preacher,  except  a  stone-mason  somewhere  in 
the  neighborhood  there,  believes  that  Christian  life  is  produced  by 
baptism  and  sustained  by  the  Lord's  Supper,  and  was  very  anxious 
to  talk  with  me  about  church  questions.  He  warmly  sympathized 
with  the  South,  and  is  acquainted  with  Jeff.  Davis,  Senator  Mason, 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  S.  B. : 

LONDON,  Oct.  5, 1870:  Saturday  afternoon,  Oct.  i,  I  went  to 

Gloucester  to  visit  the  bishop,2  arriving  at  6.30.  He  received  me 
very  cordially  and  treated  me  with  real  kindness  and  true  courtesy. 
He  is  a  man  of  about  my  size,  but  erect,  a  little  bald,  with  a  thin  face, 
and  a  profile  resembling  General  Capers.  He  walks  a  little  lame, 
having  had  his  leg  broken  by  a  railway  accident  a  dozen  years  ago, 
but  is  a  great  walker.  His  father  and  mother  live  with  him  at  the  pal- 

1  Rev.  J.  C.  Long,  then  pastor  at  Charlottesville,  Va.          *  Bishop  Elhcott. 


ace,  the  father  being  a  clergyman  of  seventy-seven  years,  and  a  very 
sprightly,  pleasant  old  gentleman.  The  bishop's  wife  is  a  tall, 
quite  grand-looking  lady.  .  .  He  has  three  children.  Arthur  is  soon 
to  graduate  at  Cambridge,  and  is  preparing  for  holy  orders.  Miss 
Florence  is  a  tall,  fair,  quite  English-looking  girl — very  modest,  but 
readily  talking  when  spoken  to.  .  .  Mrs.  Ellicott  (she  is  not  lady, 
though  the  bishop  is  a  lord)  wore  splendid  silks,  and  much  jewelry, 
and  Miss  Florence  had  white  muslin  for  dinner,  and  some  plain  linen 
fabric  at  church.  Miss  Rose  is  twelve  years  old.  Mrs.  Ellicott 
seemed  reserved  to  me  at  first,  but  before  I  left  we  were  somewhat 
cronies.  .  . 

We  had  tea  in  the  drawing  room,  and  the  ladies  retiring  early,  his 
lordship  and  I  had  a  long  talk.  I  told  him  the  history  of  revi- 
sion in  America,  and  then  we  talked  about  his  present  scheme.  I 
inquired  his  view  about  the  rendering  "  slavedealers  "  in  i  Tim. 
i  :  10  (you  remember  my  paper  about  it),  and  found  him  all  right, 
and  before  I  left,  was  satisfied  he  would  prevent  any  change  of 

the  Common  Version  there.  I  mentioned  A 's  having  adopted 

"  slavedealers,"  and  he  said,  "  Oh,  but  A 's  no  authority  on 

such  a  question."  "  I  know  that,  my  lord,  but  the  people  generally 
think  he  is.'7  "  Oh,  well,  we'll  see  about  that."  (Monday  morn- 
ing without  my  mentioning  it,  he  hunted  up  the  word  in  the  best 
Greek  Lexicons — the  same  that  I  have — and  quite  satisfied  himself). 
Then  he  asked  me  about  Baptist  views.  First  he  attacked  election, 
and  I  defended  till  he  agreed  that  that  wasn't  so  bad,  if  that  was 
what  we  meant.  Then  he  asked  about  infant  baptism,  and  we 
argued  over  it  for  an  hour — very  courteous,  of  course,  and  perfectly 
friendly.  .  . 

My  room  was  exceedingly  pleasant.  There  were  prayers  at  ten 
P.  M.  and  nine  A.  M.,  in  the  chapel  of  the  palace,  conducted  by  the 
bishop  in  a  surplice,  with  chanting,  etc.,  but  brief.  The  servants  at- 
tending were  six  women  and  two  men.  .  .  They  talk  English  pre- 
cisely as  educated  people  do  with  us,  except  the  broad  "  a" — that 
is,  they  talk  exactly  as  your  Grandma  Harrison  does.  In  all  the 
forty-eight  hours,  I  did  not  hear  a  pronunciation  that  sounded 
strange,  except  the  "  a,"  and  a  fancy  the  bishop  has  for  saying 
know-ledge.  They  do  not  roll  the  "r"  at  all,  but  they  always 
sound  it. 

LONDON,  Oct.  8,  1870 :  I  was  speaking  of  the  visit  to  Gloster. 
Sunday  I  went  to  the  cathedral,  morning  and  afternoon.  .  .  The 
bishop  preached  offhand.  A  very  fair  sermon  of  twenty  minutes, 


spoken  with  quiet  earnestness  and  no  affectation,  but  without  show- 
ing power  as  a  speaker.  Madame  and  madame  mere^  scolded  him  at 
luncheon—he  had  been  sick,  and  really  oughtn't,  etc.  He  said  yes, 
but  he  must  teach  the  new  canon  a  lesson,  who  had  neglected  his 
duty,  who  got  seven  hundred  and  fifty  pounds  ($3,700)  a  year  for 
preaching  twelve  sermons,  and  now  was  failing.  He  was  vexed, 
and  said  while  he  had  breath  in  his  body  he  must  preach  when  there 
seemed  occasion,  especially  when  others  were  improperly  standing 
back.  At  the  close  of  the  afternoon  service,  he  took  me  to  walk, 
son  and  daughter  following.  Didn't  bring  me  back  short  of  five 
miles,  and  I  was  tired.  He  talked  a  great  deal  about  all  sorts  of  mat- 
ters, for  one  thing  about  the  oddness  of  his  position  as  a  peer  and  a 
priest ;  said  he  understood  some  of  the  American  bishops  who  were 
over  last  year  were  much  pleased  with  the  episcopal  dress,  and  that 
the  bishop  of  New  York  had  taken  to  shoe  buckles — this  belonging 
to  the  peer,  and  not  to  the  bishop.  He  didn't  explain  or  remark,  but 
laughed.  Towards  the  close  he  said  (we  had  passed  a  dissenting 
chapel)  that  other  bishops  shared  his  desire  to  conciliate  the  Non- 
conformists, without  making  or  asking  any  concessions,  and  thought 
that  "  we  can  be  friendly,  and  where  they  are  scholars  can  give  them 
the  hand  of  fellowship,  without  losing  anything,  even  in  the  lowest 
sense."  .  . 

Sunday  evening,  the  bishop  showed  me,  in  strict  confidence  three 
chapters  of  Matthew,  as  printed  from  their  first  revision— nobody  to 
see  it.  .  . 
Monday  morning  I  was  away  at  twelve  (breakfast  over  at  10.30), 

but  after  I  had  duly  declined  Mrs.  E Js  very  pressing  invitation 

to  stay  another  day,  the  bishop  suggested  staying  till  after  lunch, 
and  thus  catching  a  faster  train  (brought  me  over  one  hundred  miles 
in  three  and  a  quarter  hours),  which  I  did  Spent  the  hours  in  the 
study.  Good  library  for  an  exegetical  scholar,  though  not  nearly 
equal  to  Doctor  Boyce's.  Some  recent  German  commentaries.  I 
begged  him  not  to  spend  time  further  on  me,  but  he  stayed  all  the 
time,  except  when  called  out  by  callers.  Very  free  and  easy. 
"  There  is  a  country  squire,  now,  who  has  had  a  quarrel  with  his 
rector,  and  I  have  to  hear  his  story  over  again,  and  see  if  I  can  set- 
tle it.  Here,  let  me  show  you  this  before  I  go."  And  pretty  soon, 
he  was  back  again.  Offered  to  send  me,  whenever  I  should  apply, 
letters  to  university  professors  and  other  scholars,  any  I  wished  to 

see.  .  .  Mrs.  E at  parting  hoped  to  meet  me  in  London  next 

week,  and  was  sure  she  would  see  me  at  J.  L.  I  didn't  know  what 
that  was,  and  she  said  that  my  young  ladies  would  tell  me  when  I 


returned,  and  so  they  did :  Jenny  Lind  is  to  sing  here  next  week.    1 

had  a  great  time  Monday  at  breakfast  trying  to  teach  Mrs.  E 

to  eat  raw  tomatoes.  Nobody  had  ever  heard  of  such  a  thing,  but 
I  spoke  of  it  Sunday  evening  at  dinner,  as  good  for  health,  and  so 
she  had  some,  and  we  had  quite  a  fuss.  The  bishop  came  in  pres- 
ently, and  got  one  too,  and  made  faces  over  it,  and  so  on.  .  . 

Went  yesterday  to  the  British  Museum  again,  and  last  night  B 

and  I  went  to  spend  the  evening  with  Doctor  Manning,  a  Baptist 

literary  man,  who  will  review  my  book.    Mrs.  M had  never 

before  seen  a  slaveholder,  and  talked  quite  innocently  about  having 
thought  they  were  all  fierce-looking,  and  I  had  much  fun  joking  her. 
Their  son,  and  their  pastor,  who  was  invited,  were  great  Southerners 
in  sympathy  (as  Bishop  Ellicott  said  he  was).  Mrs.  Sheppard,  stay- 
ing there,  is  the  wife  of  "  Keynote,"  who  is  now  shut  up  in  Paris— 
purposely—"  takm'  notes,  and  faith  he'll  prent  it."  She  showed 
me  a  card  received  from  him  the  night  before,  sent  by  balloon.  .  . 

LONDON,  Oct.  n,  1870:  Sunday  I  heard  Spurgeon  again  in  the 
morning,  and  in  the  afternoon  Dean  Stanley,  at  Westminster  Abbey. 
I  sat  in  the  Poet's  Corner,  amid  the  famous  tombs.  At  night  went 
to  hear  Archbishop  Manning,  the  famous  Romanist.  He  officiated 
in  the  grand  (and  to  me  mournful)  cathedral  service.  .  . 

Yesterday  (Monday  afternoon),  I  went  again  to  Regent's  Park 
College.  .  .  Doctor  Davies,  famous  Hebraist,  to  whom  I  brought 
letter  from  Doctor  Cutting,  received  me  very  pleasantly,  and  intro- 
duced me  to  Doctor  Angus,  the  author,  who  is  president,  and  who 
has  just  returned  from  America.  Mr.  Gilliat  gave  him  my  book, 
and  having  examined  it  coming  over,  he  proposes  to  use  it  as  text- 
book m  the  college,  which  will  probably  help  me. 

Doctor  Davies  invited  me  to  attend  to-day  a  quarterly  meeting  of 
the  London  Baptist  Association,  which  I  did.  They  received  me 
most  cordially,  introducing  me  to  the  body.  An  excellent  essay  was 
read,  followed  by  a  capital  address  from  Mr.  Spurgeon,  and  then  I 
was  invited  to  speak.  I  was  in  the  mood  and  succeeded  pretty  well. 

LONDON,  Oct.  15,  1870:  On  Wednesday  at  two  o'clock  I 
went  to  Westminster  Abbey,  at  the  suggestion  of  Bishop  Ellicott. 
Before  I  left  Gloster  he  offered  me  letters  to  any  scholars,  asked  if  I 
was  not  going  to  Cambridge,  where  I  might  see  Lightfoot,  and 
finally  said,  if  I  would  go  one  day  when  the  Revision  Committee 
stopped  for  lunch,  to  send  him  in  my  card,  and  he  would  bring 
out  Lightfoot  and  I  could  have  ten  minutes  chat  with  him—also  any 


other  I  might  wish  to  see.  .  .  I  went  to  the  Deanery  (A.  P.  Stanley 
is  dean),  sent  m  my  card  with  the  luncheon,  and  his  lordship  came 
out  saying  that  he  had  asked  leave  of  the  committee  just  to  bring 
me  in  for  the  half -hour  of  luncheon.  He  introduced  me  in  general 
at  the  door,  and  then  various  gentlemen  came  up  and  shook  hands, 
giving  their  names.  Several  deans,  canons,  and  prolocutors  were 
unknown  to  me  by  title,  and  I  don't  remember.  Some  of  them  in- 
vited me  to  visit  their  cathedrals,  others  asked  about  the  South. 
Doctor  Eadie,  of  Glasgow,  Presbyteiian  commentator,  a  very  tall 
and  stout  man  (equal  to  Colonel  Randolph),  was  very  civil.  Profes- 
sor Lightfoot  (author  of  the  Commentaries  on  Galatians  and  Philip- 
pians)  is  about  forty-five,  short  and  thickset,  rather  bald,  with  a 
fine,  open,  and  intellectual  face.  He  invited  me  to  Cambridge  quite 
cordially.  Doctor  Alford  has  a  sort  of  careless  cordiality  of  manner, 
which  didn't  please  me.  Mr.  Westcott  (you  know  how  I  like  his 
books)  is  a  gentle,  lovable-looking  man,  with  a  mild,  sweet  tone,  and 
with  devotional  feeling  predominating  in  all  his  talk.  I  talked 
principally  with  him  and  Mr.  Hort  about  their  forthcoming  text  of 

the  New  Testament,  in  which  I  am  much  interested.    Mr.  W 

invited  me  warmly  to  Peterborough,  where  he  is  canon.  Presently 
I  heard  the  bishop's  rap,  calling  to  order,  and  of  course  retired 
rapidly.  His  lordship  followed  me  out,  insisted  that  I  was  looking 
better  in  health  (true),  was  glad  I  had  seen  their  gathering  m  the 
Jerusalem  Chamber  and  their  work-table  as  a  committee. 

Bishop  Ellicott  was  all  courtesy  and  kindness  to  Doc- 
tor Broadus  and  left  nothing  undone  that  he  could  do  for 
his  enjoyment.  Nisbet  &  Co.,  of  London,  issued  a  re- 
print of  "Preparation  and  Delivery  of  Sermons,"  with 
introduction  by  Doctor  Angus. 

DAVID  BROWN  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ABERDEEN,  SCOTLAND,  Oct.  29, 1870 : 1  only  received  yours  of  the 
2oth,  and  some  days  thereafter  your  handsome  volume  on  "  Sermon 
Preparation  and  Delivery."  I  opened  it  merely  to  run  over  the  Pref- 
ace and  Contents,  but  ere  I  shut  it  I  had  gone  through  it  all.  You  have 
collected  a  large  amount  of  the  best  matter  from  the  best  writers  on 
homiletics  and  writers  on  kindred  topics,  and  besides  this  have  con- 
tributed much  that  is  weighty  and  well  worth  attending  to  of  your 
own.  So  that  your  volume  seems  everything  that  one  requires  as  a 
manual  on  the  important  subject  it  teats  of. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

ANTWERP,  Oct.  28,  1870 :  But  a  long  letter  from  Antwerp,  and 
nothing  about  Rubens  and  Van  Dyck.  It  is  to  see  their  paintings 
(and  others,  of  course)  that  people  come  to  Antwerp.  I  have  seen 
all  the  principal  ones,  most  of  them  twice,  and  can  never  lose  the  im- 
pression made,  nor  wholly  forget  the  pictures ;  but  it  is  impossible 
to  describe  them,  at  least  without  a  vast  amount  of  detail.  Rubens' 
Elevation  of  the  Cross,  Crucifixion,  and  Taking  Down  from  the 
Cross,  are  the  grandest  pictures  I  have  ever  yet  seen.  .  .  Of  the 
Crucifixion  I  saw  a  copy  in  Edinburgh  which  I  mentioned  then  as 
greatly  impressing  me.  Oh,  that  I  might  have  life  and  health  to 
describe  in  words,  even  in  my  poor  fashion,  the  many  moving  scenes 
in  the  life  of  the  Saviour ;  the  study  of  these  great  paintings,  even 
for  a  short  time,  as  now,  would  in  such  a  case  help  me. 

AMSTERDAM,  Nov.  i,  1870:  I  find  that  in  my  ignorance  I  came 
to  the  Low  Countries  just  at  the  time  (ist  Nov. )  when  they  acknowl- 
edge that  people  right  often  have  chills  and  fever  here.  I  did  not 
dream  of  such  a  thing.  No  book,  and  no  traveler  sagely  telling  me 
what  was  before  me,  has  ever  mentioned  it.  Sensitive  to  malaria 
as  tinder  to  a  spark,  it  is  manifest  that  I  must  go  away  from  here, 
and  if  I  feel  pretty  sharp  to-morrow,  we  are  to  start  at  2.30  for 
Berlin.  .  . 

DR.  W.  D.  THOMAS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Nov.  2,  1870:  Doctor  Boyce  is  working 
like  a  hero  and  the  Seminary  is  going  well,  though  you  are  sorely 
missed.  .  .  You  have  heard  before  this  of  the  death  of  General  Lee. 
.  .  .  Your  book  is  going  like  hot  cakes.  .  .  I  hope  you  are  taking 
notes  for  a  book  of  travels.  . 

C.  J.  HARRIS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WASHINGTON  COLLEGE,  LEXINGTON,  VA.,  Nov.  16, 1870 : 1 

write  to  enlist  your  interest  for  an  enterprise,  of  which  the  enclosed 
paper  will  inform  you.  We  are  specially  desirous  to  have  for  the 
"Memorial  Volume"  something  from  yourself,  and  some  of  the 
striking  things  that  may  be  said  of  General  Lee  in  the  English  pa- 
pers and  elsewhere,  which  you  may  be  in  the  way  of  getting  for  us. 

W.  H.  WHITSITT  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

BERLIN,  Nov.  26,  1870 :  I  have  had  occasion  to  be  very  sorry 
that  you  did  not  call  on  Doctor  Dorner  during  your  stay.  I  had 


asked  his  permission  beforehand  to  introduce  you,  which  1  did,  you 
remember,  one  afternoon  in  the  university.  But  that  did  not  seem 
to  have  satisfied  him  ;  he  expected,  I  have  no  doubt,  a  visit  from 
you.  .  . 

I  have  not  enjoyed  the  weeks  since  you  left  nearly  so  well  as  that 
of  your  stay  here. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

DRESDEN,  Nov,  28,  1870:  I  went,  as  half  Dresden  did,  to  the 
court  church  (Catholic)  where  there  was  high  mass,  in  thanks- 
giving for  the  recent  birth  of  a  royal  prince,  grandson  of  the  devout 
old  king.  There  was  martial  music  added  to  the  usual  opera  per- 
formers, and  salvos  of  artillery  without,  that  fairly  thundered.  Tell 
Sam  I  saw  a  king,  and  a  queen,  and  a  whole  lot  of  duchesses  and 
countesses,  and  so  on.  Some  of  the  court  folks  were  splendidly 
dressed,  but  the  king  and  queen  very  plainly.  I  was  passing  the 
palace  the  other  day  and  saw  the  king  and  queen  in  separate  car- 
nages, each  with  four  handsome  horses  and  various  attendants, 
going  to  see  the  new-born  prince.  Yesterday  I  was  just  opposite, 
and  saw  both  plainly  and  fully. 

MUNICH,  Dec.  6,  1870:  .  .  The  weather  is  magnificently  cold. 
The  snow  cracks  under  one's  feet  in  the  old  way  it  did  when  I  was 
a  boy,  and  which  I  haven't  heard  this  ten  years.  I  should  like 
prodigiously  to  go  rabbit  hunting,  and  whoop  and  halloo  through 
the  white  fields.  This  afternoon  I  saw  them  hauling  ice  along  the 
street,  and  it  looked  beautiful.  .  . 

Yesterday  and  to-day  we  have  been  at  the  gallery  of  sculpture 
and  the  picture  gallery.  Last  night  we  heard  Mozart's  "  Magic 
Flute,"  which  contains  a  larger  amount  of  exquisite  music  than  I 
ever  before  heard  in  one  evening.  We  tried  a  concert  Saturday 
evening  (eight  cents),  but  the  room  was  low  pitched,  and  the  smoke 
very  dense,  and  we  couldn't  fully  enjoy  Herr  Gungel's  choice  mu- 
sic. .  . 

And  now  to  you,  and  each  of  the  children,  and  all  the  family,  and 
to  the  Harrisons  and  Smiths,  I  beg  to  send  my  hearty  Christmas 
greeting.  Never  before,  amid  all  the  changes  of  my  life,  have  I 
been  absent  from  my  home  at  Christmas.  .  .  And  this  time  I  expect 
to  be  far  away,  at  Rome.  Across  the  continents,  and  across  the 
stormy  winter  sea,  I  send  my  greeting,  to  each  and  ail.  The  good 
Lord  graciously  bless  you.  May  you  have  health  and  contentment, 
and  good  hope  in  God's  providence  and  grace — so  may  you  be  happy. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  ANNIE  H.  BROADUS : 

MUNICH,  Dec.  n,  1870:  Twenty  years  ago  your  Grandpa  Har- 
rison had  a  beautiful  edition  (in  German)  of  Goethe's  "  Remeke 
Fiichs"  with  wonderful  illustrations  by  Kaulbach.  I  think  that  by 
lending  out  it  got  destroyed,  like  some  of  my  books.  In  Dresden  I 
found  it  where  I  boarded,  read  most  of  it,  and  delighted  in  the  pic- 
tures. This  new  interest  was  due  to  my  having  seen  in  Berlin  six 
magnificent  wall  paintings  (fresco)  by  Kaulbach,  of  which  I  made 
at  the  time  brief  mention.  They  represent  great  events  or  epochs  in 
the  history  of  the  race,  (i)  The  Confusion  of  Tongues  at  Babel. 
(2)  The  Golden  Age  of  Greece.  (3)  Destruction  of  Jerusalem.  (4) 
Battle  of  the  Huns.  (5)  Crusades.  (6)  The  Reformation.  Numbers 
three,  four,  and  six  are  the  best,  and  made  a  great  impression  on  me, 
as  grand  historical  representations,  vividly  recalling  facts  and  sym- 
bolizing great  truths.  Well,  here  at  Munich,  Kaulbach  is  still  living, 
as  Director  (President)  of  the  Academy  of  Art,  and  a  young  Ameri- 
can student  of  painting  proposed  to  carry  us  to  his  studio  and  introduce 
us.  He  says  the  old  gentleman  is  changeable,  sometimes  very 
friendly  and  gracious,  and  at  other  times  as  huffy  as  possible.  .  . 

Presently  he  came  in,  and  we  were  introduced  and  greeted  with  a 
smile.  A  man  of  medium  size,  with  brown  wig  and  grayish  mous- 
tache, and  face  not  particularly  noticeable,  who  might  pass  for  fifty 
and  is  sixty-five.  We  have  seen  some  of  his  works  and  heard  much 
of  him,  and  were  anxious,  etc.  He  was  much  pleased  to  see  us — 
always  glad  to  see  Americans,  etc.  I  had  admired  his  *'  Reineke 
Fucks"  twenty  years  ago  in  America.  Ah !  indeed,  twenty  years  ago. 
By  the  way,  he  had  the  day  before  received  a  communication  from 
America,  but  being  in  English  he  could  not  read  it — perhaps  we 
would  look  at  it.  He  opened  it,  and  presented  certificate  of  election 
as  honorary  member  of  the  American  Academy  of  Science  and  Art, 
at  Boston.  The  young  painter  broke  down  in  translating  the  tech- 
nical terms,  and  I  fortunately  could  cany  it  through.  He  was  greatly 
honored  by  such  an  election,  etc.  Young  painter  suggested  that  it 
was  rather  an  honor  to  the  American  society  to  have  him  as  a  mem- 
ber. "Oh,  no,  much  rather  to  me."  And  turning  to  me  again, 
*'  Much  more  to  me."  ,  . 

Yesterday  morning  (Monday)  I  called  on  Doctor  Dollinger,  a 
celebrated  Roman  Catholic  professor  of  church  history  here,  and 
during  the  present  year  world-famous  for  his  opposition  to  the  dogma 
of  papal  infallibility.  I  had  understood  that  he  rather  likes  visits 
from  Protestants.  I  stayed  half  an  hour,  and  by  invitation,  when  I 


left,  went  again  at  seven  P.  M.  for  a  cup  of  tea  and  more  conversa- 
sation.  He  speaks  English  pretty  well.  I  must  give  an  account  of 
the  visit  to  Doctor  Williams,  perhaps  to  the  "Herald,"  if  mamma 
won't  get  desperate  at  the  latter. 

To-day  I  failed  a  second  time  to  get  into  the  palace,  to  see  some 
frescoes  of  the  " Nibelungm-Lied"  the  great  German  poem  of  the 
olden  time.  .  .  I  saw  colored  portraits  of  Luther  and  Melancthon, 
taken  by  L.  Cranach,  Jr.,  from  life.  Luther's  picture  is  every- 
where the  same.  Melancthon  is  here  gray,  wrinkled,  and  wasted, 
but  has  a  magnificent  forehead,  and  that  sweet  expression  which 
suits  his  character,  a  scholar  and  a  devout  man,  one  who  could  love 
and  suffer,  but  couldn't  fight.  He  and  Luther  were  complements  of 
each  other.  .  . 

It  is  now  5.30  P.  M.  At  ten  we  are  to  leave  for  Verona,  in  Italy, 
expecting  to  travel  on  until  i  P.  M.  to-morrow.  The  day  train  is 
much  slower,  and  we  can  make  no  other  arrangement  so  comforta- 
ble. It  is  not  very  cold,  indeed  it  has  been  warm  to-day,  and  the 
snow  melting  fast.  My  next  letter  then,  must  be  from  Italy. 

VENICE,  Dec.  17,  1870 :  Now  what  in  the  world  shall  I  say  about 
Venice?  I  am  not  disappointed,  nor  am  I  charmed.  I  have  not  been 
feeling  bright,  and  the  weather  has  been  dull  and  dreary,  and  the 
Venice  of  to-day,  is  in  fact,  one  great  scene  of  faded  splendors. . .  The 
gondolas  are  extremely  plain  black  boats,  very  long,  narrow,  and 
pointed,  very  skillfully  rowed.  It  causes  quite  a  thrill  of  novelty 
at  first  to  get  aboard,  but  we  human  beings  have  such  an  unhappy 
faculty  of  getting  used  to  things. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Dec.  17,  1870:  Your  letter  to  Curry  (about 
Bishop  Ellicott),  to  me,  and  last  to  Toy  (Nov.  27),  have  all  been 
-eceived  by  us  with  pleasure  and  interest.  Sorry  to  learn  of  your 
backsets,  but  we  hope  the  general  average  result  will  be  gain.  You 
are  often  thought  of,  and  mentioned  not  only  in  the  family  circle, 
and  at  family  prayer,  but  in  our  Seminary  devotions.  It  seems  to 
come  spontaneously  often  both  to  professors  and  to  students  to 
think  at  such  times  of  our  dear  absent  brother ;  and  often,  I  doubt 
not,  if  there  is  not  a  prayer  meeting,  there  is  a  meeting  of  prayers  ; 
for  I  am  sure  your  thoughts  often  fly  back  to  old  scenes  and  remem- 
bered friends.  Still  more  will  this  be  the  case  when  you  get  over  to 
Palestine  and  roam  over  the  regions  we  have  so  often  talked  about 
in  the  little  awkward  recitation  rooms  in  Greenville,  Blessed  faculty, 


by  which  we  can  people  the  present  with  relics  from  the  past,  and 
the  future,  and  make  visible  scenes  and  faces  fade  before  the  bright- 
ness of  the  absent. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

FLORENCE,  Dec.  22,  1870 :  An  hour  brought  us  to  Padua  again, 

and  some  distance  this  side  of  P we  saw  a  small  village  which 

was  the  birthplace  of  Livy.  I  quite  longed  for  some  one  to  share 
my  enthusiasm.  A  young  Italian  lieutenant  talked  French  to  me 
very  affably,  but  my  allusion  to  "  U  ceTebre  auteur  Romain  ancun  Ttte- 
Lwe  "  left  his  face  quite  blank,  even  after  I  had  carefully  explained 
who  it  was.  Getting  the  officer  to  pronounce  some  Italian  words  for 
me,  I  found  that  he  was  also  beginning  to  learn  English,  and  so 
we  had  a  great  time  over  a  newspaper,  he  teaching  Italian  and  I 
teaching  English.  We  amused  ourselves  so  successfully  that  at 
Bologna  at  3  o'clock,  he  said,  "  Ah !  small  travel,"  meaning  that  he 
had  found  the  journey  short.  I  guess  much  of  my  French  and  Ger- 
man is  about  as  successful  as  that.  I  am  not  trying  to  speak  Italian 
beyond  the  numerals  as  to  prices,  and  a  few  needful  words  and 
phrases,  but  I  hope  to  pick  up  enough  knowledge  to  read  it.  This 
side  of  Bologna  we  were  two  or  three  hours  crossing  the  Apennines, 
with  much  magnificent  scenery.  Reached  Florence  at  7.45  P.  M.  .  . 
The  streets  were  very  bright  and  the  air  mild  and  sweet,  like  a 
November  evening  at  Greenville.  We  had  already  noticed  before 
sunset  the  deep  blue  of  the  Italian  sky.  After  tea  we  walked  to  the 
Arno,  and  stood  on  one  of  the  massive  stone  bridges  which  cross  it. 
I  was  pleased  to  find  it  flowing  rapidly.  In  fact,  there  are  high 
mountains  on  several  sides  of  Florence,  some  of  them  very  beau- 
tiful. So  we  were  greatly  pleased  with  our  first  evening  (Mon- 
day). .  . 

Here  too,  is  the  "  Venus  de  Medici."  I  have  seen  so  many  copies 
of  this  that  it  was  hardly  a  novel  sensation  to  see  it,  and  it  is  too 
perfect  to  make  a  sensation  at  first  sight.  People  usually  express 
disappointment  at  seeing  it,  as  they  do  when  first  reading  Sophocles 
or  Demosthenes,  because  there  is  nothing  salient  m  the  harmonious 
completeness,  the  tranquil  beauty.  A  thousand  times  I  am  wishing 
you  were  with  me,  that  we  might  talk  together  now  about  these 
great  works  of  art,  and  remember  them  together  hereafter.  .  .  I  fear 
that  the  thoughts  which  sometimes  throng  my  mind  in  beholding 
will  for  the  most  part  never  return. 

Last  summer  Doctor  Cutting  insisted  that  I  must  seek  the  ac- 
quaintance of  Geo.  P.  Marsh,  U.  S.  Minister  here,  and  his  wife.  Mr. 


M is  the  author  of  the  famous  "  Lectures  on  the  English  Lan- 
guage," and  other  valuable  works.  I  went  yesterday  to  his  office. 
He  invited  me  to  come  to  his  house  this  morning,  and  as  I  inquired 
foi  the  location  of  Casa  Guidi,  where  Mrs.  Browning  lived,  he  very 
kindly  took  me  m  his  carriage  to  the  place.  It  is  across  the  river 
from  our  hotel,  about  three  hundred  yards  from  us.  Here  were  the 
*'  Casa  Guidi  windows,"  from  which  she  saw  the  revolution  of 
1848,  and  in  the  vision  of  her  poem  saw  many  a  scene  of  the  glori- 
ous old  Florentine  history.  .  . 
This  morning  I  went  out  of  the  city  to  Mr.  Marsh's  and  saw  him 

and  his  wife,  with  a  good  deal  of  pleasant  talk.  . ,  Mrs.  M gave 

me  information  about  several  places  where  the  ladies  might  board 
here.  They  want  to  remain  till  my  return  from  the  East,  and  then 
go  to  Paris  (if  open),  to  the  Rhine  and  the  Alps,  and  so  home  with 
me.  .  . 

J.  B.  TAYLOR  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Dec.  24, 1870 ;  I  write  now  especially  to  request 
that  while  in  Southern  Europe  you  will  make  such  inquiries  as  may 
aid  us  in  the  evangelistic  labors  of  our  Board.  .  .  What  portions  of 
that  field  are  most  accessible?  What  are  the  facilities  of  preaching 
a  pure  gospel  in  Rome? 

It  is  very  desirable  that  you  see  our  missionary,  who  is  now  in 
that  city.  Please  find  him  (Rev.  Wm.  N.  Cote)  and  confer  with 
him  on  the  whole  work  in  which  he  is  engaged.  You  will  be  able 
to  make  such  suggestions  as  circumstances  require.  .  . 

J.  L.  M.  CURRY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Dec.  28,  1870 : .  .  Your  book  has  received  more 
favorable  commendations  from  the  religious  journals  than  any  book 
of  the  kind  ever  did  in  America.  I  have  seen  notices  in  Methodist, 
Presbyterian,  and  Congregational  journals.  .  . 

L 7s  last  letter—the  girls  write  charming  letters— gave  us  the 

cheering  news  of  your  increased  weight  and  restored  health.  Thank 
God  for  the  blessing !  I  hope  they  will  be  able  to  keep  you  from 

study.  I  think  Mr.  T gave  them  permission  to  accompany  you 

to  Palestine.  If  so,  what  a  jolly  time  you  will  have  on  camels  and 
donkeys.  A  trip  to  the  Holy  Land  ought  to  make  an  infidel  a  be- 
jever  in  Jesus  !  The  work,  just  published,  of  the  Palestine  Explora- 
tion Association  states,  as  a  wonderful  fact,  that  all  the  party  are  ac- 
cumulating verification  of  the  Scriptures.  I  wish  you  could  read  the 
book  before  you  reach  the  land. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

ROME,  Dec.  31,  1870  :  .  .  Going  out  after  breakfast  I  found  that 
the  king,  who  arrived  at  four  o'clock  this  morning,  was  riding  about 
the  streets,  and  all  was  hubbub  to  see  him.  .  .  This  was  no  formal 
entry.  He  came  merely  to  inquire  into  the  sufferings  and  losses 
caused  by  the  flood.  This  was  good-natured,  and  also  capital  policy, 
as  the  pope  could  hardly  take  this  occasion  for  repeating  the  excom- 
munication and  closing  the  churches,  and  yet  now  Victor  Emmanuel 
has  entered  Rome.  He  left  to-night,  having  to  make  a  New  Year's 
reception  of  the  Diplomatic  Corps  to-morrow  at  Florence.  .  . 

This  morning  I  went  with  Doctor  Cote  to  the  house  of  an  English 
Baptist  minister,  Mr.  Wall,  where  in  the  front  room,  second  story, 
we  had,  at  eleven  o'clock,  a  religious  meeting.  It  reminded  me  very 
vividly  of  Paul,  "  in  his  own  hired  house,"  receiving  them  that  came, 
and  speaking  to  them.  The  flood  broke  up  their  meetings,  as  it  did 
almost  everything  else,  and  so  this  morning  both  missionaries  and 
their  two  colporters  were  together,  about  fifteen  in  all.  I  perceived 
that  Mr.  Wall,  in  his  address,  alluded  several  times  to  Paul,  "  in 
this  very  city."  Afterward  Doctor  Cote  and  an  Italian  colporter 
spoke  a  little.  Then  a  man,  who  turned  out  to  be  a  stranger,  spoke. 
He  said  (as  they  told  me  afterward)  that  he  some  time  ago  got  a 
Bible  from  one  of  the  colporters,  had  been  reading  it,  found  there 
that  he  had  been  taught  many  errors,  and  would  like  to  read  a  paper 
he  had  written,  showing  the  errors  of  the  papal  religion.  .  . 

I  saw,  with  much  regret  at  having  so  little  time,  some  of  the 
numerous  Greek  and  Latin  inscriptions  from  all  Southern  Italy. 
Even  the  little  I  could  examine  gave  me  some  useful  points  as  to  my 
New  Testament  Greek.  By  the  way,  a  gentleman  (American),  dili- 
gent in  study  of  Italian,  tells  me  that  in  Southeastern  Italy,  indeed  in 
all  Southern  Italy,  the  popular  dialect  partakes  largely  of  the  peculi- 
arities of  Greek.  .  .  I  wonder  if  this  can  possibly  descend  all  the 
way  from  the  early  Greek  settlements  in  Southern  Italy,  of  which 
your  friend  Grote  gives  so  full  an  account  ?  .  . 

I  had  much  pleasant  talk  with  Mr.  Ticknor,  of  Boston,  son  of  the 
famous  publisher,  from  whom  I  got  ideas  about  modern  languages, 
and  information  about  Egypt,  where  he  spent  last  winter.  .  . 

ROME,  Jan.  28,  1871 :  B.  O.  Duncan  and  his  wife  were  extremely 
kind  at  Naples.  I  have  no  doubt  he  makes  an  excellent  con- 
sul. Admiral  Glisson,  there  with  his  flagship,  treated  us  with 
marked  courtesy,  as  did  W.  W.  Story  at  his  studio  here  to-day. 
We  saw  Pompeii  two  days,  and  the  museum  many  times.  Dun* 


can  went  with  us  to  Pozzuoli  (Puteoli)  and  Baiae,  a  delightful  ex- 

Last  evening  and  this  morning  eight  converts,  men,  mostly  young 
men,  were  baptized  by  Doctor  Cote  and  Mr.  Wall  (English  Baptist), 
and  this  morning,  these,  with  the  two  missionaries  and  their  wives, 
and  two  other  Italians  previously  baptized,  were  constituted  a  church, 
"the  Apostolical  Church"  of  Rome.  Doctor  Randolph1  and  I  ad- 
dressed them  (through  Mr,  Wall)  and  gave  them  the  right  hand  of 
fellowship,  and  we  observed  together  the  Lord's  Supper.  I  must 
write  to  J.  B.  Taylor,  by  request,  stating  my  impression  as  to  the 
work  and  the  workers  here.  This  afternoon  I  heard  Gavazzi  preach 
in  English,  in  the  Scotch  Free  Church.  Afterwards  saw  Prince 
Humbert  and  his  wife.  The  latter  has  a  bright  face,  and  a  caress- 
ing bow  to  the  crowd  that  is  quite  charming.  It  is  long  since  a 
Roman  sovereign  or  ruling  house  presented  them  a  lady  for  their  ad- 
miration, and  the  Romans  are  wild. 

J.  A.  B.  to  DR.  JAS.  P,  BOYCE : 

ROME,  Jan.  28,  1871 :  I  walked  up  the  cone  of  Vesuvius,  with 
snow  six  inches  deep  at  starting,  and  a  foot  deep  nearer  the  top. 
Many  stout  young  men  pull  up  by  a  mountaineer's  strap,  but  I  went 
by  choice,  unaided.  I  was  three  and  a  half  hours  on  my  feet  m  the 
snow,  besides  riding  horseback  five  miles  up  the  mountain,  and  then 
back  again.  Next  day  I  was  stiff,  but  walked  twice  to  church.  .  . 
Fortunately,  providentially,  I  met  here,  some  days  ago,  Warren 
Randolph,  D.  D.,  of  Philadelphia,  traveling  for  his  health,  and 
thinking  of  going  to  the  East,  but  with  no  definite  plans.  I  had 
met  him  twice  in  America,  and  liked  him,  a  thorough  gentleman  and 
a  fine  fellow.  In  brief,  we  are  going  together.  I  think  we  shall  get 
along  pleasantly,  and  our  compact  is  loose  enough  to  let  either  of  us 
make  other  arrangements,  if  we  find  it  necessary  to  our  plans.  Mrs 
Randolph  stays  near  Naples  with  some  American  friends  .  .  We 
spent  ten  days  in  Naples,  and  have  been  back  here  more  than  two 
weeks,  making  a  month  at  Rome  in  all.  Notwithstanding  much 
ram,  it  has  been  to  me  a  month  of  immense  enjoyment,  and  I  hope 
of  some  benefit.  .  .  My  ladies  go  back  with  me  to  Florence,  two 
days  hence.  Mrs.  Marsh  mentioned  two  places,  and  would  look 
for  others,  suitable  for  the  ladies  to  stay,  and  improve  their  French 
till  my  return  from  the  East.  If  Paris  becomes  accessible,  we  have 

1  Dr.  Warren  Randolph,  of  America,  who  became  Doctor  Broadus's  companion  m 
Oriental  travel. 


arranged  with  a  family  from  St.  Louis  to  take  them  from  Florence 
to  Paris,  about  first  of  April,  and  they  will  wait  for  me  there. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

FLORENCE,  Feb.  3,  1871 :  .  .  You  must  conceive  of  me  hence- 
forth in  light-colored  pants  and  drab  hat,  with  low  crown  and  broad 
brim,  and  with  all  my  beard  growing.  I  expect  to  spend  a  day  in 
Alexandria,  two  weeks  at  Cairo  and  Pyramids,  and  then  to  go  by 
the  Suez  Canal  to  Jaffa  and  Jerusalem.  .  . 

I  want  m  the  East  to  keep  something  of  a  regular  diary,  which 
may  be  of  use  in  my  lectures  and  to  my  colleagues  in  some  of  theirs. 
So  I  shall  not  be  able  to  write  letters  of  description,  even  such  meagre 
ones  as  I  have  been  writing.  The  mail  is  but  once  a  week,  and 
pretty  irregular.  Bear  this  in  mind  and  don't  be  uneasy  if  you  some- 
times get  no  letter  for  two  weeks,  or  even  three.  Expect  me  to  write 
eveiy  week,  some  account  of  my  movements,  and  always  the  exact 
facts  about  my  health  when  there  is  anything  noteworthy.  .  . 

There,  I  must  go  to  bed.  I  took  a  notion  to  write  to  Uncle  Albert 
from  Rome  m  Latin — hope  it  will  amuse  him.  My  love  to  each  and 
all.  I  am  going  farther  away,  and  feel  it  deeply.  But  let  us  still 
trust  and  be  thankful,  and  try  to  be  prudent,  and  accept  what  Is 
appointed  us.  God  bless  all  I  love  and  my  far-off  country. 

BRINDISI,Feb.6, 1871:  .  .  Last  evening  was  beautiful :  the  moon 
full,  the  sky  clear,  and  just  breeze  enough  to  be  pleasant.  I  walked 
on  deck  after  tea,  and  sang  hymns,  and  thought  of  home  and  the 
better  world,  and  felt  happy.  .  .  Indeed,  once  I  felt  so  lively  that  I 
skipped  about  the  deck.  To-day  also  I  am  feeling  much  better  than 
for  a  week  or  two  past.  We  reached  Brmdisi  ahead  of  time,  soon 
after  eleven  A.  M.,  which  was  astonishing  for  Italy,  but  explained 
by  the  fact  that  we  have  English  engineers,  as  well  as  an  English- 
built  steamer.  .  . 

I  asked  a  boy  if  he  could  show  me  the  Casa  di  Virgilio.  Virgil 
died  here  (though  he  was  taken  to  Naples  for  burial)  and  they  pre- 
tend of  course  to  have  the  house  he  occupied.  .  .  Octavius  came 
once  from  Rome  to  Brindisi  to  have  an  interview  with  Antony. 
Maecenas  came  with  him,  and  was  accompanied  by  Horace,  who 
gives  a  humorous  and  very  famous  description  of  it  in  "  Satires,"  I. 
8.  I  think,  though,  that  he  says  nothing  about  B itself. 

It  was  several  hours  before  I  could  find  Doctor  Randolph.  .  .  But 
at  last  he  found  me,  and  we  are  all  right— sitting  now  together  in  the 
cabm,  each  writing  to  his  wife,  as  I  hope  we  shall  be  spared  to  do 



many  times  on  two  sides  of  the  same  table.  There  are  very  few 
passengers,  and  we  have  the  pick  of  everything.  So  I  feel  pleased 
and  hopeful. 

ARRIVAL  AT  ALEXANDRIA,  DIARY,  Feb.  ro:  We  left  the  steamer 
at  eight,  svith  a  commi^wnave  of  the  Hotel  Abbot.  It  was  charm- 
ing to  sit  on  the  boat,  and  pass  among  the  ships  of  many  lands  that 
crowd  the  harbor,  and  the  boats  moving  swiftly  and  slovv  ly  in  every 
direction— the  bright  Oriental  dresses,  the  flags  flying,  the  brilliant 
sunshine,  the  steady  dip  of  the  oars,  and  the  easy,  floating  motion— 
I  was  grieved  when  we  got  to  land.  In  the  afternoon  we  went  to 
see  Cleopatra's  Needles.  .  .  Quite  near  the  obelisks  is  the  station  of 
the  Alexandria  and  Ramie  Railway— the  fifteenth  century  B.  C.  and 
the  nineteenth  A.  D.,  standing  side  by  side.  Very  large  hieroglyphics, 
and  some  distance  above  the  base,  quite  distinct. 

Dr.  Warren  Randolph  tells  the  following : 

It  was  at  Alexandria.  The  post  office  was  open  for  the  delivery  of 
letters  only  at  given  hours  and  then  only  for  a  little  while  at  a  time. 
All  non- Arabic  mail  was  given  out  at "  The  Frank  Window"  so  called. 
A  crowd  being  about  it  as  soon  as  it  was  opened,  it  did  not  seem  nec- 
essary for  us  both  to  press  our  way  in,  so  he  [Dr.  Broadus]  went  and 
got  our  mail.  As  he  came  out  and  handed  me  a  letter  from  my  wife, 
the  handwriting  upon  which  I  recognized,  though  he  did  not,  I  said, 
"  Ah,  that  is  from  the  person  who  sustains  to  me  the  most  endear- 
ing relation  in  life  !"  His  look  was  one  of  blank  astonishment,  1 
may  say,  it  was  a  look  of  almost  indescribable  despair.  After  wait- 
ing as  long  as  I  thought  it  safe,  I  explained.  "  Some  years  before, 
while  a  student,  I  had  heard,  at  an  Association,  an  address  on  Sun- 
day-school libraries,  in  which  the  speaker  maintained  that  books  for 
ruch  purposes  should  be  carefully  read  before  being  accepted,  and 
*  in  my  school,'  he  added,  *  this  service  is  usually  rendered  by  myself 
and  the  person  who  sustains  to  me  the  most  endearing  relation  in 
life.'  That  gem  of  affectionate  rhetoric  I  had  never  forgotten  and 
the  time  had  come  to  use  it.  Egypt  seemed  a  most  fitting  place." 
And  the  look  of  relief  which  came  over  my  friend's  face  as  I  ex- 
plained was  a  study.  It  was  as  maiked  as  his  previous  look  of 
despair.  "  Well,  I'm  glad  to  hear  thai,"  he  exclaimed,  "  for  I  said 
to  myself,  Is  that  the  kind  of  a  man  I  am  to  travel  with?"  And 
from  that  day  on,  the  phrase  was  never  forgotten.  Upon  occasion 
he  often  began  the  quotation  while  we  were  together,  and  again  and 
again  in  after  years  as  we  met,  when  he  wanted  to  inquire  for  my 


wife,  he  would  ask,  "  And  how  is  the  person  who  sustains,"  etc. 
His  love  of  humor  was  as  genuine  as  any  part  of  his  nature. 

DIARY,  Feb.  10 :  The  goats  about  the  city  all  have  long,  pendent 
ears  like  a  hound.  Saw  one  with  its  ears  trimmed  to  the  usual  size. 
Wonder  if  it  was  a  European  who  did  it— good  illustration  as  to 
many  things,  especially  as  to  oratory.  .  . 

Feb,  12 :  At  five  o'clock  we  walked  to  Jews'  Quarter  of  ancient 
Alexandria.  The  Ramie  Railway  cuts  right  through  it,  and  we  saw 
a  train  come  dashing  through  the  midst  of  the  mounds  where  Philo 
dreamed  and  Apollos  grew  mighty  in  the  Scriptures;  where  the 
Septuagint  was  translated,  and  all  the  Greek- Jewish  philosophy  was 
written.  I  thought  a  good  deal  about  the  Jews  of  Alexandria,  and 
then  about  Origen,  Athanasius,  etc.,  though  they  did  not  live  in 
this  quarter. 

CAIRO,  DIARY,  Feb.  14,  15,  19:  Often  amused  with  living  pano- 
rama before  our  windows.  The  Orientals  passing  in  procession 
before  our  eyes,  at  any  hour  of  the  day,  with  their  variety  of  bright 
costumes,  people  of  every  rank  and  every  calling  and  age,  and 
both  sexes.  Can't  certainly  tell  woman,  except  when  she  is  veiled. 
Some  old  ladies  think  their  faces  a  sufficient  protection  against  star- 
ing eyes,  and  need  no  veil.  Officials  whack  the  common  people  to 
make  them  clear  the  way,  stand  back,  etc.  .  . 

Fine  day.  Went  a  little  while  to  the  Coptic  church,  much  larger 
and  grander  than  the  old  one  in  old  Cairo.  Mass,  intoning  priests 
and  boys.  Pictures  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  and  God  the  Father, 
and  numerous  figures  of  a  dove  cut  in  the  wood  The  intoning 
shrill  and  harsh.  Women  above  in  latticed  galleries.  Men  stood  on 
matting,  next  the  altar ;  many,  but  not  all,  took  off  shoes.  At  one 
point,  they  knelt  and  touched  forehead  to  the  floor,  some  of  them 
three  times,  after  crossing  themselves. 

Feb.  19 :  Sermon  by  a  Scotch  minister  at  the  American  Mission- 
United  Presbyterian,  Doctor  Lansing  and  several  others — chiefly 
among  the  Copts,  and  having  very  gratifying  success.  Learn  that 
when  Mrs.  Lansing  first  visits  women,  and  wishes  to  read  Scripture 
to  them,  they  frequently  say  no  use,  they  are  women,  don't  know 
anything,  can't  understand,  nothing  but  donkeys ;  but  when  she 
persists,  telling  them  they  only  need  education,  and  she  will  explain, 
and  presently  gets  them  interested  in  some  passages  of  Scripture, 
they  frequently  become  very  eager  for  her  to  come  again ;  minds 
waked  up  for  the  first  time. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  S.  B. : 

CAIRO,  Feb.  22,  1871 :  We  went  on  Saturday  (in  a  carriage  four 
miles)  to  Heliopolis,  the  On  of  Genesis.  It  was  the  religious  capi- 
tal, and  the  university  town.  Its  priest-prince  was  probably  the 
highest  in  rank  of  all  Egyptain  subjects,  and  Pharaoh  honored 
Joseph  by  giving  him  to  wife  Asenath,  the  daughter  of  this  func- 
tionary. I  showed  a  young  lady  (from  Ohio)  the  place  (?)  where 
she  lived  before  she  mounted  a  camel  and  went  up  to  Memphis  to 
be  Joseph's  wife.  A  solitary  obelisk  is  standing,  in  its*  original 
place,  the  oldest  in  the  world.  I  doubt  if  Asenath  saw  it  that  morn- 
ing, but  she  had  often  seen  it  in  her  childhood,  and  her  fathers  for 
many  generations.  .  .  Herodotus  mentions  this  obelisk,  and  Plato 
was  a  student  there  for  years.  The  site  of  the  little  town  (in  which 
few  besides  priests  lived)  can  be  determined,  and  the  circuit  of 
the  walls.  But  the  Arab  drives  his  rude  plowshare  where  the 
temple  of  the  Sun  used  to  stand,  and  looks  up  in  idle  wonder  at  the 
Fianks  who  keep  trooping  to  see  nothing.  Walking  on  the  mounds 
where  the  town  stood,  one  gets  a  wide  and  beautiful  view,  including 
Cairo  and  the  great  pyramids,  which  were  already  many  hundreds 
of  years  old  when  Joseph  used  to  walk  there.  There  came  a  sharp 
little  shower  while  we  were  looking  at  the  mounds,  and  it  was  almost 
cold.  Not  true  that  they  have  no  ram  here,  but  it  is  rare.  A  beau- 
tiful rainbow  was  seen  while  we  were  retaining,  but  our  backs  were 
towards  it  and  we  didn't  see.  That  is  said  to  be  a  very  rare  sight 
here.  .  . 

Monday,  the  Pyramids,  and  a  beautiful  day.  Only  seven  miles 
to  the  greatest,  and  a  fine  cariiage  road  made  by  the  viceroy  for  the 
Empress  Eugenie,  fall  before  last,  with  a  bridge  of  boats  over  the 
Nile,  made  for  a  ball.  The  Pyramids— I  clapped  my  hands  and 
laughed  and  sang,  and  wished  for  my  dear  ones,  and  felt  myself  to 
see  if  it  was  I.  Can't  allow  myself  to  describe.  Whew !  how  it 
tired  one  to  go  up— stones  two  and  three  feet  high.  View  from  the 
summit  wonderful ;  valley  of  the  Nile,  broad  river,  winding— near 
us,  sand  and  green  so  that  one  could  stand  with  one  foot  on  the 
desert  and  the  other  in  rich  clover— far  off  eastward,  beyond  the  river, 
the  limestone  hills  from  which  the  stone  for  the  pyramids  was 
brought,  and  Cairo— and  westward  the  Libyan  hills,  and  beyond 
them  three  thousand  miles  of  sand.  Coming  down  was  frightfully 
fatiguing ;  not  at  all  dangerous,  just  hard  work.  When  I  got  to 

the  ground  I  couldn't  walk,  my  knees  felt  so  weak.  Doctor  R 

was  less  used  up,  but  the  Arabs  toted  us  both  on  their  shoulders, 

A  YEAR  ABROAD  26 1 

along  one  side  of  the  pyramid,  being  two  hundred  and  fifty  yards. 
Then  we  went  inside,  which  is  most  fatiguing  of  all,  stooping  and 
crawling,  slipping  down  a  slope,  and  climbing  up  where  the  rock  is 

DIARY,  Feb.  25  :  By  7.30  o'clock  we  reached  Jaffa.  Many  boats 
put  out  to  meet  us,  over  twenty  of  them,  black  looking,  and  men 
rowing  eagerly,  and  striking  from  different  directions  towards  the  ship 
—it  suggested  the  boats  of  savages,  coming  to  attack  a  ship  be- 
calmed. As  they  got  near,  and  before  the  steamer  fairly  stopped, 
they  began  screaming  to  us,  and  beckoning,  and  running  against 
other  boats— the  grandest  specimen  of  Oriental  uproar  I  can  well 
conceive.  We  got  into  a  large  boat,  reaching  it  with  difficulty.  The 
sea  unsually  calm,  and  slight  wind  blowing  off  shore— yet  even  then 
the  landing  looked  perilous — no  harbor — reef  of  rocks  a  little  way 
from  shore  (famous  as  the  rocks  of  Andromeda,  Stanley,  Ch.  VI., 
Note  A),  with  two  narrow  passages,  one  being  about  ten  feet  wide. 
For  two  previous  weeks  the  steamers  had  been  quite  unable  to  land 
their  passengers,  and  had  to  take  them  on  to  Beyrout.  Will  there 
ever  be  a  harbor  made  here?  Or  will  there  be  a  railway  from  Port 
Said  to  Jerusalem,  or  from  Beyrout? 

Doctor  Broadus  afterward  wrote  of  an  incident  on  the 
way  to  Jerusalem  : 

Oriental  usages  will  die  hard,  and  as  long  as  they  last,  they 
will  startle  and  thrill  the  traveler.  One  morning  on  the  plain  of 
Sharon  we  saw  a  shepherd  ahead  of  us,  leading  his  flock  of  mingled 
white  sheep  and  black  goats  out  to  pasture.  Presently  he  turned 
into  a  little  bit  of  sepaiate  valley  among  slight  hills,  and,  as  the 
flock  followed,  he  stopped  and  stood  facing  them.  The  goats  aie 
rude,  and  apt  to  push  the  sheep  away  from  the  best  grass,  so  that 
they  need  to  be  separated.  So,  as  they  came  up,  he  would  with  his 
rod  tap  a  sheep  on  one  side  of  its  head,  and  it  went  *ff  to  his 
right ;  tap  a  goat  on  the  other  side  of  its  head,  and  it  went  off  to  his 
left.  We  sat  on  our  horses,  and  gazed  in  silence.1 

DIARY,  Feb  28  :  "  My  feet  shall  stand  within  thy  gates,  O  Jeru- 
salem." Thank  God,  that  the  hopeless  dream  of  many  a  year  has 
become  a  reality.  I  am  at  Jerusalem. 

1  "  Convention  Teacher,"  April,  1891.  In  the  last  years  Doctor  Broadus  wrote  fre  • 
quently  for  this  "  Teacher  " 


DIARY,  Mar.  3 :  Returning,  in  street  of  David  stumbled  upon  a 
marriage  procession,  headed  by  noisy  and  discordant  music.  Girls 
covered  with  white,  two  of  them  leading  the  bride,  going  to  bride- 
groom's house.  At  several  houses,  friends  came  out  and  offered 
some  cheap  drmk,  bright  colored.  Reaching  bridegroom's,  they  en- 
tered small  inner  court,  and  painstakingly  ascended  narrow  stone 
steps— bride's  handsome  dress  (under  the  white  covering)  could  be 
held  high  by  her  attendants,  as  she  wore  the  Turkish  trousers, 
very  large  and  showy.  We  were  allowed  to  go  up  and  look  into 
upper  room.  Bridegroom,  a  boy  of  fifteen  or  sixteen  (said  to  be  from 
London),  looked  very  sheepish,  much  bored,  as  he  sat  by  the  bride 
—she  and  her  attendants  had  all  removed  their  white  coverings. 
The  room  was  full,  the  musicians  made  the  biggest  noise  they 
could,  and  a  girl  came  into  a  small  space  opened  in  the  middle,  and 
danced  before  the  happy  pair.  .  , 

The  diary  is  full  of  most  interesting  observations  by 
Doctor  Broadus,  whose  mind  was  rich  in  biblical  lore, 
but  these  must  nearly  all  be  passed  by.  March  7-11  he 
and  Doctor  Randolph  made  an  excursion  to  Hebron, 
Bethlehem,  Mar  Saba,  the  Dead  Sea,'  the  Jordan,  and  Jeri- 
cho. We  must  let  Doctor  Broadus  tell  of  the  sunrise  at 
Jerusalem  as  they  started. 

DIARY,  Mar.  7 :  It  had  been  raining  several  days,  and  we  were 
uneasy  for  our  trip.,  which  must  of  necessity  be  arranged  beforehand, 
and  could  be  postponed  only  with  great  difficulty. 

This  morning  very  clear,  and  we  looked  with  joy  from  high  upper 
window  to  the  line  of  Olivet,  beyond  that  to  the  mountains  of  Moab, 
distinct  but  dark.  Presently  a  single  ray  of  golden  light  touches 
the  highest  point  of  Moab  (that  ought  to  be  Pisgah),  and  seems  to 
run  along  the  waving  line  of  the  mountain  summits  away  towards 
the  southern  part  of  the  Deal  Sea,  while  Olivet  grows  clearer  in  the 
foreground.  Soon,  looking  just  to  the  right  of  the  church  of  the 
Ascension,  on  the  summit  of  Olivet,  we  see  a  bright  speck  behind 
Moab,  enlarging,  then  the  bright  line  towards  the  South  becomes  a 
broad  band,  a  gilded  phylactery  on  the  frowning  brow  of  the 
mountain,  while  a  single  dark  cloud  just  south  of  the  rising  sun 
looks  like  a  great  mountain  on  fire.  Now  the  bright  light  comes  out 
over  all  the  rounded  summits  of  Olivet  and  m  a  moment  half  of  the 
sun  is  visible  above  Moab,  and  flinging  across  to  us  such  a  brilliant, 


dazzling  glory  as  to  swallow  up  the  whole  scene,  and  make  us  turn 
our  blinded  eyes  away. 

Doctor  Randolph  tells  the  following  story  of  this  jaunt : 

Not  a  single  mishap,  I  think,  befell  him  while  we  were  in  the 
Holy  Land,  and  but  one  came  to  me.  Our  journeymgs  were  en-' 
tirely  on  horseback.  The  roads  were  merely  bridle  paths.  As  a 
rule  they  were  unfit  for  anything  but  a  walk.  Four  miles  an  hour 
was  the  average  rate  of  travel.  I  can  scarcely  remember  more  than 
one  stretch  of  a  mile  where  a  smooth  path  invited  to  a  canter.  That 
was  between  Hebron  and  Bethlehem.  There  we  tried  the  speed  of 
our  iron  grays.  But  it  had  rained  that  morning,  and  the  road  was 
slippery.  My  horse  slipped  and  fell  and  I  fell  with  him,  but  fortu- 
nately he  did  not  fall  on  me.  I  was  badly  stunned  and  for  a  few 
moments  dazed.  However,  by  the  aid  of  my  friend  and  our  drago- 
man, I  soon  remounted,  and  we  went  along.  But  there  was  no 
more  galloping  that  day. 

Doctor  Randolph  likewise  says  of  the  visit  to  Mar 

The  convent  belongs  to  the  Greek  Church  and  admission  to  it 
can  only  be  obtained  through  the  Greek  patriarch  at  Jerusalem. 
Provided  with  this  permit,  we  reached  the  rocky  fastness  a  little 
before  nightfall,  drenched  by  the  hardest  rain  to  which  we  were  ex- 
posed in  Palestine.  The  heavy  door  of  the  convent  was  closed  as 
usual.  From  a  loophole  in  the  wall,  some  distance  above  the  door, 
a  basket  was  lowered,  into  which  our  permit  was  put.  It  was  then 
drawn  up  and  examined,  and  being  found  correct  a  monk  came  down 
and  admitted  us.  No  sooner  were  we  within,  than  the  door  was 
again  closed  and  fastened,  and  as  the  heavy  bolt  creaked  on  being 
shoved  back  to  its  place,  Doctor  Broadus  in  an  undertone  said  to 
me,  "  Now  we  are  in  the  Middle  Ages,"  a  thought  which  was  addi- 
tionally impressed  as  in  the  night  we  heard  the  convent  bell  calling 
the  monks  to  prayer. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  March  10, 1871 :  And  now  let  me  say  per- 
emptorily, "  You  must  not  hurry  home."  I  have  consulted  the  faculty 
and  they  are  unanimously  of  the  opinion  that  you  must  stay  as  late 
as  possible,  at  least  late  enough  to  allow  a  trip  to  the  Rhine  and 


Switzerland.  Don't  be  troubled  about  the  money.  I  shall  be  able 
to  keep  that  all  straight. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 
JERUSALEM,  March  19,  1871 :  Everything  conspires  to  make  me 

satisfied  \vith  the  plan  I  devised  as  to  travel  here,  and  Doctor  R 

frequently  expresses  himself  strongly  on  the  subject.  We  stay  long 
at  Jerusalem,  returning  again  and  again,  visiting  the  principal  places 
many  times,  and  reading  over  the  Scripture  events  and  discourses  on 

the  spot.  (Doctor  R reads  aloud,  and  we  discuss  and  comment.) 

We  want  in  some  way  to  stay  longer  by  the  Sea  of  Galilee  than 
most  travelers  do.  And  finally  we  return  here  for  Easter,  when  the 
Orient  gathers  here  its  many  thousands.  The  ladies  who  came  up 
from  Jaffa  with  us,  and  who  intended  to  go  across  to  Damascus,  ten 
days'  continuous  riding,  have  given  it  up,  and  went  back  to  Jaffa 
yesterday.  No  ladies  ought  to  come  here  unless  used  to  horseback 
riding,  and  not  easy  to  take  cold,  and  no  persons  of  either  sex  ought 
to  visit  Palestine  unless  they  either  know  much  about  it  beforehand, 
or  stay  a  good  while  at  every  important  place.  The  first  time  or  two 
they  see  one  of  these  famous  places,  people  are  usually  disappointed, 
astonished,  disgusted,  and  often  sorry  they  ever  came.  The  wretched 
hovels  in  which  most  of  the  people  live,  the  narrow,  filthy,  and  dis- 
gusting streets  which  are  universal — even  the  best  streets  in  Jerusa- 
lem being  not  more  than  twelve  or  fourteen  feet  wide,  and  filthy  be- 
yond endurable  description — and  the  bare  and  desolate  hills  on  every 
side,  fill  their  minds  with  painful  emotions.  .  .  If  they  would  stay 
longer  and  study  the  excellent  books  accessible,  and  see  places  many 
times,  and  learn  to  distinguish  what  can  be  really  ascertained,  and 
by  an  effort  of  imagination  sweep  away  these  disagreeable  actuali- 
ties and  reproduce  what  once  was  here,  and  then,  resting  from  topo- 
graphical discussion,  would  go  over  the  Scripture  narratives  and  dis- 
courses, they  would  find  an  exquisite  delight,  which  might  well 
make  them  clap  their  hands  with  joy. 

DIARY,  March  20 :  Our  dragoman  traveled  a  month  last  spring 
with  Kiepert,  the  great  map-maker,  beyond  Jordan,  and  said  they 
went  to  Wady  Zurka.  I  was  delighted  that  Kiepert  should  have 
visited  the  site  of  Machaeius,  as  nobody  has  shared  my  enthusiasm 
about  it  enough  to  join  me  in  the  risky  and  costly  trip  to  see  it.  .  . 

A  tour  to  Galilee  was  made  March  2i-April  4,  the 
party  returning  to  Jerusalem  for  Easter*  Doctor  Broadus 


fairly  reveled  in  the  sights  at  Bethel,  Nablous,  the  val- 
ley of  Esdraelon,  Nazareth,  the  Jordan,  Tiberias,  Caper- 
naum, the  Sea  of  Galilee,  and  all  the  rest. 

DIARY,  March  21 :  When  we  reached  Tiberias,  the  trifling  mule- 
teers had  pitched  in  the  first  place  they  reached,  a  bit  of  plowed 
ground.  .  .  We  put  on  our  waterproofs  and  watched  the  lake.  The 
cloud  now  black  in  the  South — thunder  more  frequent,  and  its  fainter 
sound  rolling  off  mingled  with  the  echoes  from  the  hills  behind— keen, 
fierce  lines  of  lightning,  strangely  vivid  in  this  wonderful  atmos- 
phere. Surface  of  lake  ruffled,  and  raindrops  falling  heavily  so  as 
to  make  the  water  leap  up.  .  .  Dragomen  and  servants,  with  some 
Arabs  from  the  town,  are  rushing  about  screaming  Arabic  at  each 
other,  amid  the  roar  of  wind  and  thunder  trying  to  get  the  tent  set 
up.  Yonder  around  the  town  (we  are  just  south  of  it)  comes  one  of 
the  few  boats  of  this  lake  which  once  swarmed  with  them,  coming 
back  with  a  party  of  travelers  who  arrived  yesterday,  and  whose 
tents  are  between  us  and  the  springs.  ,  .  The  sail  is  set,  the  rowers 
are  busy,  they  are  hurrying  to  get  the  ladies  ashore.  There  is  no 
wharf,  the  bank  slopes  too  gently,  the  boat  grounds  and  the  boat- 
men hurriedly  tote  the  ladies  ashore,  who  scamper  towards  their 
tents.  We  are  safe,  quiet,  and  happy,  .  .  and  delighted  to  see  a 
storm  gathering  on  the  Sea  of  Galilee.  Presently  I  look  across— all 
the  southern  part  of  the  lake  is  now  clouded,  with  rain  already  heavy 
at  the  south  end— but  opposite  I  see  the  summits  of  the  moun- 
tain range  standing  out  very  clear,  indeed  bright  in  the  evening 
sun,  which  shines  over  the  clouds  upon  them,  and  Oh,  look,  look 
at  Hermon  !  Oh,  look,  look !  Oh,  look,  friend,  at  Hermon !  .  .  All 
words  fail  to  tell  how  brilliant,  how  gloriously  radiant.  I  gazed  and 
gazed  in  a  very  agony  of  delight.  And  so,  I  was  thinking,  so  some- 
times with  the  dying,  when  all  around  is  growing  dark,  they  turn 
their  eyes  in  a  new  direction  and  sudden,  bright,  transporting,  rises 
the  vision  of  another  world,  splendid  with  unearthly  glories,  blessed, 
rapturous,  overwhelming.  I  could  not  see  the  wonderful  mountain 
now,  for  the  tears  that  came.  But  the  rain  increased,  and  the  tent 
invited.  .  .  New  and  loud  bursts  of  thunder,  and  as  I  look  forth, 
the  water  of  the  lake  is  leaping  high  from  something  more  than  rain- 
drops ;  on  the  tombstones  here  just  before'me  large  hail-stones  are  re- 
bounding. The  tent,  too  hastily  erected,  shakes  and  leaks,  and  1 
arrange  our  beds  so  as  to  protect  them,  then  sit  down  near  the  tent- 
door  to  gaze.  White-caps  now  on  the  lake,  and  surf  beating  on  the 
shore.  ,  .  Thunder  very  loud  and  abrupt,  lightnings  forked  and 


many-colored.  .  .  The  northern  part  of  the  lake  now  obscured,  the 
vision  of  Hermon  gone.  As  the  hail  subsides,  there  passes  between 
rne  and  the  shore  a  great  flock  of  black  goats  and  some  sheep,  hur- 
rying from  the  fields  to  shelter,  but  too  late— the  shepherd  calls,  the 
shepherd  dogs  bark  loudly,  urging  the  stragglers  along.  The  storm 

rolls  off  north  and  northeast.   Doctor  R has  stayed  out  through 

it  all.  We  rejoice  much  at  having  seen  it,  having  got  here  just  in 

Monday,  March  27 :  We  had  engaged  the  boat  Saturday  evening, 
and  though  some  danger  of  ram  determined  to  go.  .  .  Our  drago- 
man afraid  of  the  water,  and  got  a  substitute  from  Tiberias,  an  old 
Arab,  formerly  a  distinguished  dragoman,  but  utterly  ruined  by 
drink,  which  has  thickened  his  speech  and  fuddled  his  brain,  and 
driven  his  wife  and  child  to  leave  him.  It  seemed  sad  to  meet  such 
a  case  here.  Mohammed's  prohibition  law  does  not  appear  to  be 
very  efficacious. 

We  wanted  to  visit  place  where  supposed  that  five  thousand  were 
fed,  and  then  work  around  by  mouth  of  Jordan  to  Tel  Hum.    Men 
unwilling  to  go  across;  would  not  be  time,  no  travelers  ever  go 
there,  etc.    We  insisted,  and  they  went,  but  very  slowly,  taking 
three  and  three-quarter  hours,  till  half  past  eleven  o'clock.  At  eleven, 
one  of  them  called  my  attention  to  appearance  of  wind  rising  in 
West,  by  Mejdel,  and  it  was  "mushtayib,"  bad,  bad.    When  we 
landed,  the  waves  were  beginning  to  swell,  and  the  wind  freshening. 
We  were  at  the  south  end  of  the  plain  of  Bateiha,  which  extends 
southeast  from  the  upper  mouth  of  the  river.    This  plain  would 
naturally  pertain  to  Bethsaida  Julias.  .  .  Into  the  plain  itself  came 
three  main  wadys,  the  middle  one  being  the  largest,  and  running 
away  back  into  the  mountain  range.    Our  Lord  may  have  gone  up 
this  middle  wady  to  find  a  "  desert  place  "  for  rest.  .  .  Close  to 
where  we  landed,  is  a  singular  creek,  or  inlet,  with  a  narrow  and 
shallow  entrance,  but  deeper  within.  .  .  This  creek  makes  a  capital 
harbor  for  boats,  and  our  boat  at  once  upon  our  landing  put  in  there, 
and  was  quiet  through  all  the  storm  which  followed.  .  .  The  disci- 
ples knew  there  was  danger  of  sudden  storms  at  this  season  (much 
better  than  we  did),  and  they  expected  to  leave  their  boat  for  some 
time.    Is  it  not  natural  to  suppose  they  would  have  made  for  this 
little  inlet,  and  left  their  boat  there?    Up  the  hill  (a  half  or  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  shore),  on  southern  side  of  it,  towards 
the  wady,  and  thus  near  the  edge  of  the  territory  which  would 
naturally  belong  to  Bethsaida  Julias,  we  observed  a  slope  towards 


the  southwest,  quite  large,  sloping  gently,  full  of  herbage,  on  which 
the  afternoon  sun  would  shine  pleasantly.  .  .  (The  five  thousand 
were  fed  shortly  before  the  Passover,  and  we  are  here  at  just  the 
same  season).  This  might  well  enough  have  been  the  very  place — 
though  there  are  many  other  places  suitable,  if  not  so  strikingly. 
We  should  have  been  glad  to  observe  more  widely  and  carefully, 
but  plain  to  north  of  us  contained  thirty  or  forty  Bedouin  tents,  and 
our  guard  was  the  old  interpreter  and  one  boatman,  instead  of  sev- 
eral that  had  been  promised  us.  Besides  we  felt  uneasy  about  the 
rising  wind. 

Regaining  the  boat  at  twelve  o'clock  or  so,  found  wind  high, 
waves  breaking  white  all  over  the  sea  and  in  abundant  surf  on  the 
gently  sloping  shore.  .  .  "The  wind  was  contrary"  to  our  return 
across  the  lake.  Fortunately  it  was  midday  rather  than  midnight, 
and  we  were  still  on  shore.  The  boatmen  composedly  laid  down 
and  went  to  sleep,  and  we  quietly  ate  our  lunch.  Then  we  read 
more  of  the  Galilean  ministry.  Gathered  many  minute  shells,  and 
a  good  many  flowers.  Fine  sunny  afternoon,  but  wind  still  sharp, 
and  quite  unsafe  to  cross.  So  we  waited  many  hours. 

The  ruder  boats  of  the  olden  time  were  probably  built  much  like 
this.  At  each  end  of  this  boat  is  a  platform,  near  the  top,  extending 
some  four  feet  towards  the  middle,  and  forming  thus  a  bit  of  deck. 
On  the  hinder  one  we  sat  upon  a  piece  of  carpet,  and  on  the  other 
the  owner  coiled  himself  to  sleep.  In  a  larger  boat  there  might  well 
be  here  behind  a  cushion,  good  for  passengers  to  sit  on,  and  con- 
venient for  one  person  to  sleep.  Accordingly  we  find  our  Lord  (in 
the  first  stormy  voyage  described)  in  the  hinder  part  of  the  boat, 
asleep  on  a  cushion.  He  cannot  have  been  in  the  bottom  of  the  boat, 
for  it  was  filling  with  water  and  threatening  to  sink  while  he  slept  on. 

Farther  east  to-day  than  ever  before,  or  expect  to  be  again,  unless 
we  go  to  Damascus. 

At  five  o'clock,  wind  a  good  deal  slackened,  and  we  set  out.  .  . 
Waves  still  quite  high,  and  we  had  no  work  to  do,  and  ample 
leisure  to  be  uneasy.  The  prospect  was  alarming.  A  striking  illus- 
tration of  Scripture,  and  so  far  very  gratifying.  .  .  Boat  savagely 
tossed  at  times,  but  shipped  no  water  (though  barely  escaped),  and  no 
notion  of  capsizing.  Presently  they  set  the  sail,  and  we  worked  north- 
west. .  .  We  beat  up  into  the  mouth  of  the  Jordan  (thus  having, 
notwithstanding  the  storm,  some  opportunity  to  see  it),  and  waited 
awhile  for  the  wind  to  sink  more.  Near  dark  we  put  out,  keeping 
within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  the  western  shore,  and  relying  on 
oars.  ,  .  Slowly  we  got  on,  passing  Tel  Hum,  etc.  Moon  in  first 


quarter,  stars  here  and  there,  lake  shore  very  pleasing.  Uneasiness 
diminishing,  I  sunk  down,  quite  overcome  with  fatigue  and  the  day's 
excitements,  and  slept  an  hour  or  two  in  a  certain  fitful  fashion.  .  . 
Landed  at  half  past  ten,  and  felt  heartily  thankful.  Gave  the  men 
liberal  bakshish,  and  they  probably  wished  for  many  storms  with 

The  diary  has  a  graphic  description  of  the  frauds  and 
impositions  about  the  Holy  Sepulchre  in  Jerusalem,  the 
Greek  footwashing,  and  the  ceremony  of  the  Holy  Fire 
on  April  6  and  8.  About  all  the  mockery  DoctorBroadus 
says : 

No  devoutness,  no  seriousness— frolic  for  the  crowd,  ridiculous  to 
the  persons  officiating  It  is  ceremony  run  in  the  ground,  utterly  de- 
feating its  own  object.  I  have  never  in  my  life  beheld  a  spectacle 
so  humiliating.  This  is  Oriental  Christianity. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

BEYROUT,  Apnl  13,  1871 :  We  had  had  a  pleasant  ride  to  Bethle- 
hem that  morning,  and  when  at  6  o'clock  I  got  so  many  letters,  I 
was  quite  happy,  especially  as  they  all  contained  good  news  rather 
than  otherwise.  The  next  day,  Tuesday,  we  left  Jerusalem  at  6 
o'clock,  and  soon  had  our  last  look  at  the  "  Holy  City."  The  ride 
was  pleasant.  Palestine  looks  its  prettiest  at  just  this  season.  Even 
the  rockiest  mountainsides  have  many  wild  flowers  among  the 
rocks,  and  the  valleys  and  plains,  where  not  cultivated,  are  com- 
pletely covered  with  the  little  flowers,  most  bright  and  rich  in  their 
colors,  and  often  very  sweet  in  their  perfume.  Throughout  our 
journey  north,  the  wild  flowers  were  our  constant  delight.  Some 
great  mountain  might  look  very  bleak  in  the  distance,  with  its  vast 
ledges  of  rock,  but  when  we  came  to  climb  it,  away  up  even  to  the 
top,  the  flowers,  thick  as  in  garden  beds,  would  nod  all  around  us 
their  bright  welcome,  and  fill  the  air  with  their  delicious  breath  as 
we  walked,  .  .  The  white  almond  blossoms  have  now  passed  away, 
and  the  trees  are  full  of  young  almonds,  which  the  people  eat  largely 
in  their  green  state,  shell  and  all,  and  which  some  say  are  sweet  and 
wholesome.  .  .  We  spent  the  night  at  Ramleh,  as  before,  and  I 
thought  the  great  olive  groves,  with  tall  wheat  between  the  trees, 
more  beautiful  than  ever.  Yesterday  morning  we  started  again  at 
6  o'clock  and  came  to  Jaffa. 


J.  A.  B.  to  MR.  S.  S.  BROADUS : 

BEYROUT,  April  13,  1871 :  The  French  steamer  did  not  arrive  as 
expected,  but  fortunately  we  found  a  freight  steamer  from  Glasgow, 
which  does  business  in  these  waters,  and  had  come  to  Jaffa  to  take 
pilgrims,  returning  from  Jerusalem,  to  their  homes,  along  the  coast. 
...  All  the  lower  deck  was  full  of  pilgrims,  Some  of  these  are 
wealthy  people ;  they  put  on  mean  clothing  and  rough  it.  .  We 
had  several  persons  on  board  who  were  traveling  around  the 
world,  .  .  I  was  faintly  trying  to  wash  my  face,  at  half  past  six 
o'clock,  when  I  heard  some  one  above  say,  "  We  are  just  passing 
Sidon."  .  . 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

BEYROUT,  April  14,  1871 :  .  .  If  I  can  get  pleasantly  situated  at 
Athens  I  mean  to  stay  there  at  least  three  weeks.  I  am  tired  of  so 
much  going.  If  nothing  happens,  we  shall  reach  Athens  about  24th 

or  25th.  Doctor  R will  not  stay  there  more  than  one  week.  I 

told  him  how  you  envied  his  wife  about  correspondence,  and  he 
dolefully  said  that  my  last  letter  from  you  was  of  later  date  than  his 

last  from  Mrs.  R ,  which  was  true,  the  English  mail  being  very 

prompt,  and  the  Italian  very  uncertain. 

Beyrout  is  now  the  great  port  of  Syria,  with  sixty  thousand  people, 
and  growing  rapidly.  I  have  taken  a  great  fancy  to  the  place, 
probably  because  I  was  so  sea-sick  when  I  arrived  here.  No  doubt 
I  shall,  if  nothing  happens,  have  a  similar  preparation  in  June  for 
taking  a  great  fancy  for  Locust  Grove. 

SMYRNA,  April  22,  1871 :  .  .  The  weather  was  delightful,  and 
the  boat  comfortable.  We  had  for  three  days  a  number  of  American 
missionaries  (Congregationalist),  stationed  in  different  parts  of  Syria 
and  Asia  Minor,  nine  in  all,  including  four  ladies,  and  I  was  ex- 
ceedingly pleased  with  their  society.  .  .  Then  we  coasted  all  along 
Syria  and  the  southern  coast  of  Asia  Minor,  almost  everywhere  in 
full  view.  We  stopped  four,  six,  eight  hours  at  several  points,  and 
could  go  ashore.  Thus  at  Alexandretta  (Scanderoon),  near  the  N. 
E.  angle  of  the  Mediterranean,  we  spent  several  hours  of  Sunday 
on  shore,  holding  a  prayer  meeting  in  a  Greek  church.  We  were 
there  in  full  view  of  the  plain  of  Issus,  where  Alexander  first  fought 
Darius,  and  the  town  was  named  in  his  honor.  Next  day  we  stopped 
at  Messena,  within  four  hours  of  Tarsus,  and  though  there  was  not 
quite  time  to  go  there  we  were  for  many  hours  in  view  of  Paul's  coun- 
try, including  the  glorious  snow-clad  summits  of  Taurus.  Then  we 


stopped  at  Rhodes  and  went  ashore,  with  time  enough  to  see  the 
harbor,  speculate  about  the  Colossus,  and  run  about  the  town. 
Afterwards  we  were  passing  the  famous  islands,  Cos,  Samos, 
Chios  (Scio),  etc.  Patmos  at  night,  couldn't  see  it  We  reached 
Smyrna  early  yesterday  morning,  and  to  my  great  delight  were 
able  to  make  an  excursion  by  rail,  fifty  miles,  to  see  the  ruins  of 
Ephesus.  I  have  been  surpused  to  find  Smyrna  so  beautiful — the 
harbor  almost  equals  the  bay  of  Naples,  and  the  town  not  only 
looks  beautiful  at  a  distance  (as  many  Oriental  towns  do),  but 
compared  with  what  we  have  long  been  seeing,  it  looks  beauti- 
ful within. 

DIARY,  April  24 :  Rose  early  but  not  early  enough  to  see  ruins 
and  temple  of  Minerva  on  Sunium — a  gentleman  (who  slept  on 
deck )  said  it  appeared  to  great  advantage  in  the  morning  light.  We 
were  in  the  gulf  of  Athens — on  our  right,  Hymettus  ;  on  left,  yEgina, 
and  the  little  island  on  which  Demosthenes  died— farther  left,  moun- 
tains of  the  Morea,  running  in  till  nearly  in  front  were  the  snow- 
capped mountains  near  Corinth.  The  bay  is  broad  and  very 
beautiful,— the  morning  was  surpassingly  fine,— indeed  the  weather 
for  a  week  past,  ever  since  we  turned  the  N.  E.  corner  of  the  Medi- 
terranean, has  been  perfectly  delightful.  By  degrees,  on  our  right, 
Parnes  becomes  visible— presently  we  can  see  the  Acropolis.  .  . 
Now  we  can  see  Pentelicus,  between  Hymettus  and  Parnes,  and  east, 
the  Lycabettus.  Yonder,  in  front,  is  the  isle  of  Salamis.  I  see  a 
youngish  lady  (of  Cook's  party,  I  think)  talking  to  a  young  man 
in  the  most  animated  manner,  her  face  radiant  with  enthusiasm  and 
delight,  and  with  animated  gesticulation,  perhaps  one  of  those 
splendid  scholars  in  Greek,  like  Mrs.  Browning  or  Marian  Evans, 
and  full  of  enthusiasm  here  and  now.  "  Dear  little  Charlie  waked 
at  half  past  four,  and  he  was  so  lively  I  could  not  sleep  any  more 
—the  dear,  sweet  little  fellow."  Yes,  yes,  that  is  right,  that  is 
beautiful— what  are  all  these  associations  compared  with  a  mother's 
love  of  finding  delight  in  its  very  sacrifices?  So,  my  amusement 
changed  to  a  certain  admiration. 

Certainly  Xerxes  did  give  the  Greeks  every  possible  advantage  in 
the  naval  battle  yonder  between  Salamis  and  the  mainland.  In  that 
narrow  strait  a  few  of  their  best  ships,  more  easily  maneuvered  than 
his  grand  galleys,  could  hold  the  entire  line,  and  if  one  of  his  broke 
the  line  it  would  be  surrounded  by  the  mass  of  Athenian  vessels, 
gathered  in  safety  behind.  Self-conceit  made  him  mad,  almost  a 


J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

ATHENS,  April  29,  1871 :  Doctor  Randolph  left,  night  before  last, 
for  Messina  and  Naples.  Said  he  was  very  sorry  to  leave  Athens  so 

soon,  but  Mrs.  R is  in  Naples,  and  he  hasn't  seen  her  for  almost 

three  months,  a  separation  far  longer  than  ever  before.  I  found  him 
throughout  a  pleasant  traveling  companion,  and  I  felt  very  blue 
when  he  was  gone  and  1  found  myself  alone  in  a  strange  land. 

There  is  a  Baptist  missionary  here,  a  native  Greek  with  a  New 
England  wife,  and  they  are  very  fnendly.  .  . 

Mr.  Duncan  gave  me  a  letter  to  the  American  minister  here,  Mr. 
Tuckerman,  and  he  has  been  quite  civil.  Spending  the  evening 

with  him,  and  somebody  mentioning  Sophocles,  I  asked  Mrs.  T 

if  there  were  nightingales  here,  and  referred  to  the  opening  of  OEdi- 
pus  Coloneus,  where  the  blind  old  man  and  his  daughter  came  to 
Colonos,  a  mile  or  two  from  Athens,  and  heard  the  nightingales  sing- 
ing in  the  grove.  She  said  they  were  abundant,  and  a  few  minutes 
after  she  threw  open  the  casement  and  called  me.  The  Royal  Gar- 
dens are  opposite,  it  was  ten  o'clock,  and  the  night  singers  were  just 
beginning  their  responsive  notes  in  the  dense  grove  across  the 
street.  I  listened  long,  and  stopped  many  times  on  my  way  home 
to  listen  again.  That  passage  of  the  QEdipus  took  very  fast  hold 
of  me  years  ago,  and  to  hear  the  nightingale  for  the  first  time  here 
and  then,  was  quite  a  delightful  bit  of  experience.  Last  night,  in 
my  new  quarters,  they  sang  me  to  sleep  with  notes  a  good  deal  re- 
sembling the  mocking  birds  we  hear  in  the  oak  trees  opposite  our 
home— excepting  the  nightingale's  delicious  semitone  trill. 

Athens  is  a  very  pretty  modern  city,  near  fifty  thousand  inhabit- 
ants, and  growing.  King  Otho  and  his  engineers  gave  it  quite  a 
German  look,  the  houses  closely  resembling  his  native  Munich. 
The  Greek  costume  is  comparatively  rare  on  the  streets,  and  thus 
the  more  picturesque.  Everywhere  one  hears  French,  English, 
Italian,  German,  as  well  as  Greek,  and  the  whole  aspect  of  the 
place  is  European.  Nor  does  this  seem  out  of  harmony  with  the 
glorious  ruins  on  the  Acropolis.  Beyond  all  the  nations  or  races, 
the  spirit  of  the  old  Greek  was  a  spirit  of  change  and  progress.  In 
an  Oriental  city  with  the  stationaiy  Oriental  civilization,  European 
languages,  dress,  life,  seem  out  of  place.  But  here  it  seems  perfectly 
appropriate  that  everything  new  should  find  a  place,  and  the  ruined 
Parthenon  looks  down  benignly  on  the  railway  train,  the  gaslight, 
the  breech-loader. 

Those  ruins  on  the  Acropolis  merit  all  their  fame,  and  transcend 


all  eulogy.  They  thrill  at  the  first  visit,  they  grow  upon  you  every 
time  you  return.  It  seems  that  only  within  the  present  generation 
has  there  come  to  be  understood  the  wonderful  system  of  curves 
according  to  which  the  temples  there,  and  there  alone,  weie  built. 
The  long  steps,  the  pillars,  the  very  grooves  of  the  pillars,  curve  in 
conic  sections,  and  the  different  grooves  of  the  same  pillar  have  dif- 
ferent eccentricities,  so  that  the  eye  never  falls  on  a  sharp  line  be- 
tween two  grooves,  but  all  is  soft  in  its  gently  curving  outline, 
whatever  part,  great  or  small,  we  look  at,  or  from  whatever  point 
of  view.  It  is  believed  that  the  total  failure  of  all  imitations  of  the 
Parthenon  is  due  to  the  lack  of  these  delicate  curves,  most  of  which 
are  detected  only  by  instrument  Some  account  of  the  matter  is 
given  in  Felton's  "  Ancient  and  Modern  Greece,"  published  three 
years  ago,  and  a  very  readable  book,  which  the  University  library 
surely  must  possess.  It  is  very  wonderful  to  find  these  delicate  de- 
tails, wrought  out  with  scientific  exactness  and  on  so  grand  a  scale, 
n  so  early  a  work*  Matchless  genius  there  was  in  all  this,  but  also 
profound  study,  and  boundless  labor  in  the  execution  ;  and  in  every 
department  of  human  effort  it  requires  all  three  of  these  to  achieve 
any  great  work.  .  . 

After  all  descriptions,  I  had  little  conception  of  the  Areopagus.  It 
is  just  a  huge  lump  of  limestone  rock,  rising  on  the  gradual  western 
slope  of  the  Acropolis  hill  (which  on  every  other  side  is  precipitous), 
and  with  a  depressed  neck  of  earth  between  it  and  the  far  higher 
and  larger  rock  of  the  Acropolis  itself.  The  rock  is  perfectly  bare 
and  rough.  Near  the  eastern  end,  but  fronting  south  toward  the 
Agora,  are  cut  the  sixteen  steps,  narrow  and  rude,  leading  up  to 
a  small  space  which  has  equally  rude  seats  cut  in  the  rock,  mak- 
ing a  small  square,  and  two  little  stands  for  accuser  and  accused. 
The  fifty  judges  (I  believe  that  was  the  number)  must  have  folded 
their  cloaks  quite  small  and  laid  them  close  together,  as  they  sat 
upon  these  half-hewn  seats  without  backs,  and  the  spectators  could 
only  perch  around  on  the  little  natural  lumps  in  the  hard  gray  and 
reddish  limestone.  On  one  of  the  low  stands,  two  or  three  feet 
square  and  high,  partially  cut  out  of  the  rock,  and  either  facing  the 
Acropolis  or  facing  the  other  way  toward  the  Pnyx,  Paul  must  have 
stood.  It  seems  very  queer  that  not  only  in  this  strange  old  court, 
but  in  the  popular  assemblies  at  the  Pnyx,  the  speaker  spoke  in  the 
open  air,  standing  on  a  piece  of  rock  rudely  hewn,  and  the  hearers 
sat  on  stone  seats,  when  they  had  seats  at  alL  The  open  sky  and 
plain,  mountains  and  sea,  the  fair  city  around  and  the  grand  Acrop- 
olis towering  yonder,  gave  the  orator  great  advantage  in  his  allu- 


sions  to  nature  and  history,  and  the  stone  seats  might  well  warn 
him  not  to  be  tedious.  Not  wonderful  that  Demus  was  often  rest- 
less and  impatient.  So  too,  in  the  recently  excavated  theater  of 
Dionysus,  where  the  great  dramas  of  ^Eschylus,  Sophocles,  Eurip- 
ides, and  Aristophanes  were  all  performed,  the  seats  are  all  stone, 
the  priests  in  front  having  only  the  distinction  of  marble,  with  arms 
and  a  concave  back. 

But  I  must  go  and  mail  this,  and  then  come  and  "  look  over,"  asj 
the  other  schoolboys  say,  the  lesson  my  teacher  in  modern  Greek 
gave  me. 

ATHENS,  May  5,  1871 :  The  lessons  in  modern  Greek  are  accom- 
plishing fully  as  much  as  I  expected  from  them,  and  are  costing  me 
no  worry  at  all.  I  have  been  sightseeing  when  I  felt  like  it,  and  had 
a  good  many  long  and  pleasant  walks,  both  alone  and  in  company. 
Two  nights  ago  I  went  to  see  the  Acropolis  by  moonlight,  in  com- 
pany with  Doctor  Smyth,  of  Andover  Theological  Seminary,  and  his 
wife's  sister,  a  very  pleasant  lady.  Her  enjoyment  of  the  scene 
made  me  wish  all  the  more,  what  I  am  so  often  wishing,  that  you 
could  be  with  me.  As  the  clear,  full  moon  shone  down  serenely  upon 
those  matchless  columns,  and  flung  its  soft  light  over  all  that  spot  so 
rich  in  charming  memories,  I  thought  again  and  again  that  if  Lottie 
were  here,  and  our  daughters,  and  Mary  Smith,  and  Jennie,  .  .  I 
would  fairly  say,  I  am  happy.  "  Man  never  is,  but  always  to  be 

Well,  I  did  greatly  enjoy  it,  and  nothing  would  have  been  more 
out  of  place  then  and  there  than  to  give  way  to  vain  longings  for 
the  impossible.  What  a  power  and  life  there  was  in  that  old  Greek 
spirit,  to  infuse  itself  into  chiseled  stone,  and  live  there  forever, 
ready  to  cast  its  spell  over  every  stranger  who  draws  near  to  behold. 
The  power  of  oratory  and  of  song  is  wonderful,  but  then  they  em- 
ploy that  most  marvelous  of  all  human  inventions,  language,  and 
that  finest  of  all  instruments,  the  human  voice ;  the  musician  throws 
his  soul  into  the  instrument,  and  stirs  our  souls  to  their  deepest 
depths,  and  we  justly  say,  how  wonderful ;  but  then  he  has  all  the 
varieties  and  combinations  of  changeful  sound.  And  the  painter  has 
color,  and  even  the  sculptor  has  posture  and  symbolical  action,  and 
both  have  easy  command  over  our  sympathies  by  presenting  in  pre- 
ternatural beauty  the  human  form.  But  the  architect— where  dwells 
the  charm  of  that  ruined  Parthenon,  making  it  seem  the  perfection 
at  once  of  beauty  and  sublimity  ? — as  if  the  beauty  of  yonder  sleep- 
ing sea,  and  of  yonder  dark  mountains,  and  of  yonder  glorious 



mighty  heavens,  had  all  come  to  dwell  in  these  rows  of  marble  col- 
umns and  broken  marble  walls  ?  .  . 

Yesterday,  as  I  said,  was  the  king's  name  day.  Men  in  Greece 
are  almost  always  named  after  some  saint,  and  then  they  celebrate 
the  calendar-day  of  that  saint  as  their  "  name-day,"  receiving  visits, 
etc.  The  young  king  is  fortunate  in  having  a  good  Greek  namer 
and  St.  George  is  one  of  the  great  saints,  with  a  day  that  comes  at 
a  pleasant  season.  The  great  feature  of  the  celebration  is  the  serv- 
ice at  the  Metropolitan  Church.  I  happened  to  fall  in  with  the 
Smyths  going,  and  we  were  carried  by  their  dragoman  within  the 
railing,  just  to  the  left  of  the  throne ;  and  though  others  were  turned 
out,  the  foreigners  were  left  there  undisturbed.  After  due  delay,  the 
foreign  ministers  came  in,  resplendent  with  gold-lace  and  order  rib- 
bons, and  it  was  very  funny  to  see  them  all  around  us  with  their 
elaborate  greetings  and  magnificent  politeness.  A  platform  held 
two  chairs,  red  velvet  and  gold,  with  a  little  crown  at  the  top  of  the 
back,  and  their  majesties  came  in  and  stood  before  the  chairs,  get- 
ting pretty  tired  of  the  long  service.  .  .  I  couldn't  understand  the 
service,  and  as  it  was  my  first  and  last  time  of  being  within  five  feet 
of  royalty,  I  observed  them  pretty  closely.  .  . 

Sam  sent  his  love  to  the  next  king  and  queen  I  saw,  but  he'll  have 
to  pardon  me — I  really  hadn't  a  chance  to  deliver  it.  .  . 

After  we  came  out,  I  ran  (literally)  to  see  the  procession  pass  along 
Hermes  Street— trumpets  and  galloping  cavalry,  with  the  same  blue 
and  white  uniform,  and  carnages  dashing  by  at  a  gallop.  „  . 

CORFU,  May  16, 1871 :  We  sailed  from  Athens  till  we  reached 
in  four  hours  the  isthmus  of  Cormth,  which  we  crossed  in  carriages, 
three  miles,  passing  the  site  of  the  old  Isthmian  games.  We  waited 
an  hour  at  the  little  town  of  New  Corinth,  the  famous  city  where 
Paul  labored  so  long.  The  gulf  of  Corinth  presents  much  beautiful 
scenery.  It  is  narrow  and  winding  like  the  Scotch  lakes,  with  bold 
headlands  and  high  mountains,  some  of  them,  both  in  the  Pelopon- 
nesus and  on  the  north,  being  bright  with  snow.  After  passing 
Helicon  on  the  north,  we  came  towards  evening  within  clear  view  of 
Parnassus,  whose  mantle  of  snow  is  very  broad,  and  probably  never 
cast  off  for  all  the  persuasion  of  the  summer  sun.  .  .  During  the 
night  we  passed  Missalonghi,  where  Lord  Byron  died.  Yesterday 
we  had  a  capital  view  of  the  island  of  Ithaca,  famous  for  Ulysses 
and  Penelope.  One  of  my  companions,  a  young  Massachusetts 
professor,  was  reading  the  "  Odyssey  "  in  Greek.  At  midnight  we 
were  at  Corfu,  and  had  the  next  day  before  us.  .  . 

A  YEAR  ABROAD  .          275 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  ANNIE  H.  BROADUS: 

CORFU,  May  16,  1871 :  But  I  am  not  giving  you  the  slightest 
conception  of  the  transcendently  beautiful  scene,  as  we  saw  from  a 
high  rock  on  the  summit  of  a  mountain.  I  had  been  getting  more 
and  more  delighted  as  we  went  along.  It  is  so  pleasant  after  being 
at  sea,  to  look  out  on  a  wide  expanse  of  terra  firma,  with  its  trees 
and  crops  and  friendly  flowers.  The  roses  seemed  to  have  caught 
a  smile  from  the  lips  of  those  1  love.  The  ripening  flax  brought 
back  the  days  of  boyhood,  when  I  used  to  pull  flax  for  mother.  The 
huge  figs,  almost  ripe  on  the  trees,  suggested  the  most  luscious  tastes. 
The  flourishing  young  vines  cut  almost  to  the  ground  in  winter,  but 
now  full  of  rapidly  growing  shoots  and  pretty  bunches  of  young 
grapes,  seemed  to  radiate  from  their  tender  and  quivering  leaves  the 
very  vitality  of  spring,  and  to  send  joyous  life  tingling  through  my 
nerves.  The  laborers,  with  their  bright  dresses,  all  looked  smiling. 
The  cheery  upland  breezes  seemed  to  whisper  of  all  pleasant  things. 
And  when,  after  many  an  exclamation  of  delight  I  reached  the  high 
rock  and  looked  around,  I  clapped  my  hands  and  shouted  for  very 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

MILAN,  May  23, 1871 :  We  left  Florence  Monday  morning  (yes- 
terday) and  came  through  to  Milan  in  ten  hours.  The  day  was 
very  fine,  and  the  ride  uncommonly  pleasant.  .  . 

From  Bologna  came  by  Modena,  Parma,  Piacenza — famous  names, 
but  we  flitted  by,  and  saw  but  little.  Far  to  the  west  of  us  was 
bending  away  the  high  range  of  the  Apennines,  with  several  snow- 
clad  summits.  The  railway  runs  almost  exactly  along  the  Roman 
Via  /Emilia,  and  all  about  were  the  sites  of  Roman  towns  and  Ro- 
man battles. 

At  Florence  Doctor  Broadus  rejoined  the  young  ladies 
and  they  now  had  the  joys  of  the  Alps  together, 

J.  A.  B.  to  WM.  WILLIAMS  : 

INTERLAKEN,  June  6, 1871 :  At  Geneva  I  made  some  effort  one 
afternoon  to  find  places  associated  with  Calvin,  and  it  was  curious 
to  see  how  little  could  be  found.  There  is  a  library,  in  which  are 
autographs,  etc.,  of  him,  and  other  Reformers,  but  it  was  closed,  and 
the  librarian  was  not  at  home.  There  is  the  house  in  which  he  lived 
twenty-one  years,  up  to  his  death.  .  .  It  is  one  of  the  largest  houses 
in  the  vicinity,  of  excellent  stone,  two  stories  high  besides  cellar  and 


garret  rooms,  and  built  around  three  sides  of  a  court.  The  only  thing 
to  be  learned  from  my  survey  is,  that  from  his  first  going  to  Geneva, 
Calvin  lived  in  excellent  style  and  ample  comfort.  Then  I  tried  to 
find  the  Champel,  a  hill  south  of  the  town,  on  which  Servetus  was 
"  executed."  After  some  inquiries  it  was  reached,  but  a  couple  of 
intelligent  gentlemen  who  were  passing  assured  me  that  the  place  of 
the  execution  was  entirely  unknown — it  was  somewhere  in  this 
vicinity.  .  .  The  cemetery  in  which  Calvin  was  buried  is  known, 
but  it  is  no  longer  used,  and  the  exact  spot  occupied  by  his  remains  is 
unknown,  as  he  expressly  forbade  the  erection  of  any  monument 
over  his  grave.  .  .  An  admirer  of  Calvin  (and  assuredly  I  belong  to 
that  class)  might  liken  the  case  to  that  of  Christianity  itself,  whose 
original  abodes  have  long  been  occupied  by  its  enemies,  leaving  few 
genuine  memorials  beyond  the  mere  natural  locality,  but  which  thus 
only  the  more  vindicates  its  character  as  not  local  and  sensuous.  To 
complete  the  series  of  failures,  I  called  at  Dr.  Merle  d'Aublgne's,  but 
the  servant  reported  he  was  at  dinner,  and  I  said  I  would  call  in  the 
evening—which  circumstances  made  impracticable. 

At  Lausanne  I  hunted  up  the  garden  in  the  rear  of  a  house  in 
which  garden  Gibbon  wrote  the  last  volume  of  his  history,  and 
where  he  tells  that  after  writing  the  last  sentence,  late  at  night,  he 
laid  down  the  pen,  took  several  turns  in  the  garden,  and  thought—- 
what in  the  world  is  it  that  he  says  he  thought?  .  .  Anyhow, 
he  thought  something  or  other,  probably  a  very  self-complacent 
thought,  as  it  would  have  been  like  his  character,  and  anyhow,  it  is 
a  lovely  little  garden  in  which  he  wrote.  Completely  shaded  (now) 
by  six  fine  trees,  and  with  an  adjoining  flower-garden  on  a  lower 
level  of  the  hill  to  send  up  its  sweet  odors  by  day  and  by  night  to  his 
table  and  chair,  it  commands  a  wide  and  most  beautiful  view  of  the 
Lake  of  Geneva,  and  of  the  successive  ranges  of  the  Alps  beyond, 
with  Mont  Blanc  in  the  distance.  I  got  to  thinking  about  what  an 
excellent  thing  it  is  for  a  student  and  author  to  be  rich,  and  the  fact_ 
that  besides  Gibbon,  Grote  was  rich,  and  Buckle,  and  Prescott. 
.  .  .  Gibbon's  house  has  been  converted  into  the  Hotel  Gibbon,  and 
has  Jong  been  popular  as  a  place  of  summer  resort,  Lausanne  having 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  situations  of  all  the  world's  cities.  Among 
the  schools  for  which  it  is  famous,  is  the  Academy,  and  here  Vmet 
was  once  professor.  1  had  considerable  trouble  in  finding  his  lectme 
room.  At  length,  after  being  stared  at  for  my  inquiries  about  the 
late  distinguished  professor,  I  stumbled  upon  an  old  servant  man, 
who  with  some  effort  remembered  about  Vmet,  and  would  show  me 
his  portrait.  So  we  went  upstairs  from  the  court  of  the  building, 


and  hunted  round  for  the  portrait  among  a  number  on  the  walls  of  a 
room ;  but  didn't  find  it.  Then  he  thought  it  must  be  somewhere 
else,  and  went  in  at  a  door  about  as  uninviting  as  that  by  which  we 
and  our  students  enter  the  halls  of  wisdom—except  that  it  was  in  a 
stone  wall,  but  very  old  and  ugly.  We  climbed  an  old  spiral  stone 
stairway,  and  got  into  a  small  room,  where  was  another  old  man. 
"  He  can  tell  you,"  said  my  guide.  So  he  told  me  that  there  is  no 
portrait  of  Vmet  there,  though  there  is  a  picture  somewhere  else  in 
ihe  town,  representing  him  and  others  on  some  public  occasion.  I 
inquired  for  his  lecture  room,  and  behold,  it  was  this  room.  It  is 
about  twenty-four  by  fourteen  feet,  low  pitched,  with  one  small  win- 
dow at  the  end,  looking  on  a  dull  street,  and  two  or  three  small  win- 
dows in  the  side  looking  into  the  old  court  of  the  academy.  The 
professor  stood  at  the  other  end,  with  no  window  near  and  must  have 
had  a  pretty  dull  time  of  it,  as  to  his  surroundings,  and  also  a  rather 
small  class.  I  think  our  lecture  rooms  are  twice  as  agreeable,  being 
so  much  better  ventilated  and  lighted,  besides  having  a  goodly  space 
above,  into  which  a  man  may  let  loose  his  voice  upon  occasion.  The 
room  here  was  rather  dark,  and  the  students  couldn't  always  make 
their  hasty  notes  legible.  And  as  the  book  on  homiletics  was  eked 
out  from  their  notes,  there  can  be  of  course  no  doubt  that  the  pas- 
sages in  it  which  you  never  could  understand,  and  I  never  could  ex- 
plain to  you,  were  derived  from  notes  taken  on  rainy  days. 

It  is  not  pleasant  to  think  how  soon  a  theological  professor  may  be 
forgotten  in  the  places  where  he  was  so  great  a  man.  My  aged  in- 
formant was  a  librarian,  and  the  lecture  room  is  now  a  reading  room 
to  the  library.  1  think  we  really  must  get  us  a  librarian,  and  one 
likely  to  be  long-lived. 

I  haven't  heard  what  was  done  for  or  with  the  Seminary  at  St. 
Louis,  but  hope  to  hear  soon.  Tell  Thomas  that  we  went  to 
Chamounix  last  week,  having  perfect  weather  and  a  delightful  trip. 
Now,  we  are  shut  up  by  a  succession  of  rainy  days.  But  we  are  at 
a  pleasant  place,  and  have  no  special  engagements,  and  are  taking 
it  very  easy. 

My  health  gets  better  and  worse — I  don't  know  how  it  is.  Some- 
times1 I  fear  that  I  can  never  stand  anything  like  close  study  again, 
but  I  look  forward  with  much  interest  and  pleasure  to  the  time  for 
resuming  my  work.  I  have  written  to  engage  passage  for  July  8, 
which  would  take  me  to  Charlottesville  about  July  20,  where  I  should 
be  glad  to  hear  from  you. 

1  And  yet  he  did  hold  himself  to  severe  study  till  the  very  last 


Doctor  Broadus  and  the  ladies  went  by  Lucerne  to 
Baden  and  then  down  the  Rhine  to  Cologne.  It  was 
now  safe  to  go  to  Paris. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

PARIS,  June  16,  1871 :  Poor  Paris !  The  Boulevard  des  Italiens, 
with  its  splendid  shops,  shows  no  crowds  of  passers-by,  as  it  used 
to  do,  and  almost  everybody  looks  grave  and  even  sad.  However, 
it  is  rather  a  credit  to  the  people  that  they  have  such  an  aspect ;  there 
has  been  enough  to  make  them  so,  and  the  future  of  France  is  sadly 

PARIS,  June  19,  1871:  We  were  fortunate  on  Sunday.  Finding 
that  one  of  the  French  Protestant  chapels,  belonging  to  the  congre- 
gations which  reject  State  aid,  led  by  my  friend  Pressense",  was  near 
here,  I  went  there  in  the  morning,  and  learned  that  the  preacher  for 
noon  was  M.  Bersier.  I  knew  of  him  from  the  "  Revue  Chretienne," 
which  I  used  to  take,  as  an  eloquent  and  scholarly  man.  We  went, 
and  were  greatly  gratified,  though  I  couldn't  understand  quite  as 
well  as  I  do  a  German  preacher.  .  .  Bersier  is  a  fine-looking  man, 
tall  enough  and  broad-chested,  with  a  splendid  forehead  and  classical 
features,  and  a  voice  not  powerful,  but  sweet  and  ringing.  The 
text  was  Isa.  40 :  9— end.  The  sermon  was  recited,  except  (I  thought) 
some  passages  towards  the  close.  He  spoke  of  the  occasion  to 
which  the  prophet  referred,  a  nation  crushed  and  its  capital  in  ruins, 
and  yet  comfort  in  waiting  on  the  almighty  and  eternal  God.  The 
two  facts,  God  is  powerful,  God  is  eternal,  were  shown  to  contain 
consolation,  not  for  the  fatalist  or  the  pantheist,  but  for  the  Chris- 
tian. Then  he  applied  it  to  present  circumstances— spoke  of  the 
proud  and  powerful  people,  the  brilliant  civilization,  the  irreligion 
and  vain  philosophies,  and  the  nation  subdued,  and  beautiful  Pans 
with  her  proudest  palaces  in  ruins — and  to  crown  all,  this  last  tra- 
gedy of  blood  and  fire,  as  awakening  fears  for  the  future.  Then 
he  talked  of  consolation  for  the  Christian,  even  here  and  now,  in  re- 
membering God— of  the  political  and  social  duties  of  the  hour— said 
that  true  Christians  could  regenerate  France,  and  even  a  true  leaven 
cf  it  could  save  her ;  that  in  the  seventeenth  century,  when  the  talents 
of  Bossuet  and  the  virtues  of  Fenelon  conld  not  stop  the  corruption 
of  Catholicism,  Protestantism  had  saved  France,  and  Protestantism 
must  do  it  again.  These  were  the  leading  thoughts.  The  style  had 
not  only  the  elegance  which  is  so  characteristically  French,  but 
terseness  and  point,  and  there  was  a  pathetic  tenderness  of  sentiment 


and  the  delivery  swelling  to  passion  when  he  spoke  of  the  incendi- 
aries, and  of  the  socialistic  philosophies  which  had  led  to  all  this, 
that  was  extremely  impressive.  Several  passages  took  possession 
of  me,  though  I  could  not  more  than  half  understand.  I  felt  as  when 
one  hears  a  most  impressive  song,  catching  only  enough  of  the 
words  to  see  the  general  drift,  and  borne  along  by  sympathetic  senti- 
ment rather  than  by  ideas  fully  apprehended. 

PARIS,  June  24,  1871 :  This  morning  I  went  alone  to  the  great 
National  Library,  which  claims  to  be  the  largest  m  the  world.  They 
have  for  some  years  been  making  a  new  suite  of  rooms,  and  so  one 
cannot  see  the  books,  but  I  entered  the  reading  rooms,  of  which  the 
principal  one  is  lighter  and  more  elegant  than  the  grand  room  at  the 
British  Museum.  Though  I  had  no  card  of  permission,  and  not  even 
my  passport,  they  agreed,  after  some  parleying,  to  let  the  "  Ameri- 
can "  gentleman  see  the  MS.  of  the  New  Testament  (known  as  C), 
which  is  one  of  the  treasures ;  and  I  had  the  pleasure  of  turning 
over  its  leaves  for  half  an  hour.  (Cardinal  Antonelli  never  answered 
my  humble  request  to  see  B  at  the  Vatican.  I  mean  to  try  again  to 
examine  A  in  the  British  Museum.)  Can't  learn  anything  thus, 
but  it  is  a  pleasure,  and  will  interest  my  pupils. 

J.  B.  JETER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  July  29, 1871 :  I  am  mortified  that  I  did  not  see 
you  while  you  were  here.  I  did  not  learn  that  you  were  in  the  city 
till  this  afternoon.  I  wish  to  talk  with  you  about  many  things.  By 
all  means  you  should  write  a  book  and  publish  a  portion — two-thirds 
in  the  "  Herald."  This  arrangement  would  aid  the  circulation  of 
the  book.  .  . 

You  know  not  what  you  missed  by  failing  to  call  on  me.  Mrs. 
Jeter  has  such  a  collection  of  compliments  for  you  as  no  other  mor- 
tal, I  presume,  ever  received  at  one  time.  It  will  put  your  modesty 
to  a  severe  test. 


And  behind  the  dim  unknown, 
Standeth  God  within  the  shadow,  keeping  watch  above  his  own. 

— Lowell* 

AND  now  the  Seminary  once  more.     This  enterprise 
had  always  been  on  Doctor  Broadus's  heart  and 
in  his  prayers.     His  best  service  to  it  was  in  the  future. 
His  life  had  been  spared  for  it  and  he  was  richer  for  this 
work  by  reason  of  his  European  and  Oriental  travel. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  July  13,  1871 :  So  far  as  I  can  judge,  the 
prospects  are,  ( i)  That  the  Seminary  will  be  sustained.  It  is  stronger 
than  ever  in  the  confidence  and  affections  of  the  people,  and  any 
attack  upon  it  would  only  intensify  and  render  more  practical  the 
interest  felt  in  it  (2)  It  will  leave  Greenville.  (3)  Kentucky,  Ten- 
nessee, and  Georgia,  afford  the  most  desirable  sites.  At  present  no 
enthusiasm  appears  to  have  been  developed  except  in  Kentucky,  and 
a  few  days  more  will  show  the  result  there,  in  part  at  least.  .  . 

ON  G.  &  C.  R.  R.,  Aug  7,  1871 :  I  am  on  my  way  to  Kentucky. 
Ten  days  ago  I  declined  presidency  of  Georgetown  College.  But 
they  telegraphed  that  "  the  board  ^desire  a  personal  interview  and 
will  pay  expenses"  ;  so  I  am  off  .  . 

Perhaps  it  may  be  that  I  can  "  leave  the  Seminary  for  the  Semi- 
nary's good  "  like  the  Botany  Bay  emigrants  leave  their  country. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  Aug.  rr,  1871 :  I  can't  face  the  idea  of 
losing  you,  and  it  would  be  very  nearly  impossible  to  make  me  see 
that  your  leaving  us  could  be  an  advantage  to  the  Seminary.  But 
I  have  much  more  confidence  in  your  judgment  than  my  own.  If 
you  think  it  best,  for  yourself  and  for  the  cause,  to  make  the  change, 
I  must  try  to  be  reconciled,  but  it  would  be  very  hard.  I  really 

Page  2SO 


shudder  at  the  idea  of  losing  your  so  dear  companionship  and  so 
valued  co-operation,  and  I  entreat  you  to  be  very  slow  to  think  it  your 
duty  to  change.  I  feel  particularly  disqualified  for  judging  about  the 
question,  because  I  don't  really  understand  the  status  of  things.  I 
rarely  got  the  "  Herald  "  while  absent,  and  it  is  curious  how  com- 
pletely behindhand  I  find  myself.  I  have  been  waiting  to  see  you 
and  Boyce  in  order  to  post  myself.  As  to  salary,  we  must  all  have 
more  in  a  year  or  two  at  the  farthest,  or  the  whole  concern  will 

CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  Aug.  12, 1871 :  Uncle  William  came  up 
last  night.  He  was  at  the  Louisville  Convention  about  removing 
the  Seminary.  He  says  the  leading  Russellville  men  will  not  con- 
sent to  merging  Bethel  College  into  the  Seminary.  They  want  us 
as  a  theological  department  of  the  college.  .  . 

He  says  the  only  real  prospect  is  of  our  going  to  Louisville,  and 
does  not  think  that  it  is  very  brilliant. 

So  Doctor  Manly,  after  a  severe  struggle  as  to  his  duty, 
went  to  Georgetown,  and  the  rest,  Boyce,  Broadus,  Wil- 
liams, and  Toy,  with  saddened  hearts  took  up  the  work. 
Broadus  undertook  the  Students'  Fund,  while  Boyce 
assumed  homiletics,  unwilling  that  Broadus,  still  in  poor 
health,  should  do  double  work.  The  Chicago  University 
was  making  overtures  to  get  Broadus  as  its  head,  but  he 
was  going  to  remain  with  the  Seminary  through  "thick 
and  thin."  He  soon  went  to  New  York  in  the  interest 
of  the  Seminary. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

EN  ROUTE  TO  NEW  YORK,  Oct.  12, 1871 :  This  terrible  fire  at 
Chicago  will  almost  ruin  my  enterprise,  I  fear,  but  I  must  follow  the 
lead  of  Providence,  and  am  not  nervous  on  the  subject. 

NEW  YORK,  Oct.  16,  1871 :  Mr.  Gellatly  and  I  went  over  to 
Brooklyn  to  Mr.  Pentecost's,  and  presently  to  a  social  meeting  of 
Brooklyn  pastors,  of  all  denominations.  They  postponed  their  ap- 
pointed subject  of  conversation,  and  called  on  one  of  their  number  for 
an  account  of  his  visit  to  California,  and  on  me  for  my  travels.  I 
talked  at  some  length,  and  was  asked  a  variety  of  questions,  and 
treated  with  much  courtesy.  Edward  Beecherwas  there,  but  not 


Henry  Ward.  Doctor  Conant  was  present,  very  civil  to  me,  and 
invited  me  to  dine  with  him  some  day  this  week,  which  I  shall  proba- 
bly do.  .  . 

Yesterday  was  the  most  unlucky  time  for  my  contribution,  cer- 
tainly. Preached  at  Hanson  Place  (Pentecost's)  in  the  morning, 
and  in  the  evening  they  were  to  have  a  sermon  and  collection  for 

Chicago ;  and  where  1  preached  in  the  evening  they  had  C in 

the  morning.  But  the  former  gave  me  something  over  three  hun- 
dred dollars,  cash  down,  and  the  latter  will  not  probably  fall  below 
the  same  sum.  I  think  this  was  very  generous.  I  was  treated  with 
all  possible  consideration. 

NEW  YORK,  Oct.  21, 1871 :  It  is  more  and  more  clear  to  me  that 
the  Seminary  must  go  West  or  go  down. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Feb.  13, 1872:  Sunday  was  a  day  of  trou- 
ble in  Greenville.  The  news  spread  that  you  were  alarmingly  ill, 
and  there  was  great  distress  and  anxiety.  The  attempt  to  get  a 
telegram  through  that  day  failed,  and  we  had  to  wait.  So  it  went 
until  Monday  afternoon.  Not  only  our  immediate  circle,  professors, 
students,  church,  but  everybody  was  expressing  concern  and  desire 
to  hear  again.  Many  times  the  Negroes  stopped  me  on  the  street  to 
ask  if  we  had  heard  anything  more,  and  the  shopkeepers  would  call 
from  behind  the  counter  as  I  passed  their  doors.  And  to-day,  as  I 
rode  by  the  home  of  the  old  one-armed  lady  who  belongs  to  our 
church,  she  called  out  to  stop  me,  and  came  tottering  out  to  ask. 

God  be  thanked  for  the  news  received  last  evening  that  you  were 
decidedly  better.  God  spare  you,  if  it  please  him,  and  raise  you  up 
speedily  again  for  active  service.  But  don't  forget  Milton's  grand 
image : 

His  state 

Is  kingly,  thousands  at  his  bidding-  speed, 
And  post  o'er  land  and  ocean  without  rest ; 
They  also  serve  who  only  stand  and  wait. 

My  dear  fellow,  God  bless  you,  in  body  and  mind  and  soul. 

Brown  University  was  after  Doctor  Broadus  for  presi- 
dent, Crozer  Seminary  also  sought  him.  Rev.  W.  D. 
Thomas  wrote :  "  Glad  to  know  that  nothing  moves  you. 
.  .  I  wish  I  had  a  hundred  thousand  to  give  the  Semi- 


J.  L.  JOHNSON  to  J,  A.  B. : 

DANVILLE,  VA.,  March  14,  1872  :  I  have  had  much  pleasure  in 
reading  your  "  Recollections  of  Travel  "  and  always  feel  something 
of  disappointment  when  the  "  Herald  "  comes  without  a  column 
from  you.  Don't  be  in  a  hurry  to  get  over  the  ground.  I  believe  I 
have  most  pleasure  in  your  accounts  of  places  having  literary  asso- 
ciations, but  I  enjoy  them  all,  and  I  doubt  not  many  are  learning 
something  of  geography  and  history  too,  who  knew  precious  little 
of  either.  By  the  way,  I  had  recently  an  illustration  of  Hiden's  say- 
ing, "  The  amount  of  ignorance  which  some  people  have  accumu- 
lated is  really  astonishing." 

W.  H.  WHITSITT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ALBANY,  GA.,  March  4,  1872 :  I  regret  not  a  little  the  cry  that  is 
raised  about  Bro.  Williams'  ears,  and  wrote  to  him  a  few  days  ago 
giving  an  expression  of  my  feelings.  As  to  "  alien  immersions  " 
there  is  a  "debatable  land"  with  every  case  that  arises,  but  the 
principle  on  which  to  decide  these  cases  is  clearly  and  unmistakably 
that  which  Bro.  W enunciates  and  maintains.1 

ALBANY,  GA.,  April  9,  1872 :  Yours  of  the  3oth  March  was  re- 
ceived last  week.  After  turning  the  subject  over  many  times  and 
praying  for  Divine  guidance  I  have  concluded  to  accede  to  your  re- 
quest to  permit  my  name  to  be  proposed  to  the  Board  of  Trustees  for 
the  position  of  assistant  professor. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

COLUMBIA,  S.  C.,  May  7, 1872:  Manly  got  on  at  Newberry,  and 
I  talked  over  with  him  the  questions  about  the  Seminary  and  Louis- 
ville, he  expressing  himself  as  ready  to  do  everything  in  his  power 
to  help  us  there,  if  we  should  go.  It  is  more  and  more  clear  to  my 
mind  that  the  board  cannot  decide,  and  will  have  to  appoint  a 
large  committee  to  meet,  say  three  months  hence,  and  let  Louisville 
in  the  meantime  be  canvassed.  The  question  is  pretty  clearly  be- 
tween Chattanooga  and  Louisville. 

RALEIGH,  N.  C.,  May  9,  1872 :  Found  on  the  train  many  friends, 
and  had  much  pleasant  talk  with  Uncle  William  and  others.  At 
Hillsboro  Mrs.  Gov.  Graham  came  aboard  with  some  of  her  very 
interesting  family.  Reached  here  at  seven  o'clock,  beautiful  day. 

1  Doctor  Williams  laid  little  stress  upon  the  administrator  for  the  validity  of  bap- 


Had  been  assigned  to  Colonel  Heck,  splendid  home,  many  brethren, 
Doctor  Randolph  and  I  in  a  delightful  room.  .  . 

But  we  are  all  filled  with  grief  at  the  death  of  Dr.  A.  M.  Poin- 
dexter,  which  occurred  two  or  three  days  ago,  after  a  very  brief  ill- 
ness. It  is  a  terrible  shock,  and  casts  a  gloom  over  all  hearts.  May 
these  many  losses  be  blessed  to  the  Convention. 

Doctor  Boyce  was  elected  president  on  first  ballot,  by  a  considera- 
ble majority,  Doctor  Curry  being  next.  He  made  a  good  address 
on  taking  the  chair.  Vice-presidents,  Curry,  A.  P.  Abell,  Fuller, 
Crane,  and  Davis,  of  Bethel  College.  I  presented  Boyce  the  mallet, 
with  a  few  words,  and  it  was  quite  unexpected  to  find  it  exciting 
much  interest.1 

ON  THE  CARS,  May  23,  1872  :  I  should  have  decided  last  night 
to  remain  but  for  one  thing.  I  should  not  hesitate  to  miss  the  Edu- 
cational Convention  and  the  General  Association  in  Staunton,  but  it 
is  necessary  to  consult  and  decide  during  the  Conventon  whether 
we  are  to  make  that  effort  in  New  York.  .  .  This  is  a  matter  of  the 
highest  importance,  on  which  the  future  of  the  Seminary  may  turn, 
and  as  I  have  providentially  made  friends  in  New  York,  it  seems  to 
be  my  duty  to  be  present  next  week  on  that  account.  But  I  am  go- 
ing with  a  heavy  heart.  .  . 

And  now  even  for  myself  I  want  to  be  resting  and  trying  to  get 
some  strength,  and  quietly  making  some  progress  as  a  student, 
instead  of  wearing  out  what  is  left  of  me  in  fatiguing  journeys  and 
exciting  Conventions  and  collecting  campaigns  in  June.  But  it  seems 
to  be  my  duty,  and  Providence  is  wiser  than  I  am.  My  life  has  been 
graciously,  and  in  some  respects  strangely,  directed  by  Providence. 
I  have  often,  when  sorely  troubled,  found  unanticipated  blessings. 

PHILADELPHIA,  May  30,  1872 :  They  keep  us  very  busy.  (Edu- 
cational Convention.)  Some  very  interesting  men  here.  Doctor" 
Sears'  address  was  inspiring,  and  Doctor  Kendrick's  on  Classical 
Studies  was  unrivaled.  I  spoke  good-humoredly  against  Doctor 
Brooks  on  having  women  in  the  colleges.  Am  on  a  committee  with 
E.  G.  Robinson,  and  had  the  satisfaction  of  agreeing  with  him. 
Doctor  Sears  has  treated  me  with  marked  courtesy.  .  .  It  is  decided 
that  Boyce  and  I  shall  not  make  any  attempt  in  New  York  now, 
and  so  I  expect  to  be  at  home  by  twentieth  or  twenty-fifth  of  June.  I 
want  to  get  home  and  stay  there.  I  am  to  leave  this  evening,  hop- 

1 A  gavel  of  olive  wood  he  had  brought  from  Jerusalem. 


ing  to  get  to  Staunton  to-morrow,  and  expect  to  spend  most  of  next 
week  at  Charlottesville. 

STAUNTON,  VA.,  June  i,  1872 :  Received  at  the  depot  by  my  friend 
General  Echols,  formerly  of  Union,  Monroe  County.  I  stayed  at  his 
house  there  in  summer  of  1859,  and  am  delightfully  situated  with 
him  here.  Interesting  family,  charming  home,  several  other  brethren. 

APPROACHING  RICHMOND,  June  3, 1872:  Not  having  had  sleep 
enough  for  several  nights,  and  feeling  quite  fagged,  I  went  home 
and  spent  ten  hours  in  bed.  Preached  yesterday  morning  at  Epis- 
copal church,  on  "  Raising  of  Lazarus."  Very  large  house,  crowded, 
benches  in  the  aisles.  All  the  famous  lawyers  of  Staunton  were 
there— I  wish  it  might  be  blessed  to  their  good.  .  . 

At  night  I  heard  Bro.  Winfree,  of  Chesterfield,  a  country  preacher 
almost  equal  to  Gnmsley. 

My  stay  at  General  Echols'  was  very  pleasant  indeed.  Great 
crowd  leaving  Staunton  this  morning.  Very  interesting  to  be  with 
so  many  dear  old  friends.  Have  had  a  long  talk  with  Doctor  Jeter,  at 
his  request,  about  the  location  of  the  Seminary.  Also  many  talks 
with  many  others.  A.  Broaddus  and  his  wife  sit  across  the  aisle  of 
the  car.  W.  D.  Thomas  comes  by  and  says,  Give  my  love  to  your 
wife  and  your  ma,  talks  awhile,  and  goes  off,  saying,  finish  your 
letter.  Doctor  Curry,  who  was  president  of  the  General  Associa- 
tion, and  hard-worked,  is  on  the  seat  behind  me,  asleep.  Bitting  is 
over  yonder,  gayly  talking  with  some  lady,  etc.,  etc. 

I  concluded  this  morning  to  keep  on  down  to  Richmond  to  B Js 

marriage  this-  evening,  and  back  to  Charlottesville  to-morrow. 

B is  going  to  Europe  on  her  bridal  trip,  and  said  she  wished  I 

was  going  along,  but  I  reckon  I  should  be  "  vnpm  de  trop  "  this  time. 

J.  A.  B  to  MISS  E.  S.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  June  4,  1872  : 1  learn,  as  coming  from  Professor 
Harris  and  Professor  Winston,  that  the  Philadelphia  breakfast  was 
a  delightful  affair,  and  that  among  all  the  amusing  and  taking 
speeches,  Doctor  Boyce  quite  carried  off  the  palm.  He  made  a  fine 
impression  throughout  the  Convention. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  June  6,  1872 :  Took  tea  at  Doctor 
McGuffey's.  His  work  on  "  Mental  Philosophy  "— like  Haven  in 
size  and  design — is  printing,  and  he  showed  me  proofs.  He  looks 
as  young  and  vigorous  as  ever.  . 


I  attended  a  lecture  of  Gildersleeve's  at  half  past  twelve,  and  got 
ideas.    In  the  evening  he  and  Holmes  and  Peters  called,  and  Doctor 

Davis  was  prevented  after  proposing.    G was  glad  to  meet 

somebody  interested  in  grammar,  and  sat  late,  very  full  of  talk. 

W.  F.  MOULTON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  SURREY,  ENGLAND,  July  29, 1872 :  I  am  ashamed 

to  discover  that  a  year  has  passed  since  I  received  your  letter  written 
off  Queenstown.  The  explanation  of  my  apparent  forgetfulness  is 
very  simple,  though  I  cannot  feel  that  the  excuse  is  sufficient. 
Messrs.  Nisbet  kindly  sent  me  the  volume  on  "  Homiletics"  with 
very  little  delay,  and  I  lost  no  time  in  writing  a  few  lines  of  recom- 
mendation in  the  "  London  Quarterly  Review."  I  could  not  bring 
myself,  however,  to  write  to  you  until  I  had  done  more  m  attestation 
of  the  very  high  estimate  I  had  formed  of  your  woik.  For  several 
months  I  have  been  waiting  for  an  opportunity  of  writing  a  more 
complete  notice  of  the  book,  but  an  unexpected  pressure  of  work  has 
until  now  prevented  me  from  doing  anything  of  this  kind.  I  hope, 
however,  to  carry  out  my  purpose  very  soon.  "  Homiletics  "  is  not 
a  subject  which  belongs  to  my  department ;  but  I  have  done  all  that 
has  been  in  my  power  to  recommend  your  work  as  the  best  treatise 
on  this  important  subject  that  I  have  ever  met  with.  I  earnestly 
hope  its  circulation  in  England  will  be  very  large. 

I  thank  you  very  sincerely  for  your  kind  words  respecting  my  edition 
of  "  Winer."  If  you  will  have  the  kindness  to  mention  to  me  any 
suggestions  which  occur  to  you  in  using  the  book,  or  any  mistakes 
which  may  attract  your  notice,  I  shall  be  very  much  obliged.  I  am 
now  preparing  for  a  second  edition :  after  this,  I  wish  to  leave  the 
book  untouched  for  some  years. 

I  am  disappointed  to  find  that  the  distance  of  New  York  from 
South  Carolina  makes  it  impossible  for  you  to  join  the  American 
Company  of  Revision.  It  would  have  been  a  great  pleasure  to  me 
to  think  that  we  were  engaged  in  the  same  work. 

Doctor  Broadus  fulfilled  his  engagement  at  the  Crozer 
Commencement  and  made  a  brief  trip  to  New  York, 
where  he  and  Doctor  Boyce  labored  to  keep  the  Semi- 
nary afloat. 

, ,  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Sept.  13,  1872:  I  hope  and  pray  that  it  may 
all  turn  out  straight  about  our  going  to  Louisville.    If  we  can  get 


established  there  I  am  persuaded  that  you  and  we  together  can  do  a 
great  deal  of  good.  .  .  One  thing  is  to  my  mind  clear— that  we  shall 
help  the  colleges  instead  of  harming  them.  If  it  should  be  thought 
best  by  them  to  give  up  theological  teaching,  I  think  that  will  be 
best  in  the  end.  The  people  now  regard  that  as  the  most  important 
part  of  the  college,  and.  I  know  it  is  necessary  to  make  that  go. 
But  they  can,  when  the  time  comes,  be  persuaded  from  the  example 
of  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  and  of  all  the  Northern  Baptist  col- 
leges, that  colleges  do  better  without  attempting  theology  than  with 
it.  And  all  the  interest  in  ministerial  education  which  the  Seminary 
will  help  to  awaken  will  tend  to  send  students  to  the  colleges  for 
their  literary  education.  .  . 

I  hope  your  Greek  professor  drills  a  great  deal  in  the  forms,  and 
makes  them  write  much  Greek.  If  he  doesn't,  it  would  be  a  good 
thing  if  you  could  get  a  tutor  as  soon  as  practicable  that  would  push 
that  sort  of  thing.  .  . 

Williams  is  very  busy,  having  undertaken  Boyce's  work  as  well 
as  his  own.1  I  hope  his  health  may  keep  up — it  was  improved  by  a 
jaunt  in  the  mountains  in  August. 

I  have  pretty  good  health  except  as  to  my  eyes,  which  get  no  better.2 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

LOUISVILLE,3  Oct.  8,  1872  :  I  shall  have  a  hard  time.  I  trust  I 
shall  have  the  earnest  prayers  of  all  of  you.  .  . 

The  pastors  here  are  all  pledged  to  me  by  vote  at  their  conference 

Doctor  Boyce  at  first  found  much  indifference  toward 
the  Seminary  among  the  Baptists  of  Louisville.  This 

1  Doctor  Broadus  now  resumed  homiletics 

2  Dr.  George  B  Eager  (now  professor  in  the  Seminary)  entered  the  Seminary  this 
fall.    He  recalls  distinctly  how,  on  a  visit  to  Dr.  Broadus's  house,  he  spoke  particu- 
larly of  the  importance  of  students  taking  care  of  their  eyes,  alluding  to  the  trouble 
under  which  he  was  then  laboring.    Doctor  Eager  also  says:  "One  of  the  most 
vivid  recollections  I  have  of  Dr.  Broadus  associates  him  with  a  homespun  suit  and 
his  habit  of  eating  apples.    (I  afterwards  heard  him  tell  that  the  suit  was  made 
for  him  and  presented  to  him  by  one  of  the  good  sisters  of  a  country  congregation 
to  which  he  was  preaching  )    I  can  see  him  still,  as  I  saw  him  then,  in  the  bright 
and  bracing  air  of  those  frosty  mornings  in  the  fall  of  '72,  striding  on  to  his  lecture- 
room  eating  apples  and  greeting  all  he  met  with  his  accustomed  smile  and  cheery 
words.    It  was  a  sight  to  impress  the  imagination  and  memory." 

8  Doctor  Boyce  had  gone  to  Louisville  to  see  if  he  could  raise  enough  towards  the 
endowment  in  Kentucky  to  justify  moving  the  Seminary  there,  the  other  professors 
meanwhile  carrying  on  the  institution  in  Greenville. 


was  chiefly  due  to  lack  of  acquaintance  with  the  institu* 
tion,  and  gradually  disappeared.  Doctor  and  Mrs.  Ar- 
thur Peter  deserve  special  mention  as  being  at  once  alive 
to  the  importance  of  the  enterprise  for  Louisville  and  the 
South.  They  gave  the  first  large  contribution  and 
opened  their  home  hospitably  to  Doctor  Boyce.  Through 
all  the  years  since  this  honored  couple  have  loved  the 
Seminary  and  its  professors.  Mrs.  Peter  is  a  Virginian 
and  that  fact  gave  her  a  new  bond  of  friendship  fo:  Doc- 
tor Broadus  when  he  came  to  Louisville. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C,,  Oct.  29,  1872:  We  have  been  having  our 
usual  charming  autumn  weather,  but  it  has  seemed  more  charming 
than  ever  before.  The  growth  of  leaves  was  very  luxuriant,  and  the 
forests  have  now  a  richness  of  color  that  I  have  never  seen  equaled. 
I  think  some  of  the  great  painters  would  go  wild  with  delight  to  see 
such  gorgeous  splendors  as  half  a  dozen  points  around  us  now 

I  suppose  you  have  seen  "  Life  and  Times  of  J.  B.  Taylor."  I 
find  it  very  interesting,  as  I  had  expected. 

W.  A,  MASON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

OKOLONA,  MISS.,  Jan.  3,  1873  :  •  •  The  opposition  to  the  Semi- 
nary arises  from  a  gross  misapprehension  of  the  way  things  are  car- 
ried on  there,  and  the  indifference  is  simply  ignorance.  The  Semi- 
nary has  never  been  represented  in  our  Convention,  and  on  tins 
account  a  large  majority  of  the  brethren  feel  not  much  connection 
with  it  Some  think  you  are  slighting  the  Southwest,  in  never  send- 
ing a  representative  farther  west  than  Alabama.  This  is  an  argu- 
ment constantly  produced  to  alienate  our  people  from  the  Seminary, 
by  those  who  oppose  it.  There  are  other  influences  silently  (more 
or  less)  at  work  here  against  our  noble  school,  and  all  its  friends  de- 
sire to  throw  every  counteracting  influence  possible  in  the  way. 

J,  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Feb.  25,  1873:  I  do  not  fear  the  badgering  of 
Williams.  If  any  one  badgers,  let  him  fight.  We  need  not  fear  the 
consequences.  I  think  some  eyes  would  be  opened  to  see  that  much 
can  be  said  on  the  other  side  of  a  question  on  which  they  speak  so 


--  Pk 

f     -t  -\l 


dogmatically.    Perhaps  Williams  could  ask  them  some  hard  ques- 

Whitsitt  writes  me  the  Foreign  Board  would  send  him  to  Rome 
(as  missionary).  I  shall  be  very  sorry  to  have  him  go  with  so  brief 
a  stay  with  us.  I  have  formed  great  hopes  of  him. 

J.  A.  B.  to  JAMES  P.  BOYCE  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.  March  14,  1873  :  I  do  not  wonder  that  you 
sometimes  feel  discouraged,  painfully.  The  task  is  difficult,  and  the 
kind  of  opposition  encountered  is  very  depressing.  But  life  is  always 
a  battle.  My  dear  fellow,  nobody  but  you  can  do  it,  and  it  will  be, 
all  things  considered,  one  of  the  great  achievements  of  our  time.  To 
have  carried  it  through  will  be  a  comfort  and  a  pleasure  to  you 
through  life,  a  matter  of  joy  and  pride  to  the  many  who  love  and 
honor  you,  an  occasion  of  thanksgiving  through  all  eternity.  Op- 
position— every  good  thing  encounteis  opposition.  Think  of  Paul, 
of  Jesus ! 

Nay,  nay,  no  such  word  as  fail.  Somehow,  somehow,  you  are 
bound  to  succeed.  The  Seminary  is  a  necessity.  Our  best  brethren 
want  it.  God  has  blessed  it  thus  far.  It  is  your  own  offspring.  You 
have  kept  it  alive  since  the  war,— fed  it  with  almost  your  own  heart's 
blood.  It  must  succeed,  somehow,  and  you  are  the  man  that  must 
make  it  succeed. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  MARTHA  BICKERS : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  April  10,  1873 :  If  I  find  you  there  this  sum- 
mer, I  want  you  to  join  me  in  visiting  your  home  and  also  the  home 
of  our  youth.  On  a  pleasant  summer  day  there  would  be  much  pen- 
sive satisfaction,  and  ought  to  be  some  profit,  in  reviving  the  recol- 
lections of  the  days  "  when  the  world  and  we  were  young."  .  . 

I  believe  in  the  open  air.  .  .  If  your  chest  is  weak,  riding  horse- 
back will  do  you  more  good  than  anything  else  that  can  be  started. 
Many  a  person  after  severe  hemorrhages,  has  been  made  strong  by 
It.  And  a  trotting  horse  is  the  best.  Let  me  see — I  have  dim  recol- 
lections of  the  time  when  you  first  grew  up — what  a  comely  damsel 
you  were ;  a  fair  complexion  and  cheeks  of  pretty  pink,  all  in  the 
days  before  you  had  that  nervous  fever  which  Doctor  Herndon 
couldn't  fully  cure,  and  which  brought  dyspepsia  ;  I  dimly  see  you 
now ;  I  must  have  been  six  or  seven  years  old  then  ;  and  you  were 
riding  an  old  gray  horse,  it  seems  to  me,  and  the  horse  trots,  and 
you  look  worried,  as  much  so  as  a  nice  young  girl  could  be  expected 
to  look,  because  your  horse  doesn't  pace.  That  trotting  horse  was 



doubtless  the  making  of  you.  If  it  hadn't  been  for  him  you  could 
never  have  stood  all  you  have  gone  through,  of  ill  health  and  care 
and  toil.  That  trotting  horse  was  a  blessing  in  disguise,  like  many 
another  that  it  takes  us  forty  years  to  find  out.  So  get  you  another 
trotting  horse,  and  learn  to  ride  again,  and  see  if  it  doesn't  make  you 
strong  again,  even  young,  and  pretty,  of  course.  So  learn  to  ride, 
sure  enough,  and  we  can  then  take  that  little  jaunt  on  horseback.  .  . 

Mother  used  to  say,  "  Anything  is  hard  to  do  if  it's  well  done,  and 
doing  nothing  is  the  hardest  of  all  things  to  do  if  it's  well  done." 
Perhaps  I  don't  do  nothing  well,  for  I  find  it  not  hard  at  all,  and  1 
can  recommend  it  heartily. 

I  am  glad  to  say  that  Annie  and  Sam  have  both  been  received  by 
the  church,  and  are  to  be  baptized  on  Sunday  next.  They  seem  to 
be  thoroughly  in  earnest,  and  I  trust  they  are  truly  renewed.  Some 
thirty-five  have  recently  joined  our  church,  the  fruits  of  a  meeting 
begun  and  for  the  most  part  carried  on  by  our  Seminary  students. 

It  is  now  decided  that  we  stay  here  another  year.  Our  future  after 
that  is  very  uncertain.  But  the  Seminary  has  been  wonderfully 
guided  and  upheld  through  all  these  trying  years,  and  by  God's 
blessing  has  become  dear  to  very  many  of  our  best  brethren,  and  so 
I  hope  there  will  be  given  us  a  future. 

I  am  under  engagement  to  be  at  the  University  of  Virginia,  July 
second,  to  read  a  paper  in  memory  of  Doctor  Harrison.1 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  April  21,  1873 :  I  have  now  seventy-eight 
thousand  dollars  and  over.  My  prospect  of  reporting  one  hundred 
thousand  dollars  tolerable.  The  fact  is  that  my  Louisville  subscrip- 
tion of  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars  is  now  to  my  mind 
certain.  But  time,  time ;  I  hope  to  see  many  of  you  at  the  Conven- 
tion But  I  am  anxious  for  Will'ams  to  go  to  Mississippi.  If  they 
should  treat  him  badly  I  shall  be  sorry  on  his  account  and  theirs, 
but  it  will  help  us.  Soul  liberty  is  worth  more  than  alien  immersion, 
even  with  Landmarkers. 

PHILIP  SCHAFF  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

NEW  YORK,  April  28,  1873  :  I  just  learn  that  i  and  2  Samuel  will 
soon  be  published.  Will  send  you  the  first  copy  unless  you  have 

Published  in  the  "Southern  Review"  and  also  in  "Broadus's  Sermons  and 
Addresses."  Professor  Smith  spoke  of  it  as  "  that  noble  essay  on  the  life  of  Gessner 
Harrison,  which  is  worthy  to  be  ranked  with  the  best  compositions  of  our  literature." 
Doctor  Hiden  compared  it  to  Tacitus' s  "  Agncola" 


already  ordered  it,  m  the  meantime  go  on  with  the  textual  department 
as  fast  as  you  can.1 

F.  H.  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

UNIVERSITY  OF  VIRGINIA,  May  4,  1873 :  At  a  quarter  past  six 
o'clock  this  evening  our  venerated  and  valued  professor,  Doctor 
McGuffey,  quietly  and  in  unconsciousness  passed  away.  He  lingered 
for  weeks,  having  rallied  after  his  physicians  despaired  of  him.  His 
daughter,  Mrs.  Hepburn,  and  his  wife  were  the  only  relatives  with 
him.  .  . 

Other  gentlemen  of  the  faculty,  besides  Dr.  [John  Staige]  Davis, 
have  spoken  to  me  most  earnestly  in  reference  to  the  matter,  and  in- 
deed so  far  as  I  know,  if  the  alumni,  faculty,  and  friends  of  the  In- 
stitution were  polled,  their  well-nigh,  if  not  altogether  unanimous, 
choice  would  light  on  you. 

These  gentlemen  desired  me  to  approach  you,  or  cause  you  to  be 
approached  on  the  subject.  I  know  of  no  way  save  that  of  simply 
and  directly  telling  you  the  facts  and  asking  you  to  deliberate  upon 
them  and  give  us  your  mature  decision,  earnestly  hoping  that  this 
decision  will  be  favorable  to  us. 

It  would  be  presumptuous  in  me  to  attempt  to  argue  the  matter  with 
you.  I  could  say  nothing  which  will  not  occur  with  greater  force  to 
your  own  reflections.  I  can  very  well  understand  the  strength  of 
your  love  to  the  Seminary,  the  child  of  your  care  and  toil. 

J  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

MOBILE,  May  9,  1873 :  Dr.  T.  G.  Jones'  introductory  sermon 
last  night  (one  and  a  half  hours)  was  one  of  the  noblest  sermons  I 
ever  heard— intensely  practical,  saying  the  very  things  that  needed 
to  be  said,  and  saying  them  with  wonderful  freshness  and  impres- 

MOBILE,  May  12, 1873  '•  Preached  on  John  the  Baptist  pretty  suc- 
cessfully at  St.  Francis  Street,  and  though  very  tired  afterwards, 
was  not  prostrated.  .  . 

Convention  adjourned  this  afternoon— only  a  sermon  to-night. 
Very  good  session,  upon  the  whole.  Some  people  say  Boyce  pre- 
sides even  better  than  Mell ;  equally  prompt,  clear,  and  impartial, 
and  more  cordial  and  genial.  .  . 

I  love  you,  dear  wife,  always,  everywhere  I  love  you.     Try  to 

1  In  the  "  Lange  Commentary  "  (American  and  English  Revision),  to  which  trans- 
lation Doctor  Broadus  and  Doctor  Toy  contributed  the  commentary  on  i  and  a  SamueU 


bear  patiently  the  ills  we  cannot  cure,  and  God  be  gracious  to  us 

Doctor  Broadus  supplied  the  First  Church,  Richmond, 
during  July  and  August.  In  November  he  went  to  New 
York  and  New  Jersey  to  procure  assistance  for  the  strug- 
gling Student's  Fund,  while  Boyce  battled  away  in 
Louisville.  The  students  wrote  :  "  You  and  your  mis- 
sion were  made  the  special  object  of  our  prayer  meet- 
ing yesterday  afternoon."  On  his  return,  Dr.  Edward 
Bright  eagerly  wrote  to  inquire  if  he  would  take  the 
Yonkers  Church  with  a  unanimous  call  and  a  generous 

J  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE: 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Dec.  2c/,  1873 :  I  sympathize  with  your  an- 
noyance. .  .  But  I  am  satisfied  that  if  you  were  to  resign,  it  would 
do  harm  rather  than  good.  It  is  true  that  people  have  come  to  think 
you  can  accomplish  impossibilities,  and  so  they  are  disposed  to  stand 
by  and  let  you  run  the  machine  by  your  financial  skill  and  influence, 
but  if  you  resigned  they  would  say,  "  Well,  if  Boyce  has  given  it 
up,  there  is  no  hope."  Our  people  have  suffered  so  many  losses 
that  they  are  too  ready  to  give  things  up  as  lost.  I  am  sure  this  is 
the  effect  which  your  resigning  would  produce.  .  . 

Cheer  up,  my  dear  brother.  "  Through  much  tribulation."  But 
God  has  been  with  us  in  six  troubles,  at  least. 

J.  C.  HIDEN  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WILMINGTON,  N.  C.,  Jan.  17, 1874:  .  .  I  am  glad  to  hear  of 
even  the  temporary  relief  to  the  professors  in  our  beloved  Seminary. 
But  I  am  still  troubled  about  its  needs.  Oh,  if  our  business  men, 
who  have  the  means,  could  only  be  brought  to  feel  (as  some  of  us 
poor,  overworked,  ill-furnished  preachers  can  and  do  feel)  the  need, 
the  terrible,  pressing,  crying  need  of  better  furnished  men  to  do  the 
pulpit  work  of  our  day  ! 

Paul  said,  "  Who  is  sufficient  for  these  things?"  and  our  people 
are  saying  (in  effect)  "  Almost  anybody  is."  I  know  something 
about  what  it  means  to  preach  Sunday  after  Sunday  (two  sermons) 
to  the  same  intelligent  congregation  for  years,  and  to  have  some  sort 
of  a  standard  of  conscientious  pulpit  work,  and  then  to  feel  that  one 
is  expected  to  do  the  work  of  three  good  men,  with  the  time,  the 


capacity  for  labor,  and  the  health  of  one  man,  and  with  the  prepara- 
tion of  half  a  man,  and  "  haud  ignarus  wah,  misens  succurren 
disco."  .  . 

I  was  traveling  on  the  cars  some  time  ago,  and  a  little  Negro  was 
offering  oranges  for  sale.  He  had  evidently  got  the  contagion  prev- 
alent in  our  latitude,  and  had  just  sense  enough  to  proclaim  through 
the  car,  that  "  Dese  oranges  is  from  de  Norf."  A  sprightly  Yankee 
woman  was  much  amused,  and  the  car  rang  with  peals  of  laughter 
as  she  stopped  little  cuffee  and  asked  him  "if  he  was  sure  his 
oranges  were  Northern  ones."  "  Yes'm,  raised  darV 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

AUGUSTA,  GA.,  Jan.  19,  1874 :  I  suppose  it  may  be  best  for  me 
to  go  to  Greenville  and  talk  matters  over  with  all  of  you.  I  do  not 
wish  to  be  hasty,  and  especially  not  to  take  steps  which  I  shall  have 
to  retract.  I  have  made  up  my  mind  all  along  to  keep  on  as  long  as 
there  was  any  chance.  .  .  I  doubt  even  now  the  possibility  of  per- 
manently endowing  the  Seminary,  and  fear  we  shall  have  to  give 
up  the  whole  work.  Perhaps  this  is  the  will  of  the  Lord.  As  I  say, 
I  have  no  desire  to  take  a  step  backward  and  therefore  when  I  feel 
compelled  to  say  to  the  Board  I  can  go  on  no  longer,  I  shall  not  take 
hold  again,  and  I  think  my  reasons  for  resigning  will  prevent  any 
one  else  from  so  continuing. 

H.  A.  TUPPER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Jan.  20,  1874 :  Thanks  for  the  $12,50  [for  mis- 
sions] :  acknowledgment  made  as  directed.  Would  that  all  the 
world  knew  how  to  write  a  business  letter  as  does  J.  A.  B. 

J.  M.  BOSTICK  to  J.  A.  B. : 

BRIGHTON,  S.  C.,  Jan.  25,  1874:  I  read  to  the  little  congregation 
there  your  appeal  in  the  "  Herald"  of  the  8th  mst.  It  acted,  in  my 
hands,  like  the  Irishman's  overloaded  musket,  that  did  more  execu- 
tion behind  than  before.  The  immediate  response  of  the  congrega- 
tion was  two  dollars,  but  as  I  was  traveling  homeward  with  my 
little  boy  he  asked  if  I  could  afford  to  pay  him  half  of  thirty  dollars, 
which  he  says  I  owe  him  for  a  calf  which  I  appropriated,  and  which 
is  now  grown  to  the  size  of  an  ox.  .  .  On  my  telling  him  that  I 
might  get  the  money  for  him  if  he  would  use  it  well,  he  said  he 
wanted  it  for  the  Seminary.  So  here  it  is. 

F.  H.  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B.  : 
CHARLOTTESVILLE,  VA.,  Feb.  24,  1874 :  You  kindly  alluded  to 


my  letter  to  Doctor  Dabney.  The  doctor  only  used,  as  he  had  free 
permission  to  do,  such  paragraphs  as  came  immediately  in  the  line 
of  his  argument.  There  were  some  inferences  which  seemed  to  me 
to  be  important,  to  which  I  am  not  sure  that  the  doctor  would  sub- 
scribe. I  cannot  help  believing  that  the  impenetrable  silence  of 
Scripture  as  to  the  date  of  these  two  great  extra-natural  events,  the 
creation  of  the  world  and  its  final  dissolution,  both  of  which  are  an- 
nounced with  equal  clearness,  and  are  equally  outside  the  scope  of 
science,  is  a  shining  instance  of  the  wisdom  and  love  of  the  Almighty. 
To  have  revealed  the  date  of  creation  would  have  put  a  term,  and  it 
may  be  a  near  one,  to  the  excursions  of  science  and  the  discipline  of 
the  intellect  in  the  solution  of  the  greatest  problems  of  nature. 

To  have  revealed  the  time  of  the  end  v/ould  have  been  fraught 
with  disaster  to  the  activity  of  the  race. 

So  far  as  I  can  see,  God  has  left  the  scientist  as  free  to  push  his 
maxim,  *'  Like  effects  imply  like  causes,"  to  the  remotest  depths  of 
the  past  or  future  as  the  baldest  materialism  could  leave  him  Chris- 
tian Faraday  is  as  untramrneled  as  skeptical  Huxley.  How  glorious 
will  be  the  testimony  of  the  unfettered  science  of  the  future  to  the 
truths  of  religion.  Indeed,  I  would  go  further  and  say  that  the  Bible 
not  only  permits  the  unlimited  explorations  of  science,  but  requires 
them  as  a  solemn  duty  of  the  Christian  philosopher. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Mar.  Q,  1874 :  I  am  more  and  more  wedded 
to  the  persuasion  that  the  Seminary  must  be  kept  in  operation  or 
abandoned.  If  we  can't  get  these  bonds  for  current  support,  by  sum- 
mer or  early  fall  at  farthest,  I  should  prefer  to  quit  and  be  done 
with  it,  rather  than  to  die  a  dozen  deaths  before  it  is  over.  And 
I  believe  if  we  were  to  suspend,  the  whole  country  would  feel  that  we 
had  failed,  and  we  could  not  make  head  against  the  discouraging 
effect,  and  the  croakings  in  which  some  would  abound  who  want 
us  to  fail.  I  think,  therefore,  we  had  better  determine  to  keep  it 
going  or  sink  it. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C,,  April  21,  1874 :  The  students  are  constantly 
inquiring,  with  the  deepest  concern,  whether  the  Seminary  is  likely  to 
be  suspended,  or  will  go  on  next  session.  I  tell  them  1  hope  it  will 
go  on  ;  that  I  don't  know  how  we  are  to  manage  it— -but  I  hope  and 
pray  that  God  may  put  it  into  the  hearts  of  the  brethren  to  help  man- 
fully and  immediately.  We  shall  look  with  great  anxiety  for  the 


results  of  your  visit  to  the  Georgia  Convention.  Oh,  that  our  dear 
brethren  may  have  a  heart  given  them  to  rise  up  to  the  demands  of 
the  hour,— this  time  that  tries  men's  souls,-— that  they  may  set  an  ex- 
ample of  heroic  determination  and  cheerful  sacrifice  which  will  be  a 
keynote  for  all  the  conventions  of  the  year,  and  will  prove  to  all  the 
land  how  much  it  means  to  be  a  Baptist. 

I  am  satisfied  that  ours  is  the  most  thoroughly  Baptist  theological 
seminary  in  the  country.  My  heart  leaps  up  at  the  thought  of  the 
good  it  will  do,  if  it  can  be  kept  alive  now. 

J.  L.  M.  CURRY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Mar.  21,  1874:  Doctor  Boyce  does  not  give  a 
flattering  picture.  Times  were  darker  to  Abraham  when  he  was 
promised  an  inheritance  for  the  possession  of  himself  and  his  seed. 
To  me  the  Seminary  seems  so  much  a  necessity  for  our  Baptist  Zion 
that  I  cannot  permit  myself  to  doubt  its  success. 

S.  S.  CUTTING  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

NEW  YORK,  April  24,  1874  :  1  am  overwhelmed  at  the  idea  of  the 
suspension  of  your  Seminary.  It  must  not  be.  We  must  make 
common  cause  and  prevent  the  possibility  of  such  a  calamity.  Please 
send  me  a  letter  about  your  condition  such  as  I  can  use  for  your 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B,  : 

JEFFERSON,  TEXAS,  May  9, 1874:  I  am  thankful  to  say  that  we 
did  well.  Had  three  hours,  and  got  over  eighteen  thousand  dollars 
in  bonds,  besides  land  worth  from  one  to  three  thousand  more.  Ex- 
pect it  to  reach  twenty  thousand  dollars  certainly.  This  makes  in 
all  sixty  thousand,  and  leaves  fifteen  thousand  to  be  raised  to  insure 
opening  next  fall.  Doctor  Williams  will  start  out  in  Texas,  with  this 
to  back  him,  and  a  hearty  enthusiam  among  those  present  here.  We 
are  to  consult  this  evening.  Will  probably  conclude  that  the  others 
shall  work  for  the  fifteen  thousand  dollars  (and  more  for  margin), 
and  Boyce  and  I  shall  work  in  Kentucky  for  endowment. 

WASHINGTON,  May  23,  1874 :  My  address *  came  off  at  11.30  to- 
day, and  lasted  forty  minutes.  I  have  reason  to  be  gratified  and 
thankful  at  the  result.  A  very  crowded  audience,  already  stimulated 
by  two  previous  addresses,  gave  me  hearty  applause  (after  their 

1  On  "  The  Work  of  the  Baptists  for  the  Next  Half  Century,"  at  Jubilee  meeting-  of 
the  American  Baptist  Publication  Society. 


fashion)  on  appearing,  very  animated  attention  throughout,  and 
numerous  congratulations  and  thanks  afterwards.  I  thought  you 
would  be  pleased  to  know  that  my  effort  was  well  received.  I  wanted 
to  do  some  good,  and  I  pray  God  that  good  may  be  done. 

WASHINGTON,  May  26,  1874  :  Quite  a  surprise  last  night.  Doc- 
tor Cutting,  Mr.  Samuel  Colgate,  and  others,  got  up  a  scheme,  and 
called  on  me  to  take  ten  minutes  and  state  the  present  condition  and 
wants  of  our  Seminary,  they  getting  me  the  invitation.  Of  course 
I  said  it  was  all  their  doing,  not  mine.  I  spoke  five  to  eight  min- 
utes and  they  helped  me  by  overwhelming  applause.  Then  Mr. 
Colgate  rose  in  the  aisle,  spoke  warmly  and  proposed  an  effort  to 
raise  pledges  of  twenty-five  hundred  dollars  a  year  for  five  years,  to 
support  one  professor.  They  were  much  pressed  for  time  and  could 
not  come  to  small  sums  but  they  made  it  up  to  one  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars  a  year  in  a  few  minutes,  of  which  my 
Orange  friends  pledged  eight  hundred  dollars  a  year.  There  was 
also  three  hundred  and  sixty-seven  dollars  in  cash  given  and  a  pledge 
of  two  hundred  and  fifty  more.  It  was  all  done  cheerfully,  zeal- 
ously, in  fact,  with  prodigious  enthusiasm.  The  Orange  men  say 
the  two  thousand  five  hundred  a  year  shall  be  made  up.  They  are 
great  and  bitter  sacrifices  that  you  and  I  have  to  make,  dear  wife, 
for  this  Seminary  enterprise ;  will  you  not  rejoice  with  me  at  this  un- 
expected help  which  Providence  has  raised  up  for  us?1 

ORANGE,  N.  J.,  June  i,  1874 :2  The  services  went  off  in  a  very 
gratifying  manner,  so  far  as  I  could  judge.  The  church  is  really 
beautiful,  and  not  hard  to  speak  in.  It  holds  some  seven  hundred, 
was  as  full  as  it  could  hold  in  the  morning,  and  ran  over  at  night 
The  day  was  charming.  I  did  not  succeed  to  my  satisfaction  in  my 

Doctor  Broadus  joined  Doctor  Boyce  at  the  Mississippi 
Convention,  at  Oxford,  and  then  both  spent  June  and  July 
in  Kentucky,  working  for  the  endowment  of  the  Semi- 
nary. The  letters  show  severe  struggle  and  heroic 

Often  he  rose  early  without  sufficient  sleep,  to  make 

1  Doctor  Broadus  afterwards  said  that  he  felt  all  that  he  had  ever  learned  and 
thought  focused  in  this  eight  minute  speech.    He  was  speaking  for  the  very  life  of 
the  Seminary  and  held  back  nothing. 

2  Dedication  North  Orange  Church. 


fatiguing  journeys  throughout  the  State,  seeking  to  arouse 
interest  and  allay  opposition,  and  preaching  almost  every 
day  for  six  weeks  and  more.  At  Danville,  Ky.,  he  had 
an  interesting  experience.  He  had  despaired  of  doing 
much.  He  was  told  of  a  farmer  who  might  help  a  little. 
Doctor  Broadus  found  him  sitting  on  a  stump  in  his  shirt 
sleeves,  but  he  listened  to  the  Seminary's  claims,  and 
cheerfully  gave  a  thousand  dollars.  It  is  noteworthy 
that  Doctor  Boyce  and  Doctor  Broadus  never  became 
discouraged  about  the  Seminary  at  the  same  time.  Each 
served  as  a  strong  support  to  the  other, 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  CARRIE  F.  DAVIS  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Aug.  4,  1874 :  Our  labors  have  not  been 
in  vain.  Though  the  full  amount  for  current  support  the  next  five 
years  has  not  been  reached,  we  are  near  it,  and  the  result  is  sure. 
Doctor  Boyce  and  I  were  sufficiently  successful  in  Kentucky  for  per- 
manent endowment,  notwithstanding  drought,  to  satisfy  us  that  the 
thing  can  be  carried  through  there,  by  hard  work.  I  am  now  quite 
hopeful  as  to  the  Seminary's  future.  It  will  stay  here  at  least  two 
years  more. 

Doctor  Williams  returned  a  day  before  I  did.  In  Mississippi,  where 
some  have  talked  against  him,  he  was  received  with  uniform  kindness. 


RICHMOND,  VA.,  Dec.  12,  1874:  You  know  Doctor  Burrows  has 
resigned  the  pastorate  of  the  First  Church  and  there  is  no  other  man 
in  the  South,  or  in  the  United  States,  that  can  fill  his  place  but  your 
brother,  John  A.  .  . 

I  think  he  has  planned,  chalked  out,  and  molded  the  Seminary 
so  perfectly  that  others  can  carry  it  out  and  he  be  spared  from  it  to 
do  his  heart's  work,  preach  the  gospel  where  thousands  will  hear 
and  where  I  believe,  and  our  church  believes,  and  our  citizens  be- 
lieve, he  can  do  more  for  all  the  churches  in  Virginia  than  any  other 
man.  Is  such  a  preacher  to  spend  his  life  in  a  schoolroom  ?  Is  he 
to  continue  to  make  sacrifices?  And  above  and  beyond  all  this,  is 
he  to  sacrifice  his  wife  and  children  entirely  to  the  school?  Is  not 
this  side  of  the  question  too  grave  a  one  to  be  lightly  passed  over  ? 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Jan.  16,  1875 :  Now,  in  the  opinion  of  his  best 


friends  and  brethren,  he  is  offered  the  first  place  in  Virginia  for  the 
widest  usefulness  he  ever  can  have,  and  with  it  an  offer  of  a  good 
house  and  home  in  fee  simple  for  himself  and  family  and  also  to  pro- 
vide an  insurance  on  his  life  for  the  benefit  of  his  wife  and  children, 
say  fifteen  thousand  dollars.  The  two  together  would  amount  to 
twenty-five  thousand  to  thirty  thousand  dollars,  and,  I  am  sure,  a 
salary  of  five  thousand  per  annum. 

At  the  request  of  the  Faculty  of  Richmond  College, 
Doctor  Broadus  wrote  a  tract  on  "  A  College  Education 
for  Men  of  Business,"  which  had  a  very  remarkable  cir- 
culation. Richmond  College  published  one  hundred  thou- 
sand copies,  and  it  was  reprinted  by  the  Wake  Forest 
College.  Another  tract  of  his,  "  Immersion  Essential  to 
Christian  Baptism/'  published  by  the  American  Baptist 
Publication  Society,  had  already  attracted  wide  attention. 
For  a  number  of  years  Doctor  Broadus  was  editorial 
contributor  to  the  "  Religious  Herald  "  under  the  signa- 
ture J.  A.  B. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS,  B.  : 

ATLANTA,  GA.,  June  3,  1875  -  Now  I'll  read  some  Odyssey.  It 
is  raining  very  pleasantly.  The  very  sound  is  refreshing,  and  the 
distant  roll  of  the  thunder  is  a  fine  musical  accompaniment.  I  have 
a  great  liking  for  thunder.  Yonder  is  an  arm-chair  by  the  window, 
with  a  leather-cushioned  seat,  and  there  is  nobody  in  the  room  but 
me,  and  the  thunder  will  keep  me  company. 

J.  B.  LIGHTFOOT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CAMBRIDGE,  ENGLAND,  Dec.  15, 1875 :  Though  you  deprecated 
my  sending  an  acknowledgment  of  the  notice  which  you  were  good 
enough  to  send  me  some  short  time  ago,  I  car  not  forbear  writing  to 
you  a  few  lines  of  thanks  for  your  kindly  and  too  generous  appre- 
ciation of  my  literary  work 

I  wish  that  the  Atlantic  were  not  so  broad  and  that  there  were 
more  chance  of  our  meeting ;  but  failing  this,  it  is  a  great  pleasure 
to  me  to  shake  hands  across  the  ocean.  I  can  honestly  say  that 
nothing  in  my  literary  career  gives  me  more  satisfaction  than  the 
thought  that  I  am  holding  communion  with  many  friends,  some  al- 
together unknown  to  me  personally,  some  (like  yourself)  only  too 
slightly  known—in  far  distant  countries.  .  . 


I  quite  agree  with  you  as  to  the  treatment  of  the  Epistle  of  Barna- 
bas in  "Supernatural  Religion."  The  wriggling  criticism  of  this 
part  is  truly  pitiable. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  24,  1876:  This  is  my  birthday.  We 
have  entered,  you  and  I,  on  our  fiftieth  year  of  life.  Each  of  us 
could  look  back  with  sore  lamentings  and  might  be  tempted  to  re- 
pinings,  but  let  us  try  to  be  thankful  instead,  to  be  trustful  too,  and 
hopeful.  For  one  thing  I  give  thanks  at  this  moment,  as  often 
before,  that  God  has  given  me  such  a  bosom  friend  as  you. 

J.  W.  WILDMAN  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

LYNCHBURG,  VA.,  Feb.  4,  1876 :  I  noticed  in  a  recent  article  of 
yours  for  the  "  Herald  "  that  you  ask,  where  did  Judge  Lynch  live? 
The  gentleman  of  this  name,  whose  course  of  justice  you  referred  to, 
was  a  resident  of  my  (Campbell)  county.  His  residence,  and  I  be- 
lieve his  house  is  still  standing,  was  near  Staunton  River,  and  the 
vicinity  is  to  be  identified  with  a  small  station  (Lynch' s)  on  the  Lg. 
&  D.  R.  R.,  at  which  Colonel  Anthony  was  recently  murdered.  If 
the  place  is  the  one  I  suppose,  the  tree  is  still  standing  in  the  yard  to 
which  Mr.  Lynch  tied  the  criminals  to  administer  his  hickory  jus- 
tice. Our  country  about  the  time  of  the  Revolution  was  infested  with 
outlaws,  who  committed  their  depredations  and  then  retired  to  the 
brushwood.  When  one  was  captured  he  was  carried  before  "  Judge  " 
Lynch,  a  wealthy  man,  who  punished  the  offender  in  a  summary 
manner.  I  remember  reading  the  fact  in  '*  Virginia  Antiquities'7 
several  years  ago. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE  : 

PHILADELPHIA,  Feb.  24,  1876:  I  preached  at  Madison  Ave. 
last  Sunday  morning  (for  Publication  Society)  and  at  Fifth  Ave. 
(Armitage's)  in  the  evening.  Last  night  I  preached  here,  Henson's 
dedication,  and  had  the  great  satisfaction,  with  a  magnificent  con- 
gregation, of  making  one  of  my  complete  failures.  The  tamest 
broken-down  sermons  I  made  in  Kentucky,  when  traveling  with 
you,  were  better.  Well,  I  really  was  not  well  enough  to  come  on 
this  trip  at  all.  But  I  dislike  extremely  to  miss  an  appointment,  and 
thought  maybe  the  travel  would  help  me— and  still  hope  so.  .  . 

I  intended  to  go  home  from  here,  but  the  Orange  folks  want  a 
supply  for  Sunday,  and  urged  me  to  go.  I  always  enjoy  preaching 
there,  and  I  think  it  is  the  interest  of  the  Seminary  that  I  should  do 


what  they  request,  as  they  are  giving  us  one  thousand  two  hundred 
dollars  a  year.    So  I  expect  to  get  home  next  Tuesday  night. 

EZRA  ABBOTT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CAMBRIDGE,  Feb.  10,  1876 :  I  should  be  very  much  pleased  to 
see  the  article  on  Tischendorf  to  which  you  refer,  and  any  other 
^  articles  which  you  may  have  published  of  which  you  have  extra 
copies.  Hoping  thus  to  effect  an  exchange,  and  as  you  are  one  of 
the  few  in  this  country  who  seem  much  interested  in  the  textual  criti- 
cism of  the  New  Testament,  I  take  the  liberty  of  sending  you  copies 
of  some  recent  papers  of  my  own,  viz,  notices  of  Tischendorf  and 
Tregelles,  and  a  discussion  of  the  readings  of  John  i :  18  and  of 
Acts  20  : 28. 

The  first  of  May  Doctor  Broadus  delivered  before  the 
Newton  Theological  Seminary,  five  lectures  on  the  "  His- 
tory of  Preaching,"  which  were  afterward  published. 
This  volume  covers  a  most  neglected  field  and  handles 
the  subject  with  great  skill. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

BOSTON,  May  5, 1876:  .  .  It  rained  last  evening,  yet  we  had  a 
better  attendance  than  the  first  night.  Got  through  in  one  hour  and 
ten  minutes.  They  seemed  interested.  The  thing  is  going  off  as 
well  as  I  could  expect— not  a  brilliant  success,  but  a  success.  My 
throat  was  clearer  than  the  first  night.  The  morning  was  very 
pleasant,  and  I  walked  to  the  Hill  to  a  lecture,  after  writing. 

PHILADELPHIA,  May  30,  1876 :  A  hard  day's  work  in  the  Ex- 
position. Everybody  ought  to  visit  it  that  possibly  can,  for  there 
is  not  only  much  to  be  enjoyed  but  much  to  be  learned. 

Sheldon  jumped  at  the  offer  of  my  "  Newton  Lectures,"  and  will 
give  me  ten  per  cent,  on  the  retail  price,  the  usual  share  for  authors. 
I  must  get  the  children  to  copy  them  with  my  corrections. 

After  the  Newton  lectures  a  week  was  spent  in  New 
York  as  the  guest  of  his  friend,  Mr.  Coghill.  He  preached 
in  Brooklyn  on  Sunday,  and  afterward  attended  the 
Baptist  Anniversaries  at  Buffalo.  Doctor  Broadus,  with 
his  daughter,  then  spent  three  delightful  days  at  the 
home  of  Doctor  Randolph,  near  Philadelphia,  attending 


the  Centennial  Exposition,  and  being  present  at  a  large 
gathering  of  the  Baptist  Social  Union,  where  he  made 
an  address.  These  busy  weeks  concluded  with  the 
June  meetings  at  Culpeper,  Va. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B, : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  June  20, 1876:  As  to  the  Campbellite  snarl,1 1 
agree  with  you.  It  was  within  half  an  hour  after  hearing  what  I 
did  about  Kerfoot  that  I  wrote  him  our  wishes  and  offered  him  the 
place,  and  said  nothing  then  nor  when  he  came  down  about  the 
matter.  The  position  we  have  taken  upon  disputed  points,  viz, 
that  of  liberty  to  the  professor,  is  the  true  one.  Upon  divided  points 
we  must  consent  to  be  divided.  .  . 

In  a  postscript  to  a  letter  to  Toy  I  broke  into  a  gentle  remonstrance 
and  earnest  entreaty  on  inspiration. 

July  and  half  of  August  was  spent  in  preaching  for 
the  North  Orange  Church,  New  Jersey.  How  Doctor 
Broadus  loved  this  church  !  The  week  days  were  spent 
with  Mr.  Gellatly  and  the  Colgates  on  the  Jersey  coast. 
Dr.  Richard  Fuller's  presence  added  to  the  pleasure  of 
being  at  the  seashore.  Doctor  Broadus  began  a  "  Life 
of  John  the  Baptist,"  which  was  much  in  his  mind  these 
years,  but  it  was  never  finished.  He  cherished  the  hope 
of  writing  a  "  Life  of  Jesus  "  also,  a  "  Grammar  of  New 
Testament  Greek,"  and  a  history  of  the  "  Interbiblical 
Period  "  (five  chapters  of  which  are  written). 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  Sept.  14,  1876 :  Has  any  institution  had  such  malig- 
nant enemies  as  ours?  What  can  be  the  cause?  It  is  personal,  not 
a  matter  of  principle ;  yet  what  have  any  of  us  done  to  arouse  such 

MRS.  E.  M.  COLGATE  to  J.  A.  B. : 
ORANGE,  Oct.  6,  1876 :  We  had  just  finished  reading  your  in- 

1  The  church  at  Midway,  of  which  Rev.  F.  H.  Kerfoot  was  pastor,  had  received  a 
Disciple  without  rebaptism.  After  Doctor  Kerfoot  became  a  professor  in  the  Semi- 
nary his  studies  led  him  to  modify  his  views  to  an  intermediate  position  between  the 
two  extremes  on  the  alien  immersion  question. 


teresting  review  when  we  received  your  letter  calling  our  attention 
to  it  I  learned  more  of  Dr.  Addison  Alexander  than  I  ever  knew 
before.  It  seemed  to  me  an  impressive  way  to  thus  compare  men 
with  each  other.  Mr.  Colgate  has  just  finished  the  "  Life  of  Mac- 
aulay,"  and  I  have  heard  it  by  snatches.  It  is  intensely  interesting. 
We  both  feel  the  truth  of  your  criticism  in  regard  to  his  literary 
merit  and  to  his  character.  Doctor  Adams  told  me  he  thought  the 
reticence  m  regard  to  his  religious  life  was  more  the  author* fs  omission, 
and  that  an  accompanied  slur  indicated  his  estimate  of  such  things. 

After  the  exciting  election  of  1876  Doctor  Broadus  was 
asked  to  make  a  speech  on  the  situation.  Greenville 
"  Daily  News,"  Nov.  12,  1876  : 

Doctor  Broadus  said  this  triumph  had  come  sooner  than  he  had 
expected  He  had  often  said  the  day  must  come—that  the  intelli- 
gence and  property  of  the  State  must  control  the  State  government ; 
but  he  had  not  in  past  years  dared  to  hope  it  would  come  so  soon  as 
this.  He  wanted  to  say,  and  as  they  had  sent  to  his  home  for  a 
Christian  minister  to  speak,  they  would  expect  him  to  say :  "  Thank 
God  ! "  (This  was  repeated  three  times.  The  crowd  was  hushed 
into  silence.)  He  said  two  things  in  this  canvass  had  given  him 
especial  satisfaction.  One  was  the  high  character  of  Gen.  Hamp- 
ton, and  the  consummate  wisdom  with  which  he  had  conducted  the 
canvass.  The  other  was  the  self-control  which  our  people  have 
shown.  We  Southerners  are  hot-headed  and  sometimes  wanting  in 
calmness.  But,  as  a  general  thing,  our  people  have  of  late  acted 
with  a  steady  determination,  and  shown  a  forbearance  in  trying  cir- 
cumstances which  was  highly  gratifying.  Let  us  continue  to  act 
in  this  spirit,  to  cultivate  and  exercise  self-control. 

He  suggested  that  as  we  are  successful,  we  can  be  magnanimous 
without  being  misunderstood.  Not  only  must  there  be  perfect  jus- 
tice to  all,  and  an  effort  so  to  manage  that  everybody  in  the  State 
may  have  occasion  to  rejoice  at  Hampton's  being  governor,  but  there 
should  be  magnanimity. 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Dec.  6,  1876 :  I  am  decidedly  of  the  opinion 
that  you  had  best  retain  your  editorial  connection  with  the  "  Herald," 
because  we  must  not  ruin  ourselves  with  our  real  and  tried  friends 
everywhere  to  avoid  a  little  attack  now  and  then.  I  only  thought  it 
politic  (as  a  rule)  to  hold  no  editorial  connections.  But  when  this  is 


demanded  of  us  as  a  right,  I  think  the  demand  should  not  be  yielded 
to.  .  .  I  propose  not  to  yield  an  inch  more,  but  to  take  a  firm  stand. 
I  am  sure  this  is  our  true  policy  as  well  as  "the  right  thing." 

J.  A.  B.  to  GEO.  B.  TAYLOR  : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Jan.  5,  1877:  We  are  helped  along,  one 
way  and  another,  and  have  much  to  thank  God  for.  I  often  mourn 
to  think  of  the  heavy  sacrifices  Boyce  has  to  make,  in  many  ways, 
and  the  weariness  of  hope  deferred  under  which  we  suffer.  But  I 
trust  we  are  getting  ready  for  some  happy  fellows  to  work  hereafter, 
with  sufficient  support,  and  Jeisure  for  study  and  production  in  a 
strongly  established  and  widely  useful  institution.  No  doubt  that  is 
exactly  your  consolation  also,  in  the  trials  and  patient  waiting  of 
your  own  work.  I  think  you  have  succeeded  well  m  tutoring  our 
people  at  home  here  to  wait  patiently,  without  losing  hope  or  interest 
in  the  work.  They  had  such  a  wild  and  feverish  hope  of  great 
things,  when  the  mission  began,  that  I  feared  a  reaction,  notwith- 
standing your  temperate  and  wise  admonitions  before  you  went.  So 
far  as  I  know,  people  are  now  quite  satisfied  that  you  are  doing  just 
the  best  that  can  be  done,  and  that  we  must  work  and  wait.  .  . 

Yet,  doesn't  it  become  every  year  a  more  real  thing  to  us  both, 
amid  all  our  difficulties,  failures,  disappointments,  that  "  there's  a 
divinity  that  shapes  our  ends"— that  our  work  is  better  managed 
for  us  than  we  could  manage  ? 

Every  session,  in  our  missionary  society,  we  have  up  your  Italian 
mission,  trying  to  make  our  students  understand  it  and  take  lively 
interest  in  it. 

We  have  about  as  many  students  as  for  the  last  three  sessions. 
Most  seminaries  have  fallen  off,  in  consequence  of  the  financial 
straits  and  general  depression. 

Doctor  Williams  went  down  last  spring  with  incipient  consump- 
tion. At  Asheville,  N.  C.,  he  got  better  during  the  summer,  and  he 
is  wintering  at  Aiken.  But  he  is  not  well  now,  and  I  greatly  fear 
he  will  never  teach  again.  He  is  a  noble  man,  of  great  abilities,  and 
is  the  finest  lecturer  I  have  ever  known.  His  lectures  on  Systematic 
Theology,  the  last  two  or  three  years,  were  something  wonderful 
for  clearness,  terseness,  power. 

W.  A.  GELLATLY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

NEW  YORK,  Jan.  6,  1877  :  I  think  that  to-day  there  is  more  real 
union  and  fraternal  feeling  between  members  of  the  Baptist  church, 
North  and  South,  than  there  is  between  the  churches  of  any  other 


denomination  and  that  the  cause  is,  under  God,  largely  owing  to  the 
visits  and  preaching  and  social  interviews  of  yourself  and  Curry. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

ROCHESTER,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  15,  1877 :  The  third  lecture  was  highly 
successful,  I  had  slept  well  the  night  before,  was  improving  in 
health,  had  a  congenial  and  familiar  theme,  and  rose  pretty  high. 
The  lecture  was  followed  by  half  an  hour  of  questions  (from  profes- 
sors, pastors,  and  students)  and  answers,  in  some  of  which  I  was 
quite  fortunate.  There  are  supreme  moments  in  which  all  the 
energies  and  experiences  of  a  man  are  concentrated  with  the  highest 
intensity  upon  focal  points,  and  it  is  curious  how  things  blaze.  If 
I  could  leave  to-day  I  suspect  the  stimulating  effect  of  the  course 
would  be  greatest.  So  fiercely  excited,  I  did  not  at  once  get  to  sleep, 
though  I  slept  very  soundly,  and  this  morning  I  don't  feel  quite  so 
well  as  yesterday. 

The  lectures  at  Rochester  Seminary  were  free  talks  on 
the  general  subject  of  preaching,  made  from  carefully 
prepared  notes.  Doctor  Broadus  was  at  his  highest 
power  in  work  of  this  character. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

NEW  YORK,  Feb.  17,  1877 :  Well,  the  lectures  are  over.  The 
fourth,  though  I  felt  flat,  was  considered  the  best,  I  believe,  containing 
many  fresh  thoughts  about  the  preacher's  private  life.  I  was  anxious 
and  unhappy  about  my  last  topic,  especially  as  you  had  opposed  my 
taking  it.  The  audience  was  quite  large,  and  the  topic  was  not  so 
suitable  to  the  circumstances  as  some  had  been.  But  the  lecture  was 
very  attentively  heard  and  kindly  received,  some  Pedobaptist  min- 
isters coming  up  afterwards  to  say  pleasant  things.  After  the  lec- 
tures I  admitted  questions  at  large,  and  we  had  a  great  time.  The 
question  and  answer  feature  throughout  has  taken  admirably. 

Professors  Strong,  Wilkinson,  and  Kendrick  expressed  themselves 
in  singularly  strong  and  gratifying  terms  about  the  lectures,  the 
former  thinking  I  had  done  the  students  and  the  Seminary  important 
service.  So  I  may  well  be  thankful. 

Doctor  Strong  wrote  March,  1895 : 

He  was  our  most  persuasive  preacher,  and  our  best  teacher  of  the 
art  of  preaching.  His  work  on  the  New  Testament  was  the  work 


of  a  master.  The  charm  of  his  personal  character  can  never  be  for- 
gotten. He  has  done  more  than  any  other  man  to  bind  North  and 
South  together,  for  the  whole  country  loved  him.  He  was  one  of 
God's  greatest  gifts  to  our  denomination,  and  to  our  generation. 

Dr.  Wm.  Williams  had  been  failing  rapidly  from  con- 
sumption. The  trustees  had  made  provision  for  help  in 
teaching  this  year,  Dr.  J.  C.  Hiden,  then  pastor  at  Green- 
ville, helping  in  homiletics.  Doctor  Williams  died  Feb. 
20,  1877,  at  Aiken,  S.  C.  Doctor  Broadus  preached  the 
funeral  sermon  from  the  text  of  Williams'  own  choosing  : 
"  My  times  are  in  thy  hand."  Doctor  Broadus  says  : 

It  is  vain  to  attempt  any  fitting  eulogy  of  Williams.  Besides  the 
high  intellectual  powers  which  have  been  several  times  referred  to  in 
this  narrative,  his  character  was  such  as  to  command  profound  re- 
spect and  warm  affection.  .  .  Who  ever  knew  a  man  more  com- 
pletely genuine,  more  thoroughly  sincere,  more  conscientious  in  all 
his  doings?1 

J.  P.  BOYCE  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  March  23, 1877 :  I  really  fear  that  it  would  be  pru- 
dent to  stop  the  Seminary,  let  you  go  to  Eutaw  Place 2  for  a  couple 
of  years  and  then  reopen  here.  I  am  in  a  great  perplexity.  The 
brethren  will  not  and  some  cannot  pay. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  March  27,  1877 :  I  am  grieved  at  your  dis- 
couragement. .  .  The  prospect  of  support  is  gloomy,  as  you  say. 
But  I  don't  think  it  would  do  to  suspend  as  you  suggest,  in  the  way 
of  inquiry. 

In  May,  June,  and  July,  Doctor  Broadus  supplied  the 
Calvary  Baptist  Church,  New  York,  while  Doctor  Mac- 
Arthur  was  absent.  He  had  many  of  this  series  of  eigh- 
teen discourses  taken  down  by  a  stenographer  with  the 
view  of  publishing  a  volume  of  "Calvary  Sermons." 
He  did  not  write  his  sermons  out.  The  experiment  was 

1  "  Memoir  of  Boyce,"  p.  247.  s  Doctor  Fuller  was  now  dead. 


very  unsatisfactory  and  he  found  it  well-nigh  impossible 
to  whip  the  stenographer's  report  into  decent  shape. 
There  was  difficulty  also  about  a  publisher  and  the  plan 
failed.  Some  of  these  sermons  appeared  later  in  the  vol- 
ume of  "Sermons  and  Addresses."  He  was  inimitable 
before  an  audience  and  unreportable,  to  the  loss  of  the 
leading  public. 

Brown  University,  Crozer  Seminary,  Richmond  Col- 
lege, the  First  Church,  Richmond,  and  Eutaw  Place, 
Baltimore,  all  clamored  for  Doctor  Broadus's  services  at 
a  time  when  there  was  not  enough  money  to  pay  the 
salaries  of  the  professors.  But  he  could  not  be  moved. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

CHARLOTTE  TO  GREENSBORO,  May  17, 1877 :  A  great  secret. 
Doctor  Furman  told  me  at  the  train  in  strict  confidence,  that  Boyce 
is  working  to  move  the  Seminary  this  fall. 

NEW  YORK,  June  5,  1877:  The  die  is  cast,  and  the  Seminary  re- 
moves to  open  in  Louisville  in  September.  We  cross  the  Rubicon. 
Boyce  is  pleased  and  hopeful. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

NEW  YORK,  July  14,  1877  :  Reading  what  I  have  said,  I  feel  like 
adding,  that  we  must  both  try  to  keep  alive  till,  if  it  please  God,  we 
can  see  the  Seminary  strong,  and  as  safe  as  such  things  can  be 
made.  How  I  should  rejoice  some  day  to  shake  hands  with  you 
over  the  result !  You  don't  know  how  glad  I  am  that  we  are  to  be 
close  together  again.  I  feel  that  I  know  you  better  than  my  own 
brother,  and  love  you  almost  as  well.  Does  it  need  to  ask  pardon 
for  saying  this,  because  we  are  both  getting  gray? 


Prompt  to  move,  but  firm  to  wait, — 

Knowing,  things  rashly  sought  are  rarely  found. 

— Wordsworth. 

IT  was  a  painful  uprooting  to  leave  South  Carolina.  It 
was  the  Seminary's  home  and  the  ties  of  friendship 
were  very  tender.  The  State  had  done  nobly  by  the 
institution  and  the  people  loved  it  with  whole-hearted- 
ness.  They  would  have  done  great  things  for  the 
Seminary  if  they  had  been  able.  But  the  State  was 
prostrate  still  from  the  war  and  the  reconstruction  period. 
There  had  been  herculean  difficulties  at  the  first  starting, 
both  as  to  men  and  money.  The  war's  sudden  blow 
had  dashed  to  earth  the  struggling  school.  The  steps 
for  reviving  it  afterwards  were  slow.  Rallying  hopes 
came  and  went.  The  professors  hardly  knew  where 
bread  was  to  come  from  or  how  to  meet  their  necessary 
obligations.  Boyce  took  the  field  and  Broadus  "  staid 
by  the  stuff."  Each  cheered  the  other  when  the  dark- 
est hour  came.  In  the  midst  of  it  all  a  heated  contro- 
versy was  waged  from  certain  quarters  against  one  of 
the  professors,  Dr.  William  Williams,  which  only  ceased 
at  his  death  from  consumption,  induced  by  overwork  in 
the  Seminary.  Boyce  and  Broadus  battled  for  the  Semi- 
nary's life  and  for  reasonable  freedom  in  teaching 
through  the  years,  in  face  of  a  divided  constituency  and 
great  opposition  to  ministerial  education  in  general  and 
theological  education  in  particular.  For  five  years  Doc- 
tor Boyce  had  labored  to  get  funds  and  a  footing  in  Ken- 



tucky.  At  last  it  was  possible  to  go,  but  at  a  venture. 
Will  the  enterprise  succeed  in  the  new  atmosphere  ? 
Will  it  be  worth  while  for  Boyce  and  Broadus  to  cleave 
to  this  child  of  many  prayers  and  tears  ?  It  is  twenty 
years  since  the  Educational  Convention  met  in  Louis- 
ville which  set  on  foot  the  Seminary  enterprise.  And 
now  the  Seminary  is  to  be  finally  established  here. 

BASIL  MANLY  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

GEORGETOWN,  KY.,  Sept.  8,  1877:  Greeting  and  welcome  to 
you  and  yours.  May  God  bless  your  coming  to  Kentucky,  and  your 
labors  here.  You  will  feel  the  changes  from  dear  old  Greenville,  of 
course.  But  that  you  made  up  your  mind  to  before  you  started.  I 
have  been  all  along  there,  and  can  sympathize  with  you  fully. 

ALVAH  HOVEY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

NEWTON  CENTRE,  MASS.,  Sept.  29,  1877 :  I  trust  you  are  en- 
couraged about  your  Seminary.  To  me  it  seems  almost  a  miracle 
that  so  much  has  been  pledged  in  these  trying  times. 

JULIUS  C.  SMITH  to  J.  A.  B. : 

GREENVILLE,  S.  C.,  Sept  3, 1877 :  We  miss  you  all  very  much. 
Trust  the  opening  of  the  Seminary  has  been  a  great  success.  Our 
hearts  went  up  to  God  in  prayer  for  you  all  and  for  our  Seminary 
upon  the  first  Sunday  in  September,  both  in  Sunday-school  and 
church.  May  it  be  blessed  and  prospered  beyond  our  most  sanguine 

The  highest  number  of  students  at  Greenville  had 
been  sixty-seven.  Instantly  at  Louisville  the  number 
rose  to  eighty-eight.  Doctor  Boyce  now  resumed  his 
classes,  and  the  work  of  the  first  session  moved  on  in  a 
manner  highly  satisfactory  to  both  students  and  pro- 

In  the  fall  of  1877  Doctor  Broadus  assumed  the  pastoral 
care  of  Forks  of  Elkhorn  Church,  Franklin  County,  Ky., 
which  delightful  Blue  Grass  pastorate  he  held  for  several 
years,  preaching  for  the  church  two  Sundays  a  month. 
Here  many  lifelong  friendships  were  formed. 


On  May  7,  1878,  Doctor  Broadus's  daughter,  Annie 
Harrison,  was  married  to  Rev.  W.  Y.  Abraham,  of  Rock- 
bridge  County,  Va.  On  May  26,  1895,  Mrs.  Abraham 
died,  leaving  two  children,  John  Broadus  and  Annie 
Louise.  Another  son,  Wickliffe,  had  died  in  infancy ; 
while  a  beautiful  and  charming  boy,  Edward,  lived  to 
be  nearly  two. 

A  friend  writes:  "Mrs.  Abraham  was  a  woman  of 
more  than  ordinary  endowments,  attractions,  and  force 
of  character.  Being  gifted  in  conversation,  she  readily 
won  friends,  but  it  was  only  to  those  who  knew  her  most 
intimately  that  her  chief  virtues  and  greatest  charms 
were  revealed.  Her  Christian  character  was  simple  and 

From  M.  S.  S. :  "I  have  her  so  clearly  in  my  mind's 
eye  as  such  a  pretty  child,  with  her  large  black  eyes, 
with  fire  in  them,  so  like  your  father's.  Ah,  we  shall 
never  see  their  like  again." 

From  A.  B.  M.  :  "  Sister  Annie  is  the  first  of  us  to  be 
reunited  with  him.  The  relation  was  so  '  lovely  and 
pleasant '  to  both  of  them,  and  in  their  death  they  were 
not  long  divided.  It  is  a  sweet  thought  to  me  that  she 
knew  how  he  loved  her,  and  was  proud  of  her." 

BISHOP  W.  PINKNEY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

WASHINGTON,  July  26,  1878  :  Will  you  accept  this  little  pam- 
phlet, written  by  me  in  much  "  sorrow  of  soul."  I  send  it  as  a  slight 
token  of  regard  for  one  whose  writings  have  afforded  me  so  much 
pleasure  and  instruction,  and  whose  learning  entitles  him  to  the 
gratitude  of  scholars.  Should  you  visit  Washington,  I  shall  be 
happy  to  take  you  out  to  my  home.  There  is  much  in  common 
about  which  we  could  talk,  and  enough,  I  hope,  of  the  frankness 
that  asks  no  sacrifice  of  principle. 

In  August,  1878,  Doctor  Broadus  again  preached  for 
the  beloved  North  Orange  Church.  While  there  a 
strong  effort  was  made  to  get  him  as  President  of  Vassar 


College.  At  Newton  they  tried  to  secure  him  as  pro^ 
fessor  of  New  Testament  and  Homiletics.  Much  news- 
paper writing  was  done  for  the  "Chicago  Standard/' 
"The  Examiner,"  "The  Central  Baptist,"  besides  the 
editorial  correspondence  for  the  "Religious  Herald." 
The  additional  income  thus  provided  was  much  needed, 
as  Louisville  was  a  more  expensive  place  than  Green- 
ville and  Seminary  finances  were  very  unsettled. 

RICHARD  NEWTON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

MOUNT  AIRY,  PHILADELPHIA,  Oct.  29, 1878 :  Many  thanks  for 

your  kindness  in  sending  me  your  volume  of  "  Lectures  on  the  His- 
tory of  Preaching."  I  shall  read  the  lectures  with  great  pleasure,  at 
the  first  leisure  time  I  can  command.  I  shall  always  remember  with 
pleasure  the  sweet  hours  spent  together  in  counsel  and  study  over 
the  lessons  for  1880.  I  shall  look  forward  with  delight  to  the  future 
meetings  of  our  committee.1  And  when  our  work  on  earth  is  done 
for  that  blessed  Master  "whom  having  not  seen  we  love,"  how 
glorious  the  fellowship  of  heaven  will  be,  with  its  "fullness  of  joy 
and  its  pleasures  for  evermore  "  !  God  bless  you  in  your  work. 

A.  J.  GORDON  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

BOSTON,  Nov.  12,  1878:  In  speaking  of  the  theological  seminaries 
I  only  gave  expression  to  the  general  impression.  All  in  this  part  of 
the  country  are  strongly  and  avowedly  post- millennial,  and  the  other 
view  is  for  the  most  part  looked  upon  with  great  disfavor.  I  was 
greatly  delighted  and  surprised  to  learn  your  sentiments.  .  . 

I  accept  with  thanks  your  admonition  in  regard  to  "  allegorical 
interpretation."  I  hope  I  may  not  go  astray  or  lead  others  astray.  . . 

When  a  college  president  standing  in  the  orthodox  ranks  can 
write  such  words  as  these,  I  give  from  his  letter  to  me :  "  The 
coming  of  Christ  was  the  primitive  hope,  I  grant,  and  it  was  the 
most  egre"giously  mistaken  hope  into  which  the  church  ever  fell.  I 
do  not  believe  that  Christ  will  ever  come  to  earth  in  bodily  form," 
ought  not  other  men  of  learning  to  tell  what  they  believe  in  regard 
to  "that  blessed  hope"? 

E.  C.  DARGAN  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

BOTETOURT  SPRINGS,  VA.,  Nov.  19,  1878 :  I  fear  your  burdens 
1  International  Sunday-school  Lesson  Committee, 


are  largely  increased  by  the  larger  number  of  students,  and  I  can't 
help  feeling  anxious  for  your  health,  as  often  as  I  think  of  you.  Do 
you  keep  up  as  well  as  ever? 

Dmwiddie,  formerly  Presbyterian  pastor  at  Gordonsville,  is  now 
located  at  Big  Lick,  and  speaks  affectionately  of  you  to  me.  You 
helped  him  in  his  religious  growth  while  at  the  university.  Amid 
all  your  difficulties  and  troubles,  as  I  know  you  have  many,  it  must 
ever  be  a  source  of  comfort  to  you  to  know  that  you  have  helped 
many  a  man  to  be  a  Christian  and  a  scholar. 

Your  influence  is  deeply  felt  by  all  who  ever  came  near  enough  to 
you  to  realize  its  worth— I  see  it  in  others,  and  I  feel  it  in  myself. 
May  God  bless  you  and  spare  you  a  long  time  to  us  yet. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 
BALTIMORE,  Dec.  9,  1878 :  Delightfully  at  home  at  Mr.  Ker- 

foofs.    Mrs.  K is  truly  a  jewel.    But  my  judgment  is  that  only 

people  who  have  been  married  nearly  twenty  years  know  how  to 
love  each  other  with  all  the  heart. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE : 

BALTIMORE,  Dec.  9,  1878  :  Not  very  hopeful,  but  not  despairing, 
and  meaning  to  work.1 

Best  regards  to  the  ladies  and  to  Toy  and  Whitsitt.  People  in- 
quire anxiously  after  your  health,  having  noted  that  you  seemed 
unwell.  I  reply  that  you  are  about  as  well  as  common  again.  My 
dear  friend,  we  are  both  struggling  with  ill  health,  and  carrying 
heavy  burdens.  May  God  sustain  us,  and  grant  that  we  may  live 
to  rest  a  little  while  under  the  shadow  of  our  completed  work — if  it 
please  him. 

BALTIMORE,  Dec.  16,  1878:  We  raised  $10,760— besides  the 
$8,000.  .  . 

This  is  not  success,  my  friend,  but  it  is  far  from  being  failure. 
Few  people  imagined  we  should  do  so  well.  There  was  much  joy 
and  gratitude  when  we  closed.  As  a  popular  effort,  with  very  great 
generosity  on  the  part  of  many,  it  is  encouraging.  But  that  other 
$6,000.  We  cannot  do  without  it.  I  shall  strain  every  nerve,  and 
shall  stay  till  the  very  end  of  the  week  if  I  can  make  it  tell,  though 
I  want  to  get  home  Friday  if  possible.  .  . 

You  will  join  me  in  giving  thanks,  and  in  praying  that  the  hearts 

1  In  Baltimore ,  effort  to  increase  endowment. 


of  men  may  be  opened.    I  am  tired  enough,  but  not  sick.    You  can 
imagine  what  a  strain  it  was  on  me  last  night. 

JOHN  STOUT  to  J.  A,  B. : 

SOCIETY  HILL,  S,  C.,  Jan.  n,  1879:  It  would  be  hard  for  me  to 
write  a  merely  official  note  to  you.  Gratitude  and  love  clamor  for 
expression.  And  I  find  myself  hoping  that  it  is  not  a  matter  of  in- 
difference to  you  that  one  who  owes  you  so  much  should  care  to  tell 
you  that  he  is  increasingly  conscious  of  his  debt.  .  . 

I  see  you  continue  to  do  more  than  your  share  of  work,  and  such 
anxious  work  it  must  be.  I  sincerely  hope  that  you  and  dear  Doc- 
tor Boyce  may  live  to  see  the  Seminary  really  endowed — and  your 
best  expectations  of  its  widespread  usefulness  fulfilled.  When  you 
send  your  man  to  South  Carolina  I  shall  "  stand  by  to  lend  a  hand." 
But  I  sometimes  wonder  how  he  will  ever  get  what  he  asks  for. 

HOWARD  COGHILL  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

HOTEL  BRISTOL,  NEW  YORK,  June  4, 1880 :  You  have  proba- 
bly quite  forgotten  that  before  entering  college  I  promised  to  send  you 
any  one  of  the  Greek  prizes  that  I  might  be  fortunate  enough  to  take 
in  order  to  assist  in  preparing  some  young  man  for  the  ministry.  .  . 
This  year  I  resolved  to  write  for  the  trustees'  prize  offered  to  the 
senior  class  for  the  best  written  essay  on  a  prescribed  subject,  the 
subject  this  year  being  "  Communism  and  Socialism."  .  .  You  can 
imagine  my  gratification  on  hearing  the  announcement  that  I  had 
taken  the  first  prize,  more  especially  as  this  prize  is  regarded  as  the 
most  "  scholarly  "  one  of  the  whole  college  course.  And  now,  my 
dear  Doctor  Broadus,  though  not  the  Greek  prize,  it  gives  me  great 
pleasure  to  send  you  the  first  money  I  ever  made,  to  be  used  in  a 
noble  cause  and  one  to  which  I  consider  it  an  honor  to  be  per- 
mitted to  send  an  offering.  .  . 

Father  wishes  me  to  send  you  his  kindest  regards.  He  is  very 
busy,  as  we  sail  for  Europe  on  the  sixteenth  of  the  month* 

E.  S.  ALLEN  to  J.  A.  B.  t 

WOODRUFF,  S  C.,  Jan.  26, 1880:  I  deeply  sympathize  with  you 
in  your  efforts  to  place  the  Seminary  on  a  permanent  and  useful 
footing.  The  Baptists  of  the  South  cannot  afford  to  let  it  fail.  Its 
importance  can  be  imagined  by  what  it  has  already  done.  If  you 
were  to  take  from  the  Baptists  of  South  Carolina  those  who  were 
prepared  in  that  Institution  and  who  are  now  preaching  the  words  of 
life  to  sinners,  what  a  sad  condition  we  would  have  to  deplore. 


In  March,  1879,  Doctor  Broadus  was  one  of  a  repre- 
sentative gathering  of  Baptist  men  to  meet  in  New  York 
City  to  consider  the  revision  of  the  by-laws  of  the  Ameri- 
can Bible  Society,  whereby  the  society  expressed  a  will- 
ingness to  consider  new  versions  of  the  Bible  in  heathen 
lands,  without  insisting  on  transliterating  "baptize,"  It 
was  recommended  that  the  society  was  once  more  to 
receive  Baptist  patronage.  Doctor  Broadus  had  taken 
the  keenest  interest  in  Bible  revision.  In  the  early 
seventies  he  had  written  a  remarkable  series  of  articles 
for  the  "  Religious  Herald  "  on  the  Bible  Union  revision. 

B.  F.  WESTCOTT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

CAMBRIDGE,  ENGLAND,  May  18, 1880 :  Allow  me  to  thank  you 
for  the  copy  of  the  notice  of  the  "  Speaker's  Commentary  "  which 
you  have  most  kindly  sent  to  me.  It  is  a  great  pleasure  to  receive 
so  generous  a  recognition  of  work  from  America.  The  words  of  St. 
John  have  clung  to  me  for  more  than  five  and  twenty  years  and  I 
hope  that  I  may  have  been  enabled  to  help  some  to  make  thoughts 
their  own  which  have  been  helpful  to  myself. 

The  revision  work  is  now  rapidly  drawing  to  an  end ;  and  it  is 
impossible  not  to  rejoice.  But  it  has  been  carried  on  from  first  to 
last  with  a  harmony  and  energy  of  purpose  almost  beyond  hope. 
The  result  will,  I  trust,  bind  English-speaking  people  closer  together 
in  spiritual  unity. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B, : 

ATLANTA,  GA.,  May  10,  1879:  Alas!  the  mournful  deed  is  done. 
Toy's  resignation  is  accepted.  He  is  no  longer  professor  in  the  Sem- 
inary. I  learn  that  the  Board  were  all  in  tears  as  they  voted,  but  no 
one  voted  against  it.  I  cannot  yet  say  who  will  be  elected  in  his 
place.  .  . 

Poor  bereaved  three  ;  we  have  lost  our  jewel  of  learning,  our  be- 
loved and  noble  brother,  the  pride  of  the  Seminary.  God  bless  the 
Seminary,  God  bless  Toy,  and  God  help  us,  sadly  but  steadfastly 
to  do  our  providential  duty. 

In  the  "Memoir  of  Boyce  "  (p.  262),  Doctor  Broadus 
says : 
It  was  hard  for  Doctor  Toy  to  realize  that  such  teaching  was 


quite  out  of  the  question  in  this  Institution.  He  was  satisfied  that 
his  views  would  promote  truth  and  piety.  He  thought  strange  of 
the  prediction  made  in  conversation  that  within  twenty  years  he 
would  utterly  discard  all  belief  in  the  supernatural  as  an  element  of 
Scripture — a  prediction  founded  upon  knowledge  of  his  logical  con- 
sistency and  boldness,  and  already  m  a  much  shorter  time  fulfilled, 
to  judge  from  his  latest  works. 

"  Religious  Herald,"  May  15, 1879  (report  of  Southern 
Baptist  Convention)  : 

Dr.  John  A.  Broadus  moved  to  strike  out  the  first  and  second 
resolutions.  He  said  he  agreed  with  much  that  Doctor  Tichenor  said 
in  a  speech,  which  was  truly  eloquent  even  for  an  Alabama  brother. 
But  he  felt  it  best  that  the  conference  should  not  be  held.  All  that  this 
proposed  conference  can  mean  is  a  full  merging  of  the  work  of  this 
Convention  into  that  of  the  Northern  societies— just  what  our  brother 
said  he  did  not  mean.  Doctor  Broadus  loved  to  go  North  and  loved 
to  speak  for  their  objects.  There  is  no  need  to  talk  of  a  bloody 
chasm.  As  matters  now  stand,  we  are  not  responsible  for  what  at 
the  North  we  object  to,  and  they  are  not  responsible  for  what  at  the 
South  they  object  to,  but  put  us  together  and  a  good  many  of  us 
might  object,  and  the  old  feeling  might  again  be  revived.  Things 
are  working  well ;  it  is  a  marvel  how  good  feeling  is  growing.  We 
are  not  doing  our  duty  in  giving,  but  a  union  at  present  would  lead 
us  to  give  less.  We  would  look  to  the  North  for  help  rather  than 
help  ourselves.  We  should  have  less  good  feeling  and  less  money 
(from  our  own  churches)  and,  therefore,  I  object  to  this  action.  .  . 

The  vote  was  then  taken,  and  Doctor  Broadus7  s  amendment  was 
adopted  by  a  vote  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-four  to  sixty-eight, 
after  which  the  rest  of  the  report  was  unanimously  adopted. 

After  a  round  of  commencement  addresses  at  Wake 
Forest  and  Richmond  Colleges,  Doctor  Broadus  again 
spent  July  and  August  with  the  North  Orange  Church, 
with  excursions  to  Saratoga,  etc.  Dr.  C.  H.  Ryland 
writes  of  the  Richmond  College  address  on  Demosthenes : 

The  college  chapel  was  packed  with  an  ehte  and  brilliant  audience. 
Governor  F.  W.  M.  Holliday  had  been  chosen  by  the  two  societies 
to  preside.  In  closing  his  opening  address  Governor  Holliday  said : 
"  It  has  been  many  years,  how  many  I  need  not  stop  to  number, 


since  the  gentleman,  who  will  presently  address  you,  and  I,  met  upon 
the  platform  on  a  similar  occasion.  It  was  at  our  own  State  Uni- 
versity. He  then  presided ;  I  was  the  speaker  and  we  were  both 
young  like  yourselves  and  full  of  the  same  emotions  which  I  doubt 
not  now  animate  you.  Our  callings  have  been  different,  our  homes 
far  apart,  and  we  have  grown  gray  since  then.  Our  country  has  gone 
through  the  throes  of  a  great  and  terrible  Civil  War,  and  hence  strange 
and  varied  vicissitudes  of  fortune  have  fallen  upon  us  both.  Of  my- 
self I  need  not  speak,  that  is  of  no  interest.  Of  him  it  does  me  good 
to  say  that  his  life  has  been  a  triumph,  because  he  from  the  start 
looked  upon  life  as  profoundly  real,  and  whilst  he  has  walked  his 
onward  and  upward  way  he  did  his  daily  work,  whether  great  or 
small,  in  sorrow  or  in  joy,  with  a  single  eye,  in  all  humility,  open- 
ing the  windows  of  his  soul  that  its  chambers  might  be  filled  with 
celestial  light." 

Many  thought  Doctor  Broadus's  lecture  on  Demos- 
thenes the  greatest  production  of  his  life.  "  It  was  the 
result  of  profound  and  sympathetic  study  of  Greek  his- 
tory, language,  and  literature,  and  showed  personal  in- 
terest in  the  struggles  and  triumphs  of  the  Greek  people." 

J.  H.  THAYER  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ANDOVER,  MASS.,  July  31,  1879:  Allow  me  to  return  you  my 
tardy  thanks  for  your  letter  of  the  thirtieth  ult.,  and  also  for  the  val- 
uable documents  which  accompanied  it.  The  article  in  the  "Bibli- 
otheca  " l  to  which  you  refer  can  hardly  have  been  written  by  any 
member  of  our  faculty,  and  I  am  sorry  that  in  Professor  Park's  (the 
editor's)  absence  from  town  I  have  been  as  yet  unable  to  ascertain 
its  author.  But  I  will  take  the  earliest  opportunity  of  calling  his  at- 
tention to  the  able  discussion  by  Doctor  Boyce  of  the  same  topic 
nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago. 

Notwithstanding  the  explanations  you  urge,  it  is  indeed  strange 
that  we  know  so  little  of  what  has  been  done  and  is  doing  in  your 
part  of  the  country.  And  just  here  permit  me  to  return  thanks  for 
your  very  interesting  sketch  of  Doctor  Harrison  ;  a  noteworthy  man 
about  whom  I  had  hitherto  been  able  to  get  only  meagre  accounts. 
In  fact,  it  is  only  about  ten  years  since  I  first  heard  of  his  elaborate 
work  on  the  prepositions  with  their  cases,  and  months  elapsed  before 
I  could  obtain  a  copy ;  for  I  could  find  no  Boston  bookseller  who  had 
i  On  "  Elective  System  in  Theological  Education." 


ever  heard  of  it,  and  I  did  not  know  by  whom  it  was  published.    It 
is  to  be  hoped  that  those  days  of  comparative  isolation  are  past. 

Doctor  Broadus  had  come  to  be  in  great  demand  in 
Louisville  as  a  preacher  in  the  churches  of  all  evan- 
gelical denominations.  His  power  in  Louisville  grew 
with  the  years  till  a  church  could  with  difficulty  hold 
the  audiences  which  flocked  to  hear  him,  men  of  all  creeds 
and  none,  the  ablest  lawyers,  bankers,  merchants,  phy- 
sicians, who  felt  that  here  was  a  man  who  had  something 
to  say  worth  hearing  and  said  with  matchless  simplicity, 
sincerity,  charm,  and  power.  The  preacher  swayed  a 
kingly  scepter  over  the  hearts  of  Louisville.  Doctor 
Boyce  used  to  say  that  if  the  five  great  living  preachers 
were  named,  Broadus  would  have  to  be  included.  From 
this  period  of  Doctor  Broadus's  life  the  demands  grew 
incessant  for  preaching  in  all  the  great  cities,  for  dedica- 
tions, for  Chautauquas,  for  supplies,  for  pastor.  On  Nov. 
6,  1879,  he  preached  the  dedication  sermon  for  the  Second 
Church,  St.  Louis. 

J.  A.  B.  to  S.  S.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Dec.  3,  1879:  A  banquet  last  Wednesday 
night  in  honor  of  Dr.  J.  Lawrence  Smith.  Some  sixty  sat  down, 
including  many  of  our  leading  men.  I  spoke  for  "  The  Church," 
and  folks  said  it  was  a  good  speech.  The  thing  was  suggested  by 
Doctor  Boyce,  managed  by  Doctor  Warder,  and  conducted  by  Mr. 
Henry  Watterson  and  Mr.  Isaac  Caldwell. 

J.  A.  B.  to  W.  A.  GELLATLY : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  March  23, 1880 :  Yours  received.  I  confess  my- 
self not  a  little  gratified  that  the  North  Orange  Church  have  not  got 
tired  of  me,  as  they  well  might  have  done.  And  I  like  much  better 
to  preach  to  old  acquaintances  than  to  strangers. 

J.  L.  M.  CURRY  to  J.  A.  B.: 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  March  29, 1880 :  The  First  Church  will  celebrate 
its  Centennial  Anniversary  on  the  eighth  and  ninth  of  June,  im- 
mediately after  our  General  Association.  The  church  desires  you  to 


preach  on  the  night  of  the  ninth  a  sermon,  not  exactly  on  "  The 
Church  of  the  Future,"  but  on  the  future  of  the  First  Baptist  Church. 
All  previous  pastors,  living,  of  the  church  are  invited  and  expected 
to  be  present,  and  you  were  once  a  temporary  supply. 

I  shouted  when  I  read  the  telegram  about  Governor  Brown.1  .  . 
You  ought  not  to  die  without  writing  out  that  address  on  Demos- 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  June  5,  1880:  On  Monday  I  must  decide 
whether  to  attend  the  First  Church  centennial  which  I  shall  probably 
conclude  not  to  do,  unless  brother  shall  be  better. 

J.  A  B.  to  J.  M.  BROADUS  : 

CHICAGO,2  June  22,  1880 :  I  am  trying  to  spend  a  quiet  week. 
What  I  really  want  is  such  rest  as  I  used  to  get  when  coming  from 
Charlottesville  to  your  home  in  Culpeper,  and  lying  on  a  counter- 
pane, under  a  big  tree  in  the  yard,  where  I  could  read  myself  to  sleep, 
and  waking  could  watch  the  sunlight  playing  through  the  outer 
branches,  and  sometimes  hear  a  bird  sing,  and  having  nothing  to  do 
could  be  utterly  indifferent  as  to  doing  that.  It  is  hard  to  get  per- 
fectly quiet  in  the  midst  of  Chicago. 

My  love  to  all.  God  be  gracious  to  you,  brother.  It  is  my  daily 
prayer  that  you  may  be  lifted  up,  if  it  be  his  will,  and  it  is  my  daily 
comfort  to  remember  that  you  seemed  to  feel  about  it  all  so  exactly 
as  I  would  wish  you  to  feel. 

J.  WM.  JONES  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  July  30,  1880 :  I  need  not  assure  you  that  I,  in 
common  with  thousands  of  others,  have  deeply  sympathized  with 
you  in  the  loss  of  dear  brother  Madison,  whose  death  is  indeed  a 
public  calamity. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  C.  G.  BROADUS : 8 

ORANGE/  N.  J.,  Aug.  14,  1880:  Your  letter  received,  and  I  am 
glad  you  have  got  to  work.  I  beg  to  offer  you,  offhand,  a  few 
points : 

( i)  From  the  beginning,  be  at  your  desk  from  two  to  four  minutes 
before  the  hour,  every  morning — perfectly  punctual. 

1  Governor  Brown  had  given  fifty  thousand  dollars  to  the  Seminary  endowment, 
saving-  the  life  of  the  Seminary  at  another  crisis.    See  account  in  "Memoir  of 

2  Supplying  First  Church.       8  Son  of  J.  M.  Broadus.        4  Again  supplying  here. 


(2)  Give  your  whole  mind  to  whatever  work  you  are  doing.    If 
it  is  merely  adding  rows  of  figures,  or  copying  reports,  try  every 
time  to  get  it  exactly  right,  without  a  single  mistake.    And  never 
turn  over  your  work  till  you  have  carefully  examined  it,  to  see  if 
there  is  the  slightest  mistake.    Make  it  a  matter  of  ambition,  of 
official  fidelity  and  honor,  to  do  your  work  well. 

(3)  Be  very  careful  about  your  private  habits  and  your  associates. 
"  A  man  is  judged  from  the  company  he  keeps."    If  some  young 
fellow  has  a  doubtful  reputation,  even  though  you  think  he  does  not 
deserve  it,  better  give  him  a  wide  berth.    Above  all  things,  eschew 
the  notions  of  concealment  and  deception  which  so  many  lads  have. 
Be  absolutely  truthful.  .  .  Let  there  be  nothing  in  your  life  that  you 
would  not  be  willing  your  mother  should  know.    Young  men  often 
think  and  say,  "  Oh !  people  need  never  find  it  out."    But  people 
do,  and  older  men  often  know  things  about  the  young  that  they  do 
not  choose  to  tell.    And,  besides,  when  a  man  attempts  to  maintain 
practices  or  companionships  he  must  conceal  from  those  he  loves, 
such  concealment  involves  deception,  and  damages  his  character  in 
its  very  foundations. 

(4)  Remember  your  Creator,  the  God  of  your  widowed  mother, 
the  God  whose  grace  enabled  your  now  sainted  father  to  become  the 
man  he  was. 

As  long  as  I  live,  if  you  are  doing  well,  my  boy,  I  shall  rejoice  for 
your  dear  father's  sake  as  well  as  for  my  own. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B.  : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Sept.  16,  1880 :  Senior  Greek  class  the  largest 
I  have  ever  had— Doctor  Boyce  also  attending  it.  Homiletics  too  is 
larger  than  heretofore.  Both  these  agreeable  facts  mean  more  work 
in  correcting  exercises.  But  it  is  a  very  great  relief  to  be  rid  of  the 
Student's  Fund.  • 

NEW  YORK,1  Feb.  14,  1881 :  Nothing  really  accomplished  yet, 
and  prospects  not  brilliant,  but  not  desperate. 

You  will  doubtless  know  of  Doctor  Boyce's  coming  on,  to  be  here 
Vmorrow  morning,  in  consequence  of  my  telegrams  to  him.  .  . 

I  feel  much  burdened  with  my  great  and  difficult  task.  .  .  It  is 
one  of  the  great  crises  of  my  life- work.  Boyce's  coming  will  divide 
the  responsibility  with  me.  May  Providence  direct/  And  may 
every  blessing  rest  upon  the  dear  wife  and  children  from  whom  I 
find  it  every  year  a  greater  trial  to  be  separated, 

i  In  New  York  to  raise  endowment  for  the  Seminary. 


NEW  YORK,  Feb.  16,  1881 :  .  .  I  assure  you  I  do  not  feel  it  amiss 
to  approach  these  gentleman.  I  succeed  as  well  in  my  line  of  work 
as  they  do  in  theirs.  They  can  help  me  to  be  useful  and  I  can  help 
them  to  be  useful.  If  they  do  not  know  of  my  work  and  seek  to 
share  in  it,  I  will  seek  them.  If  they  decline  I  have  done  my  best. 
May  the  matter  be  guided  from  on  high. 

NEW  YORK,  Feb.  17,  1881 :  Our  success  must  tremble  in  the 
balance  for  several  days  to  come.  I  feel  very  quiet  this  afternoon 
and  am  trying  to  trust  calmly  in  Providence.  .  .  Some  folks  would 
think  it  a  very  pleasant  thing  to  be  in  New  York  with  nothing  to 
do— nothing  but  wait  and  tremble  with  blended  hope  and  fear,  and 
think  of  the  classes  I  cannot  be  teaching,  and  the  book  I  cannot 

But  I  really  am  so  anxious  that  I  can't  enjoy  even  a  bookstore 
very  much.  I  will  try  to  be  less  anxious.  "  In  nothing  be  anxious ; 
but  in  everything,  by  prayer  and  supplications,  with  thanksgiving, 
let  your  requests  be  made  known  unto  God ;  and  the  peace  of  God, 
which  passeth  all  understanding,  shall  guard  your  hearts  and  your 
thoughts  in  Christ  Jesus."  What  healing,  sustaining  words  I  Let 
us  try,  my  dearie,  to  feel  that  way.  God  help  us. 

Some  forty  thousand  dollars  was  then  given  in  New 
York  for  the  Seminary  endowment.  This  amount  added 
to  the  fifty  thousand  given  by  Governor  Joseph  E.  Brown, 
of  Georgia,  saved  the  day  for  the  Seminary.  Men  of 
means  were  now  willing  to  invest  in  the  institution,  be- 
lieving in  its  stability.  It  was  at  last  certain  that  the 
Seminary  would  live,  after  twenty-three  years  of  un- 
certainty. Rev.  G.  W.  Riggan  was  added  to  the  faculty 
in  1881.  Doctor  Manly  had  already,  in  1879,  come  back 
from  Georgetown  to  join  hands  with  Boyce,  Broadus, 
and  Whitsitt  in  building  upon  the  firm  foundation  at  last 
laid  in  Louisville. 

On  coming  to  Louisville,  Doctor  Broadus  and  his  family 
had  joined  the  Walnut  Street  Church,  where  he  was  a 
most  efficient  member.  Dr.  J.  W.  Warder,  the  pastor, 
became  State  Secretary  of  Missions  in  1880,  and  in  May, 
1881,  Dr.  T.  T.  Eaton  entered  upon  his  work  as  pastor 


of  the  church.  Among  his  many  warm  friends  in  this 
church  and  with  whom  he  delighted  to  labor,  were  Dr. 
Wm.  B.  Caldwell  and  his  brother  Junius  Caldwell,  who 
were  among  its  ' '  chief  pillars  "  until  their  death.  They, 
with  Dr.  Arthur  Peter,  had  been  largely  instrumental  in 
building  Walnut  Street  Church. 

On  May  25,  1881,  Doctor  Broadus  delivered  a  re- 
markable address  "On  Reading  the  Bible  by  Books/' 
before  the  International  Convention  of  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association  at  Cleveland,  Ohio.  This  address 
was  published  in  tract  form  by  the  International  Com- 
mittee and  appears  also  in  sermons  and  addresses.  The 
following  winter,  Richard  C.  Morse,  of  New  York,  wrote: 

It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  send  you  a  package  containing  copies 
of  your  Cleveland  address.  The  large  edition  printed  last  summer 
is  nearly  exhausted,  such  has  been  the  demand  for  it. 

BASIL  MANLY l  to  J.  A.  B. : 

LEIPZIG,  GERMANY,  June  15,  1881 :  So  far  as  I  can  see,  there  is 
an  almost  universal  ignoring  of  anything,  in  theology,  at  least,  be- 
yond the  confines  of  Germany.  In  the  University  Reading  Room, 
which  I  have  joined  and  where  perhaps  two  hundred  publications 
are  taken  (fee  $1.35  for  the  semester),  I  find  some  of  the  American 
Theological  Reviews  and  Journals,  very  few  French,  and  scarcely 
any  English,  Nor  does  there  seem  to  be  any  disposition  to  inquire 
into  matters  or  researches  beyond  the  channel,  except  in  some  special 
topics,  as  in  Assyriology,  etc.  It  is  quietly  assumed  that  there  is 
nothing  worth  seeking  for  there.  Even  the  "Revised  New  Testa- 
ment'1 has  only  reached  here  this  week,  and  then  I  believe  by 
special  orders.  I  brought  a  copy  with  me,  but  so  far  as  I  know, 
mine  was  the  only  copy  in  the  city  for  two  weeks  or  more,  nearly  a 
month  after  it  was  issued. 

...  Of  the  six  regular  Lutheran  churches,  I  have  attended  the 
three  most  popular.  On  an  ordinary  Sunday,  fair,  pleasant  day 
with  no  special  attraction  or  preacher  or  feast  day,  it  is  safe  to  say 
the  congregation  would  not  exceed  five  hundred  at  any  of  these,  and 
would  hardly  average  three  hundred.  I  have  attended  several  times 

1  Doctor  Manly  spent  the  summer  in  Germany. 


where  there  were  not  more  than  one  hundred  or  a  hundred  and  fifty. 
Meanwhile  the  theatres,  beer  gardens,  and  cafes  are  crowded,  Sunday 
being  their  harvest  day ;  the  parks  and  promenades  are  crowded.  .  . 
I  heard  from  well-informed  persons  that  there  were  no  Sunday- 
schools— but  have  more  recently  found  that  there  are  three  or  four, 
and  I  am  going  to  hunt  one  of  them  up  next  Sunday.  The  Bible  is 
studied  in  school  every  day  ;  but  after  leaving  school  it  is  to  a  painful 
degree  laid  aside,  with  the  grammar  and  the  spelling  book.  But  the 
people  are  all  Christians,  good  church-workers,  made  so  in  their  in- 
fancy; and  without  a"schew"  or  certificate  of  their  confirmation, 
they  find  it  difficult  to  get  entrance  into  the  public  schools;  they 
could  not  by  law  till  recently,  I  believe.  The  church  has  taken  the 
whole  community  into  its  fold,  and  all  are  lambs,  no  wolves,  no  out- 
siders, no  world.  The  church  and  the  world  are  one ;  but  as  it  is 
sometimes  said  that  man  and  wife  are  one,  the  question  remains, 
which  one? 

B.  F.  WESTCOTT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

1 88 1 :  Allow  me  to  thank  you  for  sending  me  a  copy  of  your  re- 
marks on  the  Revised  Version  which,  if  I  may  venture  to  say  so, 
seem  to  me  to  be  singularly  wise  and  just.  It  cannot  but  be  pleasing 
to  English  scholars  to  find  their  woik  so  received  in  America,  even 
where  in  details  national  feeling  may  be  against  it. 

The  mass  of  English  criticism  has  hitherto,  if  I  may  judge  from 
what  I  hear,  for  I  avoid  reading,  been  very  unintelligent,  but  the 
general  reception  of  the  work  has  been  far  more  favorable  than 
could  have  been  hoped.  Perhaps  more  serious  attacks  may  be  m 
preparation.  By  this  time  the  text  which  Doctor  Hort  and  I  have 
prepared  will  probably  be  in  your  hands.  Copies  of  the  plates  were 
sent  to  New  York  by  Messrs.  Macmillan.  The  introduction  will 
follow  very  shortly,  but  the  short  Antelegomena  will  give  a  scholar 
all  the  guidance  he  needs. 

I  happened  to  preach  in  our  college  chapel  on  the  Sunday  after 
the  publication  of  the  Revised  version  and  naturally  said  a  few 
words  which  the  young  men  had  printed.  You  will  sympathize,  I 
think,  with  the  expression  of  the  larger  interests  which  are  involved 
in  the  publication. 

May  this  work  be  allowed  to  contribute  to  a  fuller  and  deeper 
knowledge  of  the  truth.  That  is  all  we  ask. 

J.  B.  LIGHTFOOT  to  J.  A.  B. : 

AUCKLAND  CASTLE,  ENGLAND,  Aug.  26,  1881 :  I  beg  to  thank 



you  for  the  criticisms  on  the  Revised  version,  which  I  received  from 
you  a  short  time  ago.    I  admired  their  appreciation  and  good  sense. 
Alas !    I  do  not  know  what  may  be  the  probabilities  of  the  future, 
but  at  present  I  find  myself  wholly  unable  to  touch  Commentary. 

A   H.  NEWMAN  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ROCHESTER,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  18,  1881 :  Our  work  in  Toronto  will 
begin  in  a  most  hopeful  way.  I  have  there  all  that  I  could  desire  in 
the  way  of  opportunity  for  work.  The  only  difficulty  is  that  there 
is  too  much  of  it  You  have  doubtless  learned  from  our  prospectus 
that  we  adopted  substantially  your  arrangement  of  studies.  The 
Canadian  brethren  are  delighted  with  it.  I  trust  you  may  feel  it 
practicable  to  accept  the  invitation  to  deliver  the  opening  address  in 

During  1882  Doctor  Broadus  wrote  in  the  "  Examiner  " 
notes  on  the  Sunday-school  lessons,  which  were  from  the 
Gospel  of  Mark.  Doctor  Broadus  as  a  member  of  the 
International  Lesson  Committee  (since  1878  and  re- 
elected  till  his  death)  had  become  active  in  Sunday- 
school  affairs.  He  wrote  much  for  the  "  Sunday  School 
Times."  The  First  Church  in  Chicago  was  seeking  him 
as  pastor,  but  he  had  found  his  work. 

J.  C.  CRANBERRY  to  J.  A.  B. : 

VANDERBILT  UNIVERSITY,  NASHVILLE,  June  2, 1882:  I  thank 

you  for  your  prompt  letter  of  congratulation  and  kind  wishes.  I 
have  enjoyed  my  work  as  a  teacher,  and  cannot  anticipate  so  com- 
fortable an  experience  hereafter.  Travel  and  making  new  acquant- 
ances  have  not  much  charm  for  me.  But  I  trust  I  shall  be  able  to 
serve  the  church  usefully,  and  that  is  what  we  prize  the  most  highly. 
I  have  used  your  work  on  "  Preaching"  as  a  text-book  with  great 
satisfaction,  and  my  classes  have  admired  it,  and  expressed  their  in- 
debtedness to  it,  with  an  enthusiasm  which  must  be  gratifying  to 
any  author.  I  have  been  accustomed  to  read  to  them  copious  ex- 
tracts from  your  lectures  on  the  history  of  preaching.  I  had  an  op- 
portunity to  express  my  appreciation  of  these  works  in  an  article  on 
Oosterzee's  "Practical  Theology"  which  was  published  in  our 
"  Quarterly  "  two  years  ago. 

1  Doctor  Broadus  delivered  this  address  at  the  dedication  of  McMaster  University, 


J.  W.  JONES  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  July  24,  1882 :  I  have  decided  that  Carter  shall 
go  to  the  Seminary  next  session.  .  , 

He  preached  his  first  sermon  yesterday  and  seemed  to  give  great 
satisfaction  to  the  large  congregation  who  heard  him. 

I  thank  you  for  your  kind  letter.  It  is  indeed  a  subject  of  con- 
gratulation that  Carter  has  decided  to  preach,  and  that  I  am  able  to 
place  him  under  the  charge  of  my  dear  old  professors,  to  whom  I 
owe  so  much  and  in  whom  I  have  such  implicit  confidence. 

I  have  not  failed  for  years  to  pray  every  day  "  God  bless  the  Sem- 
inary," and  the  prayer  will  be  none  the  less  fervent  when  my  own 
boy  is  there.1 

During  1882  Doctor  Broadus  did  much  preaching,  act- 
ing as  supply  four  months  at  the  Broadway  Church, 
Louisville,  and  also  at  Emmanuel  Church,  Brooklyn,  and 
North  Orange  again,  Calvary,  New  York,  Immanuel, 
Chicago,  etc.  He  was  doing  a  prodigious  amount  of  work 
these  years,  full  labor  in  the  Seminary  and  more,  news- 
paper writing  in  large  quantities,  almost  as  much  preach- 
ing as  a  regular  pastor,  besides  lectures  and  efforts  to 
raise  money  for  the  Seminary.  His  health  again  trem- 
bled in  the  balance,  but  the  White  Sulphur  and  the  Raw- 
ley  Springs  steadied  him  over  the  crisis. 

J.  D.  ROCKEFELLER  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

NEW  YORK,  Nov.  9,  1882:  I  regret  to  hear  of  your  ill  health. 
Would  it  not  be  better  for  you  to  go  away  and  take  a  little  vacation  ? . 

We  are  all  very  well.  Will  be  very  pleased  to  see  you  when  you 
come  North.  I  am  pleased  to  hear  of  the  increase  in  the  number  of 

Doctor  Broadus  took  this  good  advice  and  through  his 
friend's  substantial  kindness  spent  three  weeks  of  this 
winter  in  New  Orleans  in  company  with  Mrs.  Broadus. 
He  reveled  in  the  balmy  air  of  this  interesting  historic 
city,  and  long  felt  the  refreshing  effects  of  the  rest. 

1  Doctor  Jones  himself  was  one  of  the  first  students  at  Greenville  and  now  sent 
the  Seminary's  first  "  grandson  " 



More  homelike  seems  the  vast  unknown 
Since  he  has  entered  there. 

— J.  W.  CbadiulcJt. 

E  first  time  I  ever  saw  my  father  was  when  one  day 
1     as  a  child  I  watched  him  stand  at  a  mirror  to  brush 
his  hair.     I  noticed  how  dark  and  shining  his  hair  was, 
and  then  glanced  down  at  his  face.     He  had  a  look  of 
keen,  interested  thought,  as  if  working  out  some  idea 
that  was  of  use  to  him.     His  brow  and  eye  and  lips  mov- 
ing with  thought  came  to  me  like  a  vision  and  I  seemed 
to  realize  who  it  was  that   lived  among  us.     I  looked 
timidly  at  his  reflection  in  the  mirror,  and  thought,  "I 
must  be  better  than  I  have  been,  with  him  for  a  father." 
Even  a  child  could  see  that  his  home-life  showed  his 
best  personality.     When  we  heard  him  preach,  or  talk 
in  other  circles,  what  he  said  never  seemed  in  different 
character  from  his  home-self,  but  only  something  more 
from  the  same  source.     He  had  very  winsome  ways  in 
dealing  with  children.     Any  duty  would  be  presented  as 
something  to  be  undertaken  with  cheerful  ardor,  and  his 
own  example  in  this  was  always  a  tonic.     When  we 
were  quite  small,  he  once  called  us  all  about  him  and 
told  us  the  meanings  of  our  names, — that  this  child's 
name  meant  "Light,"  and  she  must  be  a  sunbeam, 
cheering  and  helping  all  she  touched  ;  this  one  was  a 


"  Princess,"  and  she  must  be  noble  and  gentle  and  gen- 
erous ;  another's  name  meant  "  Strong,"  and  another's 
"  Asked  of  God,"  and  so  on  round  the  little  group,  with 
his  tone  sprightly,  yet  wistful  too. 

In  talking  with  children,  he  thought  it  worth  while  to 
answer  their  questions,  and,  as  he  put  it,  to  "  talk  sense  " 
to  them.  I  remember  his  explaining  before  I  was  ten 
years  old  the  difference  between  a  rule  and  a  principle, 
and  how  it  seems  more  convenient  to  go  by  rules,  but  is 
better  to  live  by  principles.  He  used  to  put  things  to  us 
in  such  a  clear  and  simple  way  that  we  would  wonder 
how  they  could  ever  have  perplexed  us.  One  of  us  came 
in  from  school  one  day  and  asked  him  if  it  was  right  to  try 
to  get  ahead  of  other  scholars  so  as  to  be  the  best  in  a 
class.  He  answered,  "  It  is  right  to  try  to  do  better  than 
they,  but  it  would  be  wrong  to  try  to  keep  them  from 
doing  well,  or  to  begrudge  their  success." 

He  began  the  most  wholesome  lessons  with  us  when 
we  were  very  young.  When  we  went  to  live  in  Louis- 
ville, he  took  three  of  us  down  town  one  day  and  showed 
us  the  fruit  and  candy  and  toy  stores,  but  without  buy- 
ing anything,  saying  in  a  cheerful,  philosophic  tone  that 
people  who  come  to  live  in  a  city  must  learn  to  see  a 
great  many  attractive  things  spread  out  with  no  thought 
of  buying  them  if  they  cannot  afford  it.  On  the  other 
hand,  he  was  generous  about  not  only  our  needs,  but 
any  special  advantages  or  pleasures  that  he  could  give 
us,  such  as  joining  some  private  class,  taking  lessons  in 
embroidery,  or  keeping  up  a  tennis  court.  There  was  a 
special  smile  of  readiness  and  courtesy  with  which  he 
would  hand  us  the  money  for  these  things.  Any  re- 
quest that  he  made  of  us,  from  childhood  up,  was  in  a 
tone  and  manner  that  kept  our  self-respect  and  made  us 
feel  in  the  happiest  relation  with  him.  He  called  fiom 
the  front  door  one  day  to  one  of  his  daughters  and  asked 


if  she  meant  to  do  any  more  copying  that  evening.  She 
replied  that  she  would  come  at  once.  "  Oh  !  "  he  said 
with  solicitous  courtesy,  "  judge  for  yourself  about  that  ; 
I  only  meant  that  I  had  gotten  the  second  lecture  ready 
and  wanted  to  tell  you  before  I  went  out."  A  winter  in 
Greenville  is  remembered,  when  some  of  the  little  ones 
were  not  always  ready  for  breakfast.  He  said  he  should 
like  every  morning  to  hear  a  gentle  tap  at  his  door  and 
the  voice  of  each  one,  from  the  eldest  to  the  youngest, 
saying,  "  Seven  o'clock,  papa."  The  sound  of  their  musi- 
cal scale  and  the  merriment  at  his  door,  never  failed  to 
bring  them  a  cheery  word  of  response. 

His  reverence  for  women  was  especially  shown  in  his 
own  household,  and  his  manner  toward  us  had  always  a 
charm  of  deference  and  courtesy.  One  winter,  when 
both  the  sons  were  away,  he  said  playfully  :  "  I  want  you 
ladies  to  understand  that  whenever  you  need  an  escort, 
or  any  service  where  a  man  can  be  of  use,  I  am  still 
doing  business  at  the  old  stand."  Toward  mother  he 
was  most  chivalrous  of  all,  and  his  very  tone  in  speaking 
to  her  was  different  from  what  he  used  with  others.  He 
consulted  her  in  everything  that  he  wrote  and  did,  and 
relied  upon  her  judgment  and  wonderful  sense  of  fitness 
with  grateful  and  loving  appreciation. 

Christmas  Day  was  the  one  morning  of  the  year  when 
we  were  sure  of  having  our  busy  father  to  ourselves.  We 
did  not  usually  have  a  tree,  but  the  mysterious  packages 
were  arranged  upon  a  table.  Each  one  of  the  household 
would  have  ready  a  Christmas  poem  to  recite,  ranging 
all  the  way  from  "  'Twas  the  Night  before  Christmas  " 
to  Milton's  "  Hymn  on  the  Nativity."  One  year  a  rickety 
little  platform  was  made  by  the  little  brother  as  a  rostrum 
for  the  recitations,  and  some  of  the  elders  declined  to 
use  it.  When  papa's  turn  came  he  stepped  upon  it  with 
a  smile  and  then  clasping  his  hands  reverently,  repeated 


Addison's  hymn  beginning,  "  When  all  thy  mercies,  O 
my  God."  He  always  distributed  the  presents  himself 
and  read  aloud  the  rhymes  that  we  delighted  to  put  with 
them.  We  were  radiant  at  hearing  his  voice  give  so 
much  expression  to  our  little  jingles.  This  way  of  keep- 
ing Christmas  was  never  given  up,  and  as  we  began  to 
be  older  we  used  to  be  astonished  to  hear  other  grown 
people  say  that  they  "  didn't  care  for  Christmas,  it  was 
only  a  day  for  children."  It  was  not  until  we  had  lost 
him  that  we  realized  what  had  given  the  day  its  ecstasy 
through  all  the  years. 

With  all  his  tenderness  and  the  pleasure  he  took  in 
mingling  in  his  children's  pursuits,  my  father  did  not 
"  make  himself  a  child"  with  us.  We  always  felt  for 
him  a  reverence  and  even  a  sort  of  awe  that  we  com- 
pared instinctively  to  living  "in  the  fear  of  God."  He 
was  very  far  from  the  sentimental  attitude  of  some 
who  hold  that  all  of  a  child's  instincts  are  good  and  to  be 
respectfully  indulged.  He  required  children  to  obey 
rightful  authority  and  be  diligent  and  trustworthy,  but 
he  never  posed  as  himself  infallible  and  despising  their 
weakness  and  mistakes.  He  used  to  say  candidly  that 
our  parents'  advice  was  not  always  sure  to  be  right,  but 
that  mother  and  father  were  our  best  friends,  with  more 
experience  than  we,  and  that  we  ought  to  value  and 
trust  what  they  told  us.  If  we  were  too  young  to  judge 
for  ourselves  and  still  unwilling  to  be  guided  by  our 
parents,  then  obedience  must  be  enforced.  Faults  for 
which  he  had  no  sort  of  toleration  were  laziness  and  self- 
indulgence,  and  his  keen  comments  showed  these  to  be 
at  the  bottom  of  many  a  difficulty.  When  one  of  us 
lamented  at  having  started  late  in  the  session  with  a 
certain  study  and  finding  all  sorts  of  mysterious  troubles 
in  keeping  up  with  the  class,  he  said  with  a  twinkling 
smile,  "  I  suspect  that  all  those  troubles  will  vanish  if 


you  get  up  the  first  part  of  the  book  thoroughly."  Then 
his  eye  flashed  as  he  added,  "  Resolve  to  get  the  better 
of  your  drawbacks  and  make  a  superb  success.  Take 
on  a  large  stock  of  perseverance  and  renew  it  before  it 
ever  gives  out,  and  let  no  one  in  the  class  do  better  than 

He  used  often  to  remark  upon  the  wealth  of  delightful 
books  that  are  written  for  young  people  now,  and  tell  us 
what  made  up  his  supply  when  he  was  a  boy.    His 
Christmas  and  birthday  presents  to  us  were  almost  always 
some  book,  chosen  with  especial  care.    At  the  beginning 
of  our  school  sessions  he  would  look  over  our  new  school 
books  with  the  greatest  interest,  and  show  us  what  pains 
the  authors  had  taken  to  make  things  clear  and  interest- 
ing to  us,  and  what  beautiful  maps  and  illustrations  they 
had.    I  recall  his  looking  at  a  diagram  of  Caesar's  Bridge 
in  a  boy's  new  edition  of  Caesar,  and  exclaiming,  "  What 
a  boon  this  drawing  would  have  been  to  me  when  I 
was  struggling  to  understand  the  bridge  !    You'll  be  a 
lazy  fellow  if  you  don't  make  short  work  of  it."    We  sat 
by  his  study  table  to  learn  our  lessons  in  the  evening, 
and  he  would  usually  be  writing  at  the  desk  at  one  end. 
He  would  stop  his  work  at  any  moment  to  explain  a 
point  to  us  or  to  open  before  us  a  good  reference  in  some 
other  book.    When  in  our  school-work  we  were  given 
some  subject  to  investigate  and  report  upon,  we  were 
inclined  simply  to  "ask  papa,"  as  being  pleasanter  than 
looking  it  up  in  books.    We  used  to  wonder  at  the  defer- 
ence he  showed  the  dictionary  and  cyclopedia,  and  the 
affectionate  zeal  with  which  he  would  sometimes  say : 
"  We  are  fortunate  in  having  the  very  book  that  can  tell 
us  best  about  it."     Then  he  would  supplement  what  the 
books  said  and  encourage  us  to  express  our  own  ideas, 
and  somehow  every  subject  that  we  remember  talking 
of  with  him,  has  a  life  in  it  to-day  that  nothing  else  is 


like.  One  of  us  asked  one  day  how  it  is  that  the  weather 
probabilities  are  made  out.  He  replied:  "How  should 
you  suppose  ?  "  and  when  the  child  made  no  effort  to 
think  it  out,  he  said  a  little  sternly  :  "You  ought  to  be 
able  to  form  some  idea."  The  way  in  which  the  ex- 
planation flashed  into  the  child's  mind  at  his  reproof, 
was  an  instance  of  one  of  his  ways  of  educating.  We 
formed  the  habit  pretty  early  of  thinking  over  a  subject, 
when  we  could,  before  presenting  it  to  him,  and  some- 
times privately  applying  first  to  the  cyclopedia  and  then 
demurely  making  very  respectable  replies  to  his  ques- 

When  one  of  his  daughters  was  about  twelve  years 
old,  he  told  her  that  there  was  a  poet  whom  he  liked  to 
read,  named  William  Shakespeare,  and  he  thought  she 
would  like  him  too.  Then  he  got  down  the  volume  that 
contained  "  Henry  IV."  and  explained  the  history,  going 
over  with  her  the  list  of  persons  in  the  play.  "  Now," 
he  said,  "suppose  you  read  the  first  Act  to-day,  and  if 
you  come  across  any  lines  that  you  think  are  pretty,  put 
a  mark  by  them,  so,  v,  and  after  supper  come  into  my 
study  and  read  them  to  me."  The  child  did  so,  and 
after  she  had  read  her  selections,  he  pointed  out  two  or 
three  more,  saying,  "  Here  are  some  others  that  I  like." 
Thus  they  went  on  from  evening  to  evening,  till  she 
was  fairly  launched  in  Shakespeare. 

When  the  youngest  child  was  learning  to  read,  it  was 
decided  that  he  needed  a  spelling-book,  and  the  little 
nine-year-old  sister,  who  was  helping  mother  to  teach 
him,  went  down  town  with  her  father  to  choose  the  book. 
She  looked  at  every  speller  in  Dearing's  bookstore, 
while  the  father  stood  patiently  by,  but  she  thought 
none  of  them  would  do.  "Well,"  he  said  cheerily, 
"  let's  try  down  on  Main  Street."  The  little  girl  turned 
over  all  of  Morton's  spelling-books,  and  said  at  last  that 


she  could  write  lists  of  words  in  a  blank  book  that  would 
be  just  what  she  wanted.  "  Ah  !  "  he  said,  "  like  other 
professors,  you  decide  to  make  your  own  text-book." 
There  was  no  part  of  his  home-life  that  meant  more 
to  us  than  his  talk  at  the  table,  which  was  so  informing, 
genial,  and  sympathetic.  It  was  a  marvel  to  see  how 
with  all  that  absorbed  his  thoughts,  he  could  join  with 
the  fullest  interest  in  any  topic  that  came  up — books 
that  any  of  us  were  reading,  happenings  at  school,  the 
entertainment  the  evening  before,  fashions,  politics,  and 
any  news  of  what  was  going  on  in  the  world.  Some- 
times, and  especially  at  breakfast,  when  he  had  just 
been  reading  the  morning  paper,  he  would  give  us  a  brief 
explanation  of  the  current  political  situations,  so  that  we 
might  follow  them  with  a  better  understanding.  Then 
from  day  to  day  he  would  allude  to  what  went  on,  with 
a  spirited  interest  which  implied  that  the  doings  of  Russia 
or  Germany  or  China  concerned  each  one  of  us.  He 
said  sometimes  that  he  should  like  to  take  a  New  York 
daily  for  its  political  news,  but  knew  that  he  would 
spend  more  time  in  reading  it  than  he  could  afford. 

One  of  the  things  my  father  most  enjoyed  was  to 
have  guests  in  his  home.  Something  in  his  delicate 
courtesy  made  them  feel  that  it  was  an  exquisite  pleas- 
ure to  him  to  have  them  there.  He  seemed  to  lay  aside 
every  care  and  refresh  himself  with  the  pleasant  inter- 
change of  talk.  I  have  seen  him  with  a  party  of  young 
people,  set  them  going,  and  then  lean  back  with  a  happy 
smile  and  listen  to  their  sparkling  talk.  Old  friends  gave 
the  best  joy  of  all  and  he  delighted  to  converse  with 
those  in  the  full  tide  of  affairs ;  but  all  who  came  had 
something  congenial  to  him  and  he  was  alert  to  learn 
from  their  experience  and  point  of  view.  I  remember 
how  as  children  our  playmate  guests  were  treated 
with  a  charming  consideration  that  made  our  hearts 


swell  with  pleasure.  He  abundantly  observed  the  in- 
junction, "  Be  not  forgetful  to  entertain  strangers/' 
and  often  we  found  them  "angels  unawares."  At  the 
same  time,  he  emphasized  the  importance  of  what  is 
sometimes  overlooked — keeping  in  touch  with  those 
whose  society  is  an  advantage  and  improvement  to  us. 
I  think  he  made  hospitality  something  of  more  moment 
than  it  is  usually  reckoned  at,  and  it  became  no  small 
feature  of  his  life. 

All  his  life  my  father  made  time  for  reading  widely 
and  deeply,  and  his  books  were  his  dearest  possessions. 
He  denied  himself  many  other  things  to  secure  the  best 
"tools"  for  his  work,  and  paid  a  genuine  homage  to 
their  significance.  If  one  of  his  books  was  mislaid,  our 
oldest  sister  was  the  one  always  called  on  to  find  it.  She 
kept  in  mind  where  they  all  belonged  and  had  grown  up 
along  with  their  gradual  acquisition,  so  that  her  associa- 
tion with  them  was  near  and  dear.  Her  being  at  home 
with  Latin  and  Greek — which  papa  had  himself  taught 
her  when  she  was  a  child — was  a  help  to  him  in  a  num- 
ber of  his  undertakings. 

He  encouraged  our  reading  aloud  in  the  family  circle, 
and  this  grew  to  be  one  of  the  great  pleasures  of  our 
home-life,  books  of  biography  being  the  greatest  treat 
of  all.  It  was  seldom  that  he  had  time  himself  to  join 
us,  but  now  and  then  he  would  read  to  my  mother  for 
a  while  in  the  evening.  Sometimes  he  would  translate 
aloud  from  Plato's  "  Phasdo,"  and  on  Sunday  afternoons, 
in  the  hour  just  before  supper,  was  fond  of  reading  to  us 
all  from  the  "  Library  of  Religious  Poetry."  One  sum- 
mer he  stayed  at  home  to  work  on  the  memoir  of  Doc- 
tor Boyce,  and  formed  the  plan  of  writing  all  the  morn- 
ings and  nominally  resting  for  the  balance  of  the  day. 
Just  after  dinner,  we  would  all  go  into  his  study  and  he 
would  read  to  us  for  half  an  hour  from  Mr.  Warner's 


"My  Summer  in  a  Garden."  Books  which  the  rest  of 
us  were  reading  aloud  and  would  discuss  at  table,  he 
said  he  was  reading  by  proxy.  I  recall  especially  his  in- 
terest in  this  way  in  the  life  of  Agassiz  and  that  of  Haw- 
thorne and  his  wife,  and  his  reviving  old  recollections 
tof  Cooper's  novels  when  his  youngest  boy  was  reading 

At  morning  prayers,  his  reading  of  the  Bible  seemed 
to  me  better  to  express  "the  sacred  page"  than  any 
other  I  ever  heard.  He  usually  read  some  book  by 
course,  making  comments  as  he  went  along,  and  I  re- 
member the  eager  interest  with  which  as  a  child  I  would 
put  my  chair  in  place  to  hear  the  next  instalment  in  the 
history  of  Joseph  or  of  David.  With  all  his  analysis  and 
practical  application,  there  was  a  reverence  in  his  look 
and  voice  which  made  reading  the  Bible  indeed  an  act  of 
worship.  In  reading  the  conversation  with  Nicodemus 
and  with  the  woman  at  the  well,  I  used  to  fancy  that 
the  tones  natural  to  him  were  just  those  which  the 
Saviour  had  used.  So  also  his  voice  still  echoes  in 
"  Lazarus  !  Come  forth  !  "  and  in  Christ's  saying  to  the 
woman  in  the  garden,  "Mary."  At  one  time,  he  used 
to  select  every  Sunday  afternoon  a  hymn  for  each  of  us 
to  learn  by  heart  and  repeat  to  him.  Once  two  of  us 
came  to  repeat  "Jesus,  Lover  of  my  Soul,"  and  were 
mortified  that  we  would  both  "  forget  what  came  next." 
He  took  the  book  and  kindly  pointed  out  how  that  hymn 
is  made  up  of  short  phrases  which  have  not  much  natural 
connection  to  help  the  memory,  and  so  we  would  have 
to  take  special  pains  in  learning  it.  He  sometimes  chose 
long  poems  for  us  to  get  by  heart,  and  liked  to  hear  us 
repeat "  John  Gilpin,"  "  The  May  Queen,"  and  "  Gray's 

The  trips  we  took  with  him   at  various  times  are 
among  the  brightest  memories  of  our  lives.     Many  happy 


summers  were  spent  by  us  all  at  "  Locust  Grove,"  the 
fine  old  home  of  my  mother's  girlhood.  Papa  and  our 
grandmother  had  a  beautiful  relation  of  mutual  under- 
standing and  appreciation,  and  felt  the  deepest  satisfac- 
tion in  being  together.  He  often  found  it  refreshing  to  take 
excursions  with  us  on  the  street  car  to  one  of  Louisville's 
suburban  parks,  there  walking  about  and  climbing  the 
hills.  He  enjoyed  the  autumn  foliage  at  these  places 
especially,  and  the  golden  air  of  Indian  summer.  At 
one  spot  he  brought  stones  and  made  a  little  bridge  for 
my  mother's  convenience,  naming  it  for  her  the  Char- 
lotte Bridge. 

Some  of  the  most  characteristic  memories  that  I  have 
of  my  father  are  those  connected  with  his  letter-writing. 
He  sometimes  dictated  answers  to  twenty  or  twenty-five 
letters  in  an  evening,  and  suiting  their  varied  require- 
ments brought  all  his  qualities  into  such  play  that  it  was 
delightful  to  be  with  him.  It  was  interesting  to  see  how 
he  had  cultivated  the  power  of  writing  a  few  discrimina- 
ting, comprehensive  lines  that  were  all-sufficient  and 
saved  his  time.  Yet,  where  the  case  required  it,  he 
spared  no  pains  to  turn  a  matter  over  in  his  mind  for 
days  and  weeks,  considering  it  from  all  points  of  view. 

He  grew  to  like  the  click  of  the  typewriter,  saying  it 
stimulated  his  thoughts  and  made  him  feel  that  the  work 
was  getting  done.  He  usually  sat  at  his  desk  with  a 
file  of  outspread  letters  at  his  left  hand,  the  longer  ones 
having  such  paragraphs  as  needed  special  reply  marked 
with  a  blue  pencil.  Sometimes  when  writing  difficult 
letters  he  would  pace  up  and  down  the  room  for  a  while 
with  his  hands  behind  him,  "thinking  hard,"  as  he  ex- 
pressed it.  In  other  moods,  he  would  stroll  about  while 
he  dictated,  absently  fingering  the  books  on  the  table, 
or  meditatively  brushing  the  hearth,  or  looking  through 
the  slats  of  the  blinds,  whistling  softly  to  himself.  Then 


presently  he  would  turn  around  with  the  phrase  he  had 
been  shaping  all  complete  and  exact.  He  seemed  to  find 
peculiar  satisfaction  in  hitting  on  a  phrase  that  expressed 
just  what  he  meant,  and  I  have  often  seen  some  little 
instance  of  this  refresh  him  to  renew  the  attack  on  the 
great  mass  of  letters  which  he  dared  not  allow  to  accu- 
mulate any  longer. 

I  used  to  wish  that  those  who  received  the  letters 
could  but  hear  the  tones  in  which  they  were  given.  It 
would  have  softened  many  a  disappointment  if  the 
readers  could  have  known  how  courteously  and  sincerely 
the  regrets  had  been  spoken  ;  and  I  often  felt  that  his 
most  lucid  explanations  in  other  letters  would  fail  of  their 
full  effect  because  they  must  be  received  without  the 
commentary  of  his  voice.  As  I  think  of  my  father's 
voice  now  I  realize  that  his  whole  character  and  life 
flowed  into  its  richness  and  meaning. 

The  letter-writing  was  only  one  small  incident  in  his 
day's  work,  and  he  usually  came  to  it  fagged  from  the 
strain  of  what  had  gone  before,  but  he  went  through  the 
task  faithfully  and  cheerfully.  When  we  did  now  and 
then  actually  "find  the  bottom  "  of  that  letter  drawer, 
he  always  had  a  jest  and  a  smile  to  greet  it. 

I  recall  with  gratitude  the  letters  he  often  received 
from  old  students,  whose  expressions  of  love  and  rever- 
ence were  very  dear  to  him. 

Sometimes  in  writing  to  a  confrere  about  a  piece  of 
literary  work  or  some  committee  engagement,  he  would 
turn  into  a  brief  aside  of  reminiscence  or  raillery  or  warm 
congratulation.  Such  moments  of  intercourse  with  a 
kindred  spirit  were  among  his  greatest  enjoyments  ;  and 
especially  was  this  true  in  conversation,  where  his  mind 
could  receive  as  well  as  give  forth,  and  where  the 
air  was  rife  with  sympathy  and  stimulus.  Blessings  on 
all  who  cheered  and  refreshed  his  thoughts ;  and  bless- 


ings  too  on  those  who  turned  to  him  for  help,  for  he 
knew  no  higher  joy  than  to  do  good. 

"Busy"  seems  no  adequate  word  for  what  his  life 
always  was.  We  often  waited  for  weeks,  to  get  a 
chance  for  ten  minutes'  talk  with  him  about  something 
important,  and  then  if  such  a  time  seemed  to  have  come, 
had  no  heart  to  interfere  with  his  first  moment  for  rest. 
He  could  never  have  accomplished  so  much  if  it  had  not 
been  for  the  system  with  which  he  made  his  plans  and 
carried  them  out,  and  the  care  he  observed  about  exer- 
cise and  the  other  laws  of  health,  so  as  to  keep  himself  m 
working  order.  In  his  last  years,  the  pressure  of  mat- 
ters that  he  could  not  delegate  to  others  became  cruelly 
heavy,  and  he  sometimes  said  himself  that  he  was  work- 
ing within  an  inch  of  his  life. 

The  older  children  he  had  taught  himself,  but  as  the 
years  went  on,  the  younger  ones  felt  his  influence  in  less 
direct  fashion.  He  used  to  say  sometimes  with  a  half- 
smile,  "  The  shoemaker's  children  go  barefoot,  and  the 
professor's  children  don't  know  anything."  Perhaps, 
though,  he  was  not  unconscious  that  at  least  our  stand- 
ards of  life  were  formed  in  the  atmosphere  of  his.  Our 
first  ideas  of  man's  relation  to  God  and  the  meaning  of 
life,  the  sacredness  of  marriage,  the  unquestioned  duty 
of  doing  the  best  we  knew,  we  could  see  later  on  had 
really  come  from  him. 

He  wrote  once  in  an  autograph  album  for  one  of  his 
children,  "It  will  take  you  all  your  life  to  know  how  much 
I  love  you."  Small  wonder  that  to  each  of  us,  our  least 
inadequate  conception  of  God  is  to  think  of  him  "like  as 
a  father," 


Hope  is  brightest  when  it  dawns  from  fears. 


AT  last  the  Seminary  rested  on  solid  ground.  But  as 
yet,  there  Avas  no  building  for  lectures  or  dormi- 
tory. The  number  of  students  was  growing.  Now  in 
1882-1883  it  was  one  hundred  and  twenty.  Most  of 
this  increase  came  from  Kentucky,  which  had  sent  but 
few  men  to  Greenville.  Louisville  proved  more  accessi- 
ble to  the  Southwest  and  West  also,  and  by  degrees  the 
North  began  to  send  students,  and  even  Canada.  Vir- 
ginia did  not  lessen  her  interest  in  the  Seminary.  For  a 
number  of  years  Virginia  and  South  Carolina  furnished 
one-half  or  a  third  of  the  men  at  Greenville.  These  two 
States  have  still  steadily  shown  their  loyalty  to  the  Sem- 
inary since  coming  to  Louisville.  Soon  Doctor  Broadus 
found  himself  confronting  large  classes  that  at  last  gave 
full  scope  for  his  magnificent  powers  as  teacher.  But  he 
had  nevertheless  given  his  best  to  the  small  classes 
through  all  the  years  at  Greenville.  If  he  could  only  have 
had  large  classes  all  his  previous  life !  But,  though  fifty- 
five  years  old,  he  was  in  his  prime  and  glory  now.  Oh,  the 
rapture  of  the  days  when  one  could  hear  Broadus  lecture 
in  New  Testament  English  or  in  Homiletics  !  It  was 
worth  a  day's  journey  to  any  man.  He  was  a  consum- 
mate scholar,  of  the  widest  reading  and  the  most  thorough 
assimilation.  He  studied  the  sources  of  things  and  worked 
through  everything  for  himself.  To  Anglo-Saxon,  Latin, 
Greek,  and  Hebrew,  he  had  added  German,  French, 


Spanish,  Italian,  Gothic,  Coptic,  and  modern  Greek.  He 
had  made  himself  a  specialist  in  homiletics,  in  the  Eng- 
lish Bible,  in  New  Testament  history,  exegesis,  in  Greek, 
in  textual  criticism,  in  patristic  Greek,  and  hymnology 
(English  and  foreign).  His  "  Preparation  and  Delivery 
of  Sermons  "  had  become  the  standard  and  most  popular 
work  on  the  subject.  Prof.  W.  C.  Wilkinson,  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  speaks  of  it  as  "on  the  whole, 
the  best  single  treatise  existing  on  its  subject.  This 
judgment  is  one  neither  hastily  formed  nor  extravagantly 
expressed.  It  is  a  conviction  arrived  at  after  long  and 
careful  comparative  consideration  of  the  principal  works 
in  any  language  that  could  be  regarded  as  rival  claim- 
ants for  the  praise  bestowed."  l 

M.  L.  GORDON  to  J.  A.  B. : 

KIOTO,  JAPAN,  May  23, 1883 :  We  desire  to  use  your  most  valu- 
able work,  **  Preparation  and  Delivery  of  Sermons  "  as  a  text-book 
in  our  training  school  (American  Board's  Mission).  .  . 

We  have  two  theological  classes  in  our  school ;  one  whose  mem- 
bers know  nothing  of  English,  and  another  whose  members  read 
English  very  well.  In  instructing  the  former  I  have  always  made  use 
of  your  book  and  I  wish  to  use  it  more  fully  and  thoroughly  with  the 
latter  class. 

He  was  also  one  of  the  greatest  preachers  of  his  age. 
It  was  the  rare  combination  of  scholar,  teacher,  preacher 
that  met  you  in  the  classroom.  More  than  all  this,  there 
was  a  witchery  or  magnetism  that  entranced  you.  If 
the  subject  was  the  Greek  article,  you  felt  that  that  was 
the  line  of  destiny  for  you.  Go  and  master  the  article. 
If  it  was  English  accent  and  spelling,  you  had  a  longing 
to  hunt  up  the  history  of  English  words.  If  it  was  a 
scene  in  the  life  of  Christ,  the  whole  wondrous  picture 
came  before  you.  You  found  yourself  living  with  the 
throngs  around  the  Nazarene.  If  you  exposed  your 

*  "  The  Biblical  World,"  May,  1895. 


ignorance  by  a  simple,  if  not  presumptuous  question,  the 
quick  flash  of  the  eye,  the  kindly  smile,  the  sympathetic 
voice  put  you  en  rapport.  You  were  glad  to  be  a  fool  for 
such  a  man.  But  if,  indeed,  conceit  ventured  too  far  in 
the  classroom,  the  withering  sarcasm  was  terrible  to 
behold,  and  so  quick  that  the  victim  scarcely  knew  what 
had  struck  him. 

Doctor  Broadus  was  the  greatest  teacher  of  his  time. 
No  one  in  this  country  could  equal  him  in  the  marvelous 
projectile  force  and  in  the  inspiring  momentum  which 
he  gave  to  his  pupils.  His  old  pupils  sought  in  vain 
among  the  teachers  of  Germany  for  his  equal.  With 
one  accord  they  all  pronounce  him  the  greatest  of 
teachers.  Prof.  J.  H.  Farmer,  of  McMaster  University, 
who  spent  two  years  under  Broadus  in  preference  to  the 
German  Universities,  tells  his  experience  in  the  class- 
room, from  whom  we  quote:1 

And  what  a  superb  teacher  he  became !  Nowhere  else  did  Doctor 
Broadus  seem  to  me  quite  so  mighty  and  masterful  as  in  the  class- 
room. In  New  Testament  English  he  was  a  king  enthroned.  The 
class  was  large  and  made  up  of  men  of  all  degrees  of  culture.  A 
Texan  cowboy,  who  had  never  before  seen  the  inside  of  a  school, 
sat  side  by  side  with  a  learned  Presbyterian  doctor  of  divinity  who 
had  been  professor  in  a  Seminary.  But  everything  was  clear  enough 
for  the  one  and  strong  enough  for  the  other.  He  had  marvelous  skill 
in  seizing  the  heart  of  some  great  subject  on  which  he  had  read  vol- 
ume after  volume,  and  giving  it  to  his  class  in  a  few  pithy  sentences 
of  crystalline  clearness.  Many  of  us  are  only  gradually  finding  out 
the  real  value  of  those  lectures— the  wealth  of  learning  and  wisdom 
they  represented. 

In  that  class  he  usually  spent  half  the  time  in  questioning,  and 
half  in  lecturing.  No  time  was  wasted  on  foolish  questions.  It  was 
his  custom  to  dictate  the  substance  of  the  lecture,  and,  while  the 
students  were  writing,  to  keep  up  a  running  comment  on  that.  Here 
the  great  man  was  in  his  element  It  was  his  most  congenial  theme. 
The  preacher  and  teacher  met  together,  the  intellectual  and  spiritual 

1 "  The  McMaster  University  Monthly,"  May,  1895. 


kissed  each  other.  Mind  and  heart  were  all  aglow.  This  was  the  very 
business  for  which  all  his  rigid  self-discipline  had  been  preparing 
him.  How  splendidly  his  powers  responded  to  the  call !  Everything 
was  orderly.  Great  thoughts  were  flung  out  in  the  richest  profusion. 
Learning  brought  her  treasures  and  wisdom  her  most  precious  things. 
Sparkling  wit,  delicious  humor,  apt  anecdote,  not  infrequently  re- 
lieved the  intensity  of  the  work.  It  was  the  most  exhilarating  ex- 
perience I  ever  knew.  It  was  the  spectacle  of  a  great  personality 
ablaze— the  finest  thing  in  all  the  world. 

Doctor  Broadus  could  not  brook  slipshod  work  either 
in  the  classroom  exercises  or  examinations.  He  held 
himself  to  the  most  severe  ideals  of  exact  scholarship 
even  in  the  most  minute  matters.  The  high  standard  of 
scholarship  through  the  years  at  the  Seminary  is  due  to 
his  ambition  in  this  direction.  But  he  was  no  Doctor 
Dry-as-Dust.  He  showed  that  learning  need  not  be 
dry.  He  was  popular  in  the  true  sense. 

On  May  9,  1883,  Doctor  Broadus  preached  the  sermon 
before  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention,  at  Waco,  Texas, 
on  three  questions  as  to  the  Bible  (2  Tim.  3:15).  The 
sermon  had  a  wide  circulation  in  tract  form,  published 
by  the  American  Baptist  Publication  Society.  He  was 
asked  to  edit  the  American  edition  of  Meyer  on  "Mat- 
thew," but  he  was  then  occupied  with  his  own  book  on 

J.  P.  BOYCEto  J.  A.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Sept.  4,  1883:  I  received  this  morning  from 
you  a  copy  of  your  sermon  before  the  Convention.  The  sermon 
seems  to  me  now  even  better  than  ever  before.  I  am  glad  that  so 
far  it  is  a  great  success.  I  hope  that  it  may  be  made  more  so  by  a 
very  large  circulation. 

T.  M.  MATTHEWS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

EDOM,  TEXAS,  May  22,  1883 :  I've  never  seen  you  since  1853  in 
the  pulpit  of  the  church  in  Charlottesville  when  I  heard  you  preach. 
But,  John,  you  have  been  preaching  to  me  through  all  these  years. 
Pll  tell  you  how.  You  remember  our  "  autograph  books  "  ?  Well, 


of  ail  the  students  I  took  mine  to  you  first,  that  you  might  write  in 
it  the  first.  Do  you  remember?  [I  reckon  not,  however.  You  wrote : 
iv  o-e  v<rrepti  (Mark  io :  21),  John  Albert  Broadus,  University  of  Va. 
That  rang  in  my  ears  till  I  found  "  the  pearl  of  great  price,"  the 
thing  you  knew  I  lacked.    I've  often  thought  of  you  since  and  never 
without  recalling  this  little,  but  to  me  great,  incident. 

Doctor  Broadus's  pen  was  busy  as  usual  with  articles 
for  the  "  Homiletic  Review  "  (a  series  on  Representative 
Preachers),"  The  Independent/' "  The  Baptist  Teacher," 
and  various  other  publications.  He  was  regular  supply 
for  some  months  for  the  Ninth  Street  Church,  Cincinnati. 
He  entered  more  and  more  into  the  life  of  Louisville. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Filson  Club  for  promoting  in- 
terest in  Kentucky  history,  and  of  the  Conversation 
Club,  where  he  was  the  bright  particular  star.  His  pres- 
ence was  sought  for  almost  every  public  function.  He 
became  the  pride  of  the  city  and  beloved  of  all  hearts. 

The  last  of  February,  1884,  Doctor  Broadus  delivered 
three  lectures  before  the  Newton  Theological  Institution, 
on  "  Textual  Criticism  of  the  New  Testament/'  This 
month  also  the  International  S.  S.  Lesson  Committee 
met  in  Montreal.  The  ice  palace  and  toboggan  slide 
interested  them.  In  a  later  letter  Doctor  Broadus  ex- 
plains the  work  of  the  International  Committee.  He 
took  the  keenest  interest  in  this  work. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MR.  BOYCE  BROADUS : 

FROM  PITTSBURG  TO  COLUMBUS,  Nov.  14, 1891 :  I  have  been" 
to  New  York  to  meet  the  International  S.  S.  Lesson  Committee, 
and  we  had  two  days  of  very  hard  work  selecting  lessons  for  1894. 
The  committee  consists  of  fifteen  members,  of  all  denominations, 
from  the  United  States  and  Canada.  Our  lessons  are  revised  by  a 
committee  in  England,  and  at  the  next  meeting  we  consider  their 
suggestions.  But  few  Episcopalians  adopt  the  lessons,  because  we 
follow  of  necessity  the  order  of  the  Bible  books,  and  thus  they  are 
not  adapted  to  the  Church  Year.  Our  course  of  lessons  has  hereto- 
fore run  through  the  Bible  in  seven  years,  and  this  has  been  done 


three  times  (the  last  extending  through  1893) ;  it  will  next  time  be 
six  years,  two  and  a  half  in  Old  Testament,  and  three  and  a  half  in 
New  Testament.  We  give  separate  optional  lessons  for  Christmas 
Sunday  and  Easter  Sunday,  to  be  used  by  those  who  like,  and  this 
is  done  by  a  good  many  Episcopalians,  and  by  many  Lutherans 
and  others.  One  member  of  the  committee  is  an  Episcopal  judge, 
from  Canada,  a  very  zealous  and  lovable  Christian  gentleman.  Our 
lessons  are  widely  used  wherever  English  is  spoken,  including  mis- 
sion fields — probably  studied  by  ten  millions  of  persons  every  Sun- 
day. As  you  have  been  studying  them  so  long,  and  I  helping  to 
select  them  for  fourteen  yeais,  I  thought  you  would  like  to  know 
something  about  the  way  they  are  selected. 

In  1872  the  First  International  S.  S.  Convention  for  the  United 
States  and  Canada  adopted  the  system  of  uniform  Bible  Lessons. 
Bishop  Vincent  and  B.  F.  Jacobs,  of  Chicago,  divide  the  honor  of 
originally  suggesting  and  working  out  the  plan  of  uniform  lessons. 
These  two,  with  Dr.  John  Hall,  of  New  York,  and  Doctor  Randolph, 
the  secretary,  have  been  reappointed  in  every  successive  committee. 

During  the  early  days  of  June,  1884,  the  International 
Sunday-school  Convention  was  held  in  Louisville.  Doc- 
tor Broadus  was  in  a  sense  the  host  of  the  Convention 
and  made  a  wonderful  speech  of  welcome. 

At  a  meeting  in  Louisville  in  favor  of  registration  for 
election,  Doctor  Broadus  spoke  : 

He  was  received  with  much  favor  by  the  audience.  He  said 
American  institutions  were  yet  on  their  trial.  The  people  of  Europe 
were  saying  that  the  experiment  would  end  disastrously.  He  was 
in  favor  of  voting.  In  his  community  there  were  too  many  people 
who  do  not  vote  enough,  and  too  many  people  who  voted  too  much. 
He  himself  always  voted,  and  always  would,  if  he  had  to  be  carried 
to  the  polls.  The  institutions  of  the  country  lead  the  lower  classes 
into  temptation.  He  could  not  see  how  any  one  could  object  to 
any  law  which  would  only  be  for  the  general  good.1 


LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  June  27, 1884:  The  undersigned  professors  in 
the  Southern  Baptist  Theological  Seminary,  beg  leave  to  offer  re- 
spectful and  hearty  congratulations  on  your  fiftieth  birthday.  We 

1  "  Courier-Journal,"  April  9,  1884. 


thank  God  for  all  that  he  made  you  and  has  by  his  grace  enabled  you 
to  become  and  achieve.  We  rejoice  in  your  great  and  wonderful 
work  as  preacher  and  pastor,  and  through  your  Orphanage  and  your 
Pastor's  College ;  as  also  your  numerous  writings,  so  sparkling 
with  genius,  so  filled  with  the  spirit  of  the  gospel.  Especially  we 
delight  to  think  how  nobly  you  have  defended  and  diffused  the  doc- 
trines of  grace  ;  how  in  an  age  so  eager  for  novelty  and  marked  by 
such  loosening  of  belief  you  have  through  long  years  kept  the 
English-speaking  world  for  your  audience  while  never  turning  aside 
from  the  old-fashioned  gospel. 

And  now,  honored  brother,  we  invoke  upon  you  the  continued 
blessings  of  our  covenant  God.  May  your  life  and  health  be  long 
spared,  if  it  be  his  will ;  may  Providence  still  smile  on  your  varied 
work,  and  the  Holy  Spirit  richly  bless  your  spoken  and  written  mes- 
sages to  mankind. 

This  year  he  supplied  the  Washington  Avenue  Church, 
Brooklyn,  from  June  until  September. 

J.  A.  B.  to  J.  P.  BOYCE  : 

ASBURY  PARK,  N.  J.,  June  8th,  1884 :  I  fear  the  papers  will  tell 
of  my  misfortune  on  Sunday,  fainting  and  falling  after  five  minutes 
of  preaching.  The  people  were  exceedingly  kind.  I  had  a  high 
malarial  fever,  but  thought  I  could  pull  through  a  short  sermon. 

I  am  already  feeling  much  better,  though  a  trifle  dazed  to-day 
with  quinine,  and  hope  to  be  well  soon. 

G.  W.  RIGGAN  to  J.  A.  B. : 

DUCKERS,  KY.,  July  n,  1884 :  I  was  very  sorry  to  see  in  the 
papers  that  you  were  taken  sick  last  Sunday  while  preaching.  I 
hope  you  have  continued  to  improve  and  are  now  quite  restored.  I 
know  how  difficult  it  is  for  you  to  rest  in  the  midst  of  weighty  re- 
sponsibilities resting  upon  you,  but  there  are  thousands  of  people 
who  would  join  with  me  in  urging  you  to  consult  your  health  above 
everything  else. 

The  first  week  in  August,  between  the  Sundays  in 
Brooklyn,  Doctor  Broadus  delivered  a  series  of  lectures 
on  the  "New  Testament "  at  Granville,  Ohio,  before  a 
summer  assembly  at  the  Denison  University.  At  this 
time  Prof.  Flinders  Petrie  wrote  from  London,  asking 


that  he  allow  himself  to  be  elected  a  member  of  the 
Victoria  Institute  Philosophical  Society.  In  the  fall  Doc- 
tor Broadus  was  the  stated  supply  of  the  First  Church, 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

ASBURY  PARK,  Sept.  6, 1884 :  Mrs.  Eddy  said  she  had  been  filled 
with  admiration  of  your  noble  patience  and  cheerfulness  while  you 
were  here.  So  you  see  another  sensible  person  thinks  as  I  do  about 
it.  Everything  in  the  room  reminds  me  of  you.  The  hinge  I  broke 
on  the  window-blind  remains  unmended.  I  have  brought  in  the  big 
old  rocking-chair  from  the  porch.  If  you  were  here  I  should  be  very 
happy.  And  notwithstanding  all  these  long  separations,  and  our 
many  and  sore  trials,  I  am  constantly  cheered  and  supported  by  the 
sense  of  companionship  with  one  I  love  so  well  and  admire  so 
warmly.  I  do  not  know  whether  we  shall  ever  be  at  the  Magnolia 
together  again,  but  I  pray  that  we  may  have  a  good  many  years  to- 
gether still  in  earthly  life,  and  that  we  and  ours  may  reach  the  life 

J.  A.  B.  toJ.  H.  COGHILL: 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Oct.  8,  1884 :  I  have  read  as  yet  only  a  part 
of  Drummond's  "Natural  Law  in  the  Spiritual  World."  I  have 
long  thought  that  we  must  recognize  the  reign  of  law  in  the  mental 
and  spiritual  as  well  as  in  the  physical  sphere.  Drummond  seems 
to  me  to  jump  too  far  with  his  theory,  but  his  work  will  lead  to 
valuable  inquiry  and  reflection. 

The  opening  lecture  before  the  Seminary  this  fall  was 
given  by  Doctor  Broadus  and  the  theme  was  "  English 
Hymns  of  the  Nineteenth  Century."  During  1885  Doc- 
tor Broadus  wrote  critical  notes  on  "John's  Gospel" 
for  the  "  Sunday  School  Times."  Churches  in  Boston, 
New  York,  Brooklyn,  Providence,  Indianapolis,  Chicago, 
Cincinnati  now  clamored  for  his  services  as  summer  sup- 
ply. His  hands  were  never  more  full,  for  the  "  Com- 
mentary on  Matthew"  was  nearing  completion  and  he 
was  also  writing  notes  in  textual  criticism  for  Doctor 
Hovey's  "  Commentary  on  John," 


B.  B.  WARFIELD  to  J.  A.  B. : 

ALLEGHANY,  PA.,  Feb.  4, 1886 :  I  have  read  with  great  interest 
the  notes  on  readings  [Hovey  on  6<  John  "]  which  you  have  contrib- 
uted to  the  book,  and  of  course,  I  may  add,  with  much  instruction 
I  find  myself  in  substantial  agreement  with  you  in  most  of  the  con< 
elusions  to  which  you  have  come.  ,  .  I  may  venture  to  say  that  1 
disagree  with  your  opinion  that  B has  "  Western  "  and  "  Alex- 
andrian" elements  m  the  Gospels.  I  also  suspect  that  the  weight 
laid  on  **  transcnptional  evidence "  may  occasionally  mislead ;  no 
form  of  evidence,  in  my  judgment,  is  more  often  capable  of  being  in- 
terpreted both  ways.  I  am  compelled  to  admit,  however,  that  in 
your  hands  it  appears  a  powerful  and  safe  instrument 

J.  A.  B.  to  MISS  E.  T.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  Mar.  25, 1885 :  I  am  much  obliged  to  Doctor 
Thomas  for  suggesting  that  you  might  study  Coptic.  I  have  been 
bothered  and  lonesome  in  studying  it  myself  the  last  few  years,  with 
no  one  to  sympathize.  Perhaps  it  would  be  a  good  plan  when  you 
come  home  for  you  to  take  it  up  and  be  company  for  me. 

It  cheers  rne,  my  dear  little  woman,  to  think  of  you  as  having  so 
much  enjoyment  among  such  delightful  friends.  I  hope  you'll  get 
strong  and  rosy.  Give  my  love  to  all  the  family. 

MISS  E.  T.  B.  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  April  22, 1885 :  Doctor  Thomas  saw  the  notice 
of  Doctor  Riggan's  death  in  the  "  Despatch  "  on  yesterday.  It  will 
be  very  hard  on  you  and  Doctor  Manly,  I  am  afraid,  to  have  so  much 
extra  work  to  do,  and  especially  as  you  are  in  such  poor  health  now, 
and  trying  so  hard  to  finish  the  "  Commentary. "  And  mamma's 
not  there  either,  to  keep  you  from  working  too  hard.  How  I  wish  I 
could  see  you,  my  dear  papa !  Don't  you  think  I  will  be  nearly  big 
enough  to  write  for  you  by  the  time  I  get  home?  I  am  thirteen 
years  and  nearly  four  days  old  now. 

J.  A.  B.  to  MRS.  B. : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  April  20, 1885 :  The  funeral  [of  Doctor  Rig, 
gan]  occurred  at  twelve  o'clock.  Considerable  audience  for  that 
hour.  The  sermon  was  very  flat,  but  not  utterly  bad.  It  was  the 
best  I  could  do  without  keeping  myself  in  a  great  strain  for  forty- 
eight  hours,  and  that  I  carefully  avoided.  I  feel  somewhat  tired  this 
afternoon,  but  not  sick.  We  have  to  consider  how  to  fill  the  vacancy 


for  next  session.    For  the  rest  of  this  session  I  am  already  doing  the 
work.  .  . 

A  good  many  from  Forks  of  Elkhorn  came  down.  I  am  to  go  up 
Saturday  afternoon,  and  take  part  m  a  memorial  meeting  there  next 
Sunday.  I  shall  give  the  same  discourse,  and  the  trip  will  rather 
help  me. 

The  discourse  at  the  funeral  of  Doctor  Riggan  made  a 
profound  impression  and  many  remembered  it  as  one  of 
the  most  wonderful  experiences  of  their  lives.  It  was 
published  in  tract  form  at  the  request  of  the  faculty  and 
is  contained  in  "  Sermons  and  Addresses." 

W.  W.  LANDRUM  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  April  30,  1885 :  Our  pastors'  conference  was 
stunned  by  the  announcement  of  the  death  of  Professor  Riggan.  All 
Richmond  deplores  his  loss.  Indeed,  it  does  not  appear  to  some  of 
us  where  in  the  South  his  successor  is  to  be  found.  Though  I  knew 
him  only  slightly,  relying  upon  the  testimony  of  our  competent 
judges,  I  must  presume  he  was  a  remarkable  student  and  teacher 
for  his  years.  Assured,  as  I  am,  that  the  Seminary  is  of  God  and 
for  God,  I  have  no  fear  as  to  its  ever- increasing  influence  and  power. 
And  you  will  let  me  say,  my  dear  doctor,  that,  so  far  as  I  am  able, 
I  will  seek  to  reproduce  in  my  life  and  labors  the  example,  as  to  creed 
and  conduct,  set  me  by  yourself  while  I  was  a  student  there. 

W.  J.  GUSHING  to  J.  A.  B.  : 

PROVIDENCE,  R.  I.,  April  25, 1885 :  In  conversation  recently  with 
Doctor  Guild,  librarian  of  Brown  University,  upon  the  subject  of 
the  "•  Education  of  the  Negro  in  the  South,"  he  said  that  among  the 
ablest  and  most  interesting  essays  upon  that  subject  he  should  place 
the  essay  written  by  you  that  appeared  a  year  or  a  year  and  a  half 
ago  in  the  "  Chicago  Standard."  I  take  the  liberty,  at  his  sug- 
gestion, of  writing  to  you  to  ask  if  those  essays  have  ever  been 
published  in  pamphlet  form?1 

1  Some  years  later  Doctor  Broadus,  at  the  request  of  President  C.  K  Adams, 
wrote  an  elaborate  article  on  "  The  Negro"  for  the  Johnson's  "Cyclopedia,"  which 
failed  to  appear,  however,  by  some  oversight  in  the  office.  In  this  article  he  had 
amplified  his  theory  of  the  three  original  types  of  the  Negro,  the  brown  with  regu- 
lar features,  the  black  with  regular  features  and  thin  lips,  and  the  Guinea  Negro 
with  flat  nose  and  thick  lips. 


In  May,  1885,  Rev.  John  R.  Sampey,  of  Alabama,  was 
elected  assistant  instructor  in  Old  and  New  Testament 
Interpretation  and  Homiletics,  thus  doing  the  work  pre- 
viously performed  by  Doctor  Riggan,  and  aiding  both 
Doctors  Manly  and  Broadus. 

J.  A.  B.  to  BASIL  MANLY  : 

LOUISVILLE,  KY.,  July  2, 1885  :  I  am  convinced  that  a  professor 
who  is  growing  old  must  take  very  great  pains  to  freshen  up  his  in- 
struction, examine  the  new  books,  lecture  on  new  topics,  etc.,  or  the 
students  will  begin  to  make  the  always  damaging  comparison  with 
his  former  self. 

Doctor  Broadus  remained  in  Louisville  this  summer 
hoping  to  push  the  "  Commentary  on  Matthew  "  through 
and  did  little  preaching,  save  for  the  First  Church  of  In- 
dianapolis in  June.  In  the  July  " Homiletic  Review" 
he  had  a  notable  article  on  "Pulpit  Power,"  while  in 
the  October  "  Baptist  Quarterly  "  he  advocated  the 
"  Elective  System  for  Theological  Seminaries." 

H.  H.  HARRIS  to  J.  A.  B. : 

RICHMOND,  VA.,  Sept.  i,  1885 :  Yours  of  the  25th  misses  some- 
what the  point  of  my  discovery  (?)  with  regard  to  the  healing  near 
Jericho.  It  did  not  touch  the  variance  between  Matthew  and  Mark, 
as  to  two  or  one,  but  between  these  and  Luke,  as  to  the  place. 

The  suggestion  occurred  about  as  follows :  We  had  spent  the  night 
near  old  Jericho,  identified  by  its  rums  and  fountain,  and  thence  going 
"  up  to  Jerusalem  "  had  to  ride  southward  a  mile  or  two,  "  enter  and 
pass  through  "  the  ruins  of  a  Roman  city,  commonly  called  "  Herod's 
Jericho,"  and  then  turn  eastward  up  the  Wady  Kelt  or  Brook  Cherith. 
My  most  congenial  and  helpful  co